Label: COLESEVELAM HYDROCHLORIDE tablet, coated

  • Category: HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL
  • DEA Schedule: None
  • Marketing Status: Abbreviated New Drug Application

Drug Label Information

Updated March 23, 2020

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  • HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
    These highlights do not include all the information needed to use COLESEVELAM HYDROCHLORIDE safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for COLESEVELAM HYDROCHLORIDE.
    COLESEVELAM HYDROCHLORIDE tablets, for oral use
    Initial U.S. Approval: 2000

    RECENT MAJOR CHANGES

    Indications and Usage ( 1) 04/2019
    Dosage and Administration ( 2) 04/2019
    Warnings and Precautions ( 5) 04/2019

    INDICATIONS AND USAGE

    Colesevelam hydrochloride is a bile acid sequestrant indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to:

    • reduce elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in adults with primary hyperlipidemia. ( 1.1)
    • reduce LDL-C levels in boys and postmenarchal girls, 10 to 17 years of age, with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH). ( 1.1)

    Limitations of Use ( 1.3):

    • Do not use for treatment of type 1 diabetes or for diabetic ketoacidosis.
    • The effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been determined.
    • Not studied in type 2 diabetes with a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor.
    • Not studied in Fredrickson Type I, III, IV, and V dyslipidemias.
    • Not studied in children less than 10 years of age or in pre-menarchal girls.

    DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    • Obtain lipid parameters, including serum triglyceride (TG) levels and non-HDL C, before starting colesevelam hydrochloride tablets. ( 2.1)
    • The recommended dosage for adults and children 10 to 17 years old with primary hyperlipidemia is 3.75 grams daily. Colesevelam hydrochloride tablets should be taken as follows ( 2.2, 2.4):

    Tablets
    Take 6 tablets once daily or 3 tablets twice daily with a meal and liquid.

    DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

    • Tablets: 625 mg. ( 3)

    CONTRAINDICATIONS

    • Patients with serum triglyceride levels > 500 mg/dL. ( 4)
    • Patients with a history of hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis. ( 4)
    • Patients with a history of bowel obstruction. ( 4)

    WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

    • Hypertriglyceridemia and Pancreatitis: Colesevelam hydrochloride can increase TG. Hypertriglyceridemia can cause acute pancreatitis. Monitor lipids, including TG and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C). Instruct patients to discontinue colesevelam hydrochloride and seek prompt medical attention if the symptoms of acute pancreatitis occur. ( 5.1)
    • Gastrointestinal Obstruction: Cases of bowel obstruction have occurred. Colesevelam hydrochloride is not recommended in patients with gastroparesis, other gastrointestinal motility disorders, and in those who have had major gastrointestinal tract surgery and who may be at risk for bowel obstruction. ( 5.2)
    • Vitamin K or Fat-Soluble Vitamin Deficiencies: Colesevelam hydrochloride may decrease absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Patients with a susceptibility to deficiencies of vitamin K (e.g., patients on warfarin, patients with malabsorption syndromes) or other fat-soluble vitamins may be at increased risk. Patients on oral vitamin supplementation should take their vitamins at least 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride. ( 5.3)
    • Drug Interactions: Due to the potential for decreased absorption of other drugs that have not been tested for interaction, consider administering at least 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride. ( 5.4, 7, 12.3)

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    In clinical trials, the most common (incidence ≥ 2% and greater than placebo) adverse reactions with colesevelam hydrochloride included constipation, dyspepsia, and nausea. ( 6.1)

    To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Amneal Pharmaceuticals at 1-877-835-5472 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Concomitant use with colesevelam hydrochloride may decrease the exposure of the following drugs: Drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g., cyclosporine), phenytoin, thyroid hormone replacement therapy, warfarin, oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone, olmesartan medoxomil, and sulfonylureas (glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide). Administer these drugs 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride. For patients on warfarin, monitor INR frequently during initiation then periodically. ( 7.1)

    Concomitant use with colesevelam hydrochloride may increase the exposure of the following drugs: Metformin extended release. Monitor patients glycemic control. ( 7.2)

    See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION.

    Revised: 6/2019

  • Table of Contents

    FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS*

    1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

    1.1 Primary Hyperlipidemia

    1.3 Limitations of Use

    2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    2.1 Testing Prior to Initiation of Colesevelam Hydrochloride Tablets

    2.2 Recommended Dosage in Primary Hyperlipidemia

    2.3 Important Dosing Information for Primary Hyperlipidemia

    2.4 Administration Instructions

    3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

    4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

    5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

    5.1 Hypertriglyceridemia and Pancreatitis

    5.2 Gastrointestinal Obstruction

    5.3 Vitamin K or Fat-Soluble Vitamin Deficiencies

    5.4 Drug Interactions

    5.6 Macrovascular Outcomes

    6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

    6.1 Clinical Studies Experience

    6.2 Post-marketing Experience

    7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

    7.1 Colesevelam Hydrochloride Drug Interactions that Decrease the Exposure of the Concomitant Medication

    7.2 Colesevelam Hydrochloride Drug Interactions that Increase the Exposure of the Concomitant Medication

    8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

    8.1 Pregnancy

    8.2 Lactation

    8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

    8.4 Pediatric Use

    8.5 Geriatric Use

    10 OVERDOSAGE

    11 DESCRIPTION

    12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

    12.1 Mechanism of Action

    12.2 Pharmacodynamics

    12.3 Pharmacokinetics

    13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

    13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

    13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology

    14 CLINICAL STUDIES

    14.1 Primary Hyperlipidemia

    16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

    17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

    *
    Sections or subsections omitted from the full prescribing information are not listed.
  • 1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

    1.1 Primary Hyperlipidemia

    Colesevelam hydrochloride tablets are indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to reduce elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in adults with primary hyperlipidemia.

    Colesevelam hydrochloride tablets are indicated to reduce LDL-C levels in boys and postmenarchal girls, 10 to 17 years of age, with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) who are unable to reach LDL-C target levels despite an adequate trial of dietary therapy and lifestyle modification.

    1.3 Limitations of Use

    • Colesevelam hydrochloride tablets should not be used for the treatment of type 1 diabetes or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.
    • The effect of colesevelam hydrochloride tablets on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been determined.
    • Colesevelam hydrochloride tablets have not been studied in type 2 diabetes in combination with a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor.
    • Colesevelam hydrochloride tablets have not been studied in Fredrickson Type I, III, IV, and V dyslipidemias.
    • Colesevelam hydrochloride tablets have not been studied in children younger than 10 years of age or in pre-menarchal girls.
  • 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    2.1 Testing Prior to Initiation of Colesevelam Hydrochloride Tablets

    Obtain lipid parameters, including TG levels and non-HDL-C, before starting colesevelam hydrochloride tablets. Colesevelam hydrochloride tablets are contraindicated in patients with TG levels > 500 mg/dL [see Contraindications (4)and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] .

    2.2 Recommended Dosage in Primary Hyperlipidemia

    The recommended dosage of colesevelam hydrochloride tablets for adults and children 10 to 17 years old with primary hyperlipidemia is 3.75 grams daily. Colesevelam hydrochloride tablets should be taken as follows:

    Tablets
    Take 6 tablets once daily or 3 tablets twice daily. Due to tablet size, colesevelam hydrochloride for oral suspension is recommended for use in the pediatric population.

    2.3 Important Dosing Information for Primary Hyperlipidemia

    Colesevelam hydrochloride can be dosed at the same time as a statin or colesevelam hydrochloride and the statin can be dosed apart . Monitor lipid levels within 4 to 6 weeks after initiation of colesevelam hydrochloride.

    2.4 Administration Instructions

    Tablets:
    Take colesevelam hydrochloride tablets with a meal and liquid. For patients with difficulty swallowing tablets use colesevelam hydrochloride for oral suspension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

  • 3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

    • 625 mg tablets are off-white to pale yellow film-coated oval tablets, debossed with “L61” on one side and plain on the other side.
  • 4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

    Colesevelam hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with:

  • 5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

    5.1 Hypertriglyceridemia and Pancreatitis

    Colesevelam hydrochloride, like other bile acid sequestrants, can increase serum TG concentrations. Hypertriglyceridemia can cause acute pancreatitis.

    Colesevelam hydrochloride had effects on serum TG (median increase 5% compared to placebo) in trials of patients with primary hyperlipidemia.

    Obtain lipid parameters, including TG levels and non-HDL-C, before starting colesevelam hydrochloride and periodically thereafter. Colesevelam hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with TG levels > 500 mg/dL or patients with a history of hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis [see Contraindications (4)] . Patients with TG levels greater than 300 mg/dL could have greater increases in serum TG levels with colesevelam hydrochloride and may require additional TG monitoring. Instruct patients to discontinue colesevelam hydrochloride and seek prompt medical attention if the symptoms of acute pancreatitis occur (e.g., severe abdominal pain with or without nausea and vomiting). Discontinue colesevelam hydrochloride if TG levels exceed 500 mg/dL [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)] .

    5.2 Gastrointestinal Obstruction

    Postmarketing cases of bowel obstruction have occurred with colesevelam hydrochloride [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)] . Because of its constipating effects, colesevelam hydrochloride is not recommended in patients with gastroparesis, other gastrointestinal motility disorders, and in those who have had major gastrointestinal tract surgery and who may be at risk for bowel obstruction. Colesevelam hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with a history of bowel obstruction [see Contraindications (4)] . Instruct patients to promptly discontinue colesevelam hydrochloride and seek medical attention if severe abdominal pain or severe constipation occurs.

    Because of the tablet size, colesevelam hydrochloride tablets can cause dysphagia or esophageal obstruction. For patients with difficulty swallowing tablets use colesevelam hydrochloride for oral suspension.

    5.3 Vitamin K or Fat-Soluble Vitamin Deficiencies

    Colesevelam hydrochloride may decrease the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. Patients with a susceptibility to deficiencies of vitamin K (e.g., patients on warfarin, patients with malabsorption syndromes) or other fat-soluble vitamins may be at increased risk when taking colesevelam hydrochloride.

    Patients on oral vitamin supplementation should take their vitamins at least 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].

    5.4 Drug Interactions

    Colesevelam hydrochloride reduces gastrointestinal absorption of some drugs. Administer drugs with a known interaction at least 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride [see Drug Interactions (7)] .

    Due to the potential for decreased absorption of other drugs that have not been tested for interaction, especially those with a narrow therapeutic index, consider administering at least 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    5.6 Macrovascular Outcomes

    There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular disease risk reduction with colesevelam hydrochloride.

  • 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

    The following important adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling:

    6.1 Clinical Studies Experience

    Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

    Primary Hyperlipidemia: In 7 double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trials, 807 patients with primary hyperlipidemia (age range 18 to 86 years, 50% women, 90% Caucasians, 7% Blacks, 2% Hispanics, 1% Asians) and elevated LDL-C were treated with colesevelam hydrochloride 1.5 g/day to 4.5 g/day from 4 to 24 weeks (total exposure 199 patient-years).

    Table 1: Clinical Studies of Colesevelam Hydrochloride for Primary Hyperlipidemia: Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 2% of Patients and More Commonly than in Placebo
    Colesevelam HydrochloridePlacebo
    N = 807N = 258

    Constipation

    11.0%

    7.0%

    Dyspepsia

    8.3%

    3.5%

    Nausea

    4.2%

    3.9%

    Accidental injury

    3.7%

    2.7%

    Asthenia

    3.6%

    1.9%

    Pharyngitis

    3.2%

    1.9%

    Flu syndrome

    3.2%

    3.1%

    Rhinitis

    3.2%

    3.1%

    Myalgia

    2.1%

    0.4%

    Pediatric Patients 10 to 17 Years of Age: In an 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study boys and post-menarchal girls, 10 to 17 years of age, with HeFH (n=192), were treated with colesevelam hydrochloride tablets (1.9 to 3.8 g, daily) or placebo tablets.

    Table 2: Clinical Study of Colesevelam Hydrochloride for Primary Hyperlipidemia in HeFH Pediatric Patients: Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 2% of Patients and More Commonly than in Placebo

    Colesevelam Hydrochloride

    Placebo

    N = 129

    N = 65

    Nasopharyngitis

    6.2%

    4.6%

    Headache

    3.9%

    3.1%

    Fatigue

    3.9%

    1.5%

    Creatine Phosphokinase Increase

    2.3%

    0.0%

    Rhinitis

    2.3%

    0.0%

    Vomiting

    2.3%

    1.5%

    The reported adverse reactions during the additional 18-week open-label treatment period with colesevelam hydrochloride 3.8 g per day were similar to those during the double-blind period and included headache (7.6%), nasopharyngitis (5.4%), upper respiratory tract infection (4.9%), influenza (3.8%), and nausea (3.8%).

    6.2 Post-marketing Experience

    The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of colesevelam hydrochloride. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

    Adverse Reactions Resulting from Drug Interactions [see Drug Interactions (7)]:

    • Increased seizure activity or decreased phenytoin levels in patients receiving phenytoin.
    • Reduced International Normalized Ratio (INR) in patients receiving warfarin therapy.
    • Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in patients receiving thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

    Gastrointestinal:
    Bowel obstruction (in patients with a history of bowel obstruction or resection), dysphagia or esophageal obstruction (occasionally requiring medical intervention), fecal impaction, pancreatitis, abdominal distension, exacerbation of hemorrhoids, and increased transaminases.

    Laboratory Abnormalities:
    Hypertriglyceridemia

  • 7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

    7.1 Colesevelam Hydrochloride Drug Interactions that Decrease the Exposure of the Concomitant Medication

    Table 4 includes a list of drugs that decrease exposure of the concomitant medication when administered concomitantly with colesevelam hydrochloride and instructions for preventing or managing them.

    Table 4: Colesevelam Hydrochloride Drug Interactions that Decrease the Exposure of the Concomitant Medication

    Drugs with a Narrow Therapeutic Index

    Clinical Impact:

    Concomitant use with colesevelam hydrochloride may decrease the exposure of the narrow therapeutic index drug. In vivo drug interactions studies showed a decrease in exposure of cyclosporine when co-administered with colesevelam hydrochloride [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    Intervention:

    Administer the narrow therapeutic index drug at least 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride. Monitor drug levels when appropriate.

    Examples:

    Cyclosporine

    Phenytoin

    Clinical Impact:

    There have been postmarketing reports of increased seizure activity or decreased phenytoin levels in patients receiving phenytoin [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

    Intervention:

    Administer phenytoin 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride.

    Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Clinical Impact:

    In vivo drug interactions studies showed a decrease in exposure of levothyroxine when co-administered with colesevelam hydrochloride [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. There have been postmarketing reports of elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in patients receiving thyroid hormone replacement therapy [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

    Intervention:

    Administer thyroid hormone replacement therapy 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride.

    Warfarin

    Clinical Impact:

    There have been postmarketing reports of reduced International Normalized Ratio (INR) in patients receiving warfarin therapy [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

    Intervention:

    Monitor INR frequently during colesevelam hydrochloride initiation then periodically thereafter.

    Oral Contraceptives Containing Ethinyl Estradiol and Norethindrone

    Clinical Impact:

    In vivo drug interactions studies showed a decrease in exposure of ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone when co-administered with colesevelam hydrochloride [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    Intervention:

    Administer oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride.

    Olmesartan Medoxomil

    Clinical Impact:

    In vivo drug interactions studies showed a decrease in olmesartan medoxomil when co-administered with colesevelam hydrochloride [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    Intervention:

    Administer olmesartan medoxomil 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride.

    Sulfonylureas

    Clinical Impact:

    In vivo drug interactions studies showed a decrease in sulfonylureas when co-administered with colesevelam hydrochloride [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    Intervention:

    Administer sulfonylureas 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride.

    Examples:

    Glimepiride, glipizide, and glyburide

    Oral Vitamin Supplements

    Clinical Impact:

    Colesevelam hydrochloride may decrease the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

    Intervention:

    Patients on oral vitamin supplementation should take their vitamins at least 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride.

    7.2 Colesevelam Hydrochloride Drug Interactions that Increase the Exposure of the Concomitant Medication

    Table 5: Colesevelam Hydrochloride Drug Interactions that Increase the Exposure of the Concomitant Medication

    Metformin Extended-Release (ER)

    Clinical Impact:

    In vivo drug interactions studies showed an increase in metformin extended release (ER) when co-administered with colesevelam hydrochloride [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    Intervention:

    Monitor patients glycemic control.

  • 8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

    8.1 Pregnancy

    Risk Summary
    Colesevelam hydrochloride is not absorbed systemically following oral administration, and maternal use is not expected to result in fetal exposure to the drug. Limited available data on the use of colesevelam hydrochloride are insufficient to determine a drug-associated risk of major congenital malformations or miscarriage. In animal reproduction studies, no evidence of either maternal or fetal toxicity was found in rats or rabbits exposed to colesevelam hydrochloride during the period of fetal organogenesis at 5 and 8 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 3.75 g/day, based on body surface area (mg/m 2). No adverse effects on offspring survival and development were observed in rats administered 5 times the MRHD (see Data). Colesevelam hydrochloride may decrease the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. There are no data available on the effect of colesevelam hydrochloride on the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins in pregnant women. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking colesevelam hydrochloride, the patient should be advised of the lack of known clinical benefit with continued use during pregnancy.

    The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the US general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.

    Data
    Human Data
    There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of colesevelam hydrochloride use in pregnant women. In the postmarketing setting there have been infrequent reports of pregnancy with use of colesevelam hydrochloride and a causal association with congenital anomalies has not been established.

    Animal Data
    In pregnant rats given dietary doses of 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 g/kg/day colesevelam hydrochloride from gestation days 7 through 17, no teratogenic effects were observed. Exposures at 3.0 g/kg/day were 8 times the human exposure at 3.75 g/day MRHD, based on body surface area (mg/m 2).

    In pregnant rabbits given an oral gavage doses of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 g/kg/day colesevelam hydrochloride from gestation days 6 through 18, no teratogenic effects were observed. Exposures at 1.0 g/kg/day were 5 times the human exposure at 3.75 g/day MRHD, based on body surface area (mg/m 2).

    In pregnant rats given oral gavage doses of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 g/kg/day colesevelam hydrochloride from gestation day 6 through lactation day 21 (weaning), no adverse effects on survival and development were observed. Exposures at 1.0 g/kg/day were 5 times the human exposure at 3.75 g/day MRHD, based on body surface area (mg/m 2).

    8.2 Lactation

    Risk Summary
    Colesevelam hydrochloride is not absorbed systemically by the mother following oral administration, and breastfeeding is not expected to result in exposure of the child to colesevelam hydrochloride.

    8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

    Contraception
    Use of colesevelam hydrochloride may reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptives. Advise patients to take oral contraceptives at least 4 hours prior to taking colesevelam hydrochloride [see Drug Interactions (7)].

    8.4 Pediatric Use

    The safety and effectiveness of colesevelam hydrochloride as monotherapy or in combination with a statin were evaluated in children, 10 to 17 years of age with HeFH [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] . The adverse reaction profile was similar to that of patients treated with placebo. In this limited controlled study, there were no significant effects on growth, sexual maturation, fat-soluble vitamin levels or clotting factors in the adolescent boys or girls relative to placebo [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

    Due to tablet size, colesevelam hydrochloride for oral suspension is recommended for use in the pediatric population. Dose adjustments are not required when colesevelam hydrochloride is administered to children 10 to 17 years of age.

    Colesevelam hydrochloride has not been studied in children younger than 10 years of age or in pre-menarchal girls.

    8.5 Geriatric Use

    Primary Hyperlipidemia: Of the 1350 patients enrolled in the hyperlipidemia clinical studies, 349 (26%) were ≥65 years old, and 58 (4%) were ≥75 years old. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

  • 10 OVERDOSAGE

    Colesevelam hydrochloride is not absorbed and the risk of systemic toxicity is low. Excessive doses of colesevelam hydrochloride may cause more severe local gastrointestinal effects (e.g., constipation).

  • 11 DESCRIPTION

    Colesevelam hydrochloride is a non-absorbed, polymeric, lipid-lowering and glucose-lowering agent for oral administration. Colesevelam hydrochloride is a high-capacity bile acid-binding molecule.

    Colesevelam hydrochloride is poly (allylamine hydrochloride) cross-linked with epichlorohydrin and alkylated with 1-bromodecane and (6-bromohexyl)-trimethylammonium bromide. The chemical name (IUPAC) of colesevelam hydrochloride is allylamine polymer with 1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane, [6-(allylamino)-hexyl]trimethylammonium chloride and N-allyldecylamine, hydrochloride. The chemical structure of colesevelam hydrochloride is represented by the following formula:

    Structural Formula

    wherein (a) represents allyl amine monomer units that have not been alkylated by either of the 1-bromodecane or (6-bromohexyl)-trimethylammonium bromide alkylating agents or cross-linked by epichlorohydrin; (b) represents allyl amine units that have undergone cross-linking with epichlorohydrin; (c) represents allyl amine units that have been alkylated with a decyl group; (d) represents allyl amine units that have been alkylated with a (6-trimethylammonium) hexyl group, and m represents a number ≥ 100 to indicate an extended polymer network. A small amount of the amines are dialkylated, and are not depicted in the formula above. No regular order of the groups is implied by the structure; cross-linking and alkylation are expected to occur randomly along the polymer chains. A large amount of the amines are protonated. The polymer is depicted in the hydrochloride form; a small amount of the halides are bromide. Colesevelam hydrochloride is hydrophilic and insoluble in water.

    Colesevelam hydrochloride tablets are an off-white to pale yellow film-coated, oval tablets, debossed with “L61” on one side and plain on the other side, containing 625 mg colesevelam hydrochloride. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, copovidone, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, and talc.

  • 12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

    12.1 Mechanism of Action

    Primary Hyperlipidemia: Colesevelam hydrochloride, the active pharmaceutical ingredient in colesevelam hydrochloride tablets, is a non-absorbed, lipid-lowering polymer that binds bile acids in the intestine, impeding their reabsorption. As the bile acid pool becomes depleted, the hepatic enzyme, cholesterol 7-α-hydroxylase, is upregulated, which increases the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids. This causes an increased demand for cholesterol in the liver cells, resulting in the dual effect of increasing transcription and activity of the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme, HMG-CoA reductase, and increasing the number of hepatic LDL receptors. These compensatory effects result in increased clearance of LDL-C from the blood, resulting in decreased serum LDL-C levels. Serum TG levels may increase or remain unchanged.

    12.2 Pharmacodynamics

    A maximum therapeutic response to the lipid-lowering effects of colesevelam hydrochloride was achieved within 2 weeks and was maintained during long-term therapy.

    12.3 Pharmacokinetics

    Absorption: Colesevelam hydrochloride is a hydrophilic, water-insoluble polymer that is not hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes and is not absorbed.

    Distribution: Colesevelam hydrochloride is not absorbed, and therefore, its distribution is limited to the gastrointestinal tract.

    Metabolism: Colesevelam hydrochloride is not metabolized systemically and does not interfere with systemic drug-metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P-450.

    Excretion: In 16 healthy volunteers, an average of 0.05% of administered radioactivity from a single 14Clabeled colesevelam hydrochloride dose was excreted in the urine.

    Drug Interactions: Drug interactions between colesevelam and concomitantly administered drugs were screened through in vitro studies and confirmed in in vivo studies. In vitro studies demonstrated that cephalexin, metformin, and ciprofloxacin had negligible binding to colesevelam hydrochloride. Therefore, an in vivo pharmacokinetic interaction of colesevelam hydrochloride with these drugs is unlikely. Colesevelam hydrochloride was found to have no significant effect on the bioavailability of aspirin, atenolol, digoxin, enalapril, fenofibrate, lovastatin, metoprolol, phenytoin, pioglitazone, quinidine, rosiglitazone, sitagliptin, valproic acid, and warfarin. The results of additional in vivo drug interactions of colesevelam hydrochloride are presented in Table 6.

    Table 6: Mean Change in Drug Exposure (AUC 0-∞ and C max) when Administered with Colesevelam Hydrochloride (3.75 g) *
    *
    With verapamil, the dose of colesevelam hydrochloride was 4.5 g
    Oral contraceptive containing norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol

    Drug

    Dose

    Co-administered

    1 hr prior to Colesevelam Hydrochloride

    4 hr prior to Colesevelam Hydrochloride

    AUC 0-∞

    C max

    AUC 0-∞

    C max

    AUC 0-∞

    C max

    Cyclosporine

    200 mg

    -34%

    -44%

    N/A

    N/A

    N/A

    N/A

    Ethinyl Estradiol

    0.035 mg

    -24%

    -24%

    -18%

    -1%

    -12%

    0%

    Glimepiride

    4 mg

    -18%

    -8%

    N/A

    N/A

    -6%

    3%

    Glipizide

    20 mg

    -12%

    -13%

    N/A

    N/A

    -4%

    0%

    Glyburide

    3 mg

    -32%

    -47%

    -20%

    -15%

    -7%

    4%

    Levothyroxine

    600 mcg

    -22%

    -33%

    6%

    -2%

    1%

    8%

    Metformin ER

    1500 mg

    44%

    8%

    N/A

    N/A

    N/A

    N/A

    Norethindrone

    1 mg

    -1%

    -20%

    5%

    -3%

    6%

    7%

    Olmesartan Medoxomil

    40 mg

    -39%

    -28%

    N/A

    N/A

    -15%

    -4%

    Repaglinide

    2 mg

    -7%

    -19%

    -6%

    -1%

    N/A

    N/A

    Verapamil sustained-release

    240 mg

    -31%

    -11%

    N/A

    N/A

    N/A

    N/A

    N/A – Not Available

  • 13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

    13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

    Carcinogenesis: A 104-week carcinogenicity study with colesevelam hydrochloride was conducted in CD-1 mice, at oral dietary doses up to 3 g/kg/day. This dose was approximately 50 times the maximum recommended human dose of 4.5 g/day, based on body weight, mg/kg. There were no significant drug-induced tumor findings in male or female mice. In a 104-week carcinogenicity study with colesevelam hydrochloride in Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats, a statistically significant increase in the incidence of pancreatic acinar cell adenoma was seen in male rats at doses > 1.2 g/kg/day (approximately 20 times the maximum human dose, based on body weight, mg/kg) (trend test only). A statistically significant increase in thyroid C-cell adenoma was seen in female rats at 2.4 g/kg/day (approximately 40 times the maximum human dose, based on body weight, mg/kg).

    Mutagenesis: Colesevelam hydrochloride and 4 degradants present in the drug substance have been evaluated for mutagenicity in the Ames test and a mammalian chromosomal aberration test. The 4 degradants and an extract of the parent compound did not exhibit genetic toxicity in an in vitro bacterial mutagenesis assay in S. typhimurium and E. coli (Ames assay) with or without rat liver metabolic activation. An extract of the parent compound was positive in the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell chromosomal aberration assay in the presence of metabolic activation and negative in the absence of metabolic activation. The results of the CHO cell chromosomal aberration assay with 2 of the 4 degradants, decylamine HCl and aminohexyltrimethyl ammonium chloride HCl, were equivocal in the absence of metabolic activation and negative in the presence of metabolic activation. The other 2 degradants, didecylamine HCl and 6-decylamino-hexyltrimethyl ammonium chloride HCl, were negative in the presence and absence of metabolic activation.

    Impairment of Fertility: Colesevelam hydrochloride did not impair fertility in rats at doses up to 3 g/kg/day (approximately 50 times the maximum human dose, based on body weight, mg/kg).

    13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology

    Reproductive Toxicology Studies
    Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses up to 3 g/kg/day and 1 g/kg/day, respectively (approximately 50 and 17 times the maximum human dose, based on body weight, mg/kg) and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to colesevelam hydrochloride.

  • 14 CLINICAL STUDIES

    14.1 Primary Hyperlipidemia

    Colesevelam hydrochloride reduces TC, LDL-C, apolipoprotein B (Apo B), and non-HDL-C when administered alone or in combination with a statin in patients with primary hyperlipidemia.

    Approximately 1600 patients were studied in 9 clinical trials with treatment durations ranging from 4 to 50 weeks. With the exception of one open-label, uncontrolled, long-term extension study, all studies were multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled. A maximum therapeutic response to colesevelam hydrochloride was achieved within 2 weeks and was maintained during long-term therapy.

    Monotherapy: In a study in patients with LDL-C between 130 mg/dL and 220 mg/dL (mean 158 mg/dL), colesevelam hydrochloride was given for 24 weeks in divided doses with the morning and evening meals.

    As shown in Table 7, the mean LDL-C reductions were 15% and 18% at the 3.8 g and 4.5 g doses. The respective mean TC reductions were 7% and 10%. The mean Apo B reductions were 12% in both treatment groups. Colesevelam hydrochloride at both doses increased HDL-C by 3%. Increases in TG of 9% to 10% were observed at both colesevelam hydrochloride doses but the changes were not statistically different from placebo.

    Table 7: Response to Colesevelam Hydrochloride Monotherapy in a 24-Week Trial - Percent Change in Lipid Parameters from Baseline
    *
    Median % change from baseline.
    p < 0.05 for lipid parameters compared to placebo, for Apo B compared to baseline.

    Grams/Day

    N

    TC

    LDL-C

    Apo B

    HDL-C*

    Non-HDL-C

    TG*

    Placebo

    88

    +1

    0

    0

    –1

    +1

    +5

    3.8 g (6 tablets)

    95

    –7

    –15

    –12

    +3

    –10

    +10

    4.5 g (7 tablets)

    94

    –10

    –18

    –12

    +3

    –13

    +9

    In a study in 98 patients with LDL-C between 145 mg/dL and 250 mg/dL (mean 169 mg/dL), colesevelam hydrochloride 3.8 g was given for 6 weeks as a single-dose with breakfast, as a single-dose with dinner, or as divided doses with breakfast and dinner. The mean LDL-C reductions were 18%, 15%, and 18% for the 3 dosing regimens, respectively. The reductions with these 3 regimens were not statistically different from one another.

    Combination Therapy: Co-administration of colesevelam hydrochloride and a statin (atorvastatin, lovastatin, or simvastatin) in 3 clinical studies demonstrated an additive reduction of LDL-C. The mean baseline LDL-C was 184 mg/dL in the atorvastatin study (range 156 mg/dL to 236 mg/dL), 171 mg/dL in the lovastatin study (range 115 mg/dL to 247 mg/dL), and 188 mg/dL in the simvastatin study (range 148 mg/dL to 352 mg/dL). As demonstrated in Table 8, colesevelam hydrochloride doses of 2.3 g to 3.8 g resulted in an additional 8% to 16% reduction in LDL-C above that seen with the statin alone.

    Table 8: Response to Colesevelam Hydrochloride in Combination with Atorvastatin, Simvastatin, or Lovastatin - Percent Change in Lipid Parameters
    *
    Median % change from baseline.
    p < 0.05 for lipid parameters compared to placebo, for Apo B compared to baseline.

    Dose/Day

    N

    TC

    LDL-C

    Apo B

    HDL-C*

    Non-HDL-C

    TG*

    Atorvastatin Trial (4-week)

    Placebo

    19

    +4

    +3

    –3

    +4

    +4

    +10

    Atorvastatin 10 mg

    18

    –27

    –38

    –32

    +8

    –35

    –24

    Colesevelam hydrochloride 3.8 g/Atorvastatin 10 mg

    18

    –31

    –48

    –38

    +11

    –40

    –1

    Atorvastatin 80 mg

    20

    –39

    –53

    –46

    +6

    –50

    –33

    Simvastatin Trial (6-week)

    Placebo

    33

    –2

    –4

    –4

    –3

    –2

    +6

    Simvastatin 10 mg

    35

    –19

    –26

    –20

    +3

    –24

    –17

    Colesevelam hydrochloride 3.8 g/Simvastatin 10 mg

    34

    –28

    –42

    –33

    +10

    –37

    –12

    Simvastatin 20 mg

    39

    –23

    –34

    –26

    +7

    –30

    –12

    Colesevelam hydrochloride 2.3 g/Simvastatin 20 mg

    37

    –29

    –42

    –32

    +4

    –37

    –12

    Lovastatin Trial (4-week)

    Placebo

    26

    +1

    0

    0

    +1

    +1

    +1

    Lovastatin 10 mg

    26

    –14

    –22

    –16

    +5

    –19

    0

    Colesevelam hydrochloride 2.3 g/Lovastatin 10 mg Together

    27

    –21

    –34

    –24

    +4

    –27

    –1

    Colesevelam hydrochloride 2.3 g/Lovastatin 10 mg Apart

    23

    –21

    –32

    –24

    +2

    –28

    –2

    In all 3 studies, the LDL-C reduction achieved with the combination of colesevelam hydrochloride and any given dose of statin therapy was statistically superior to that achieved with colesevelam hydrochloride or that dose of the statin alone. The LDL-C reduction with atorvastatin 80 mg was not statistically significantly different from the combination of colesevelam hydrochloride 3.8 g and atorvastatin 10 mg.

    Pediatric Therapy: The safety and efficacy of colesevelam hydrochloride in pediatric patients were evaluated in an 8-week, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study followed by an open-label phase, in 194 boys and postmenarchal girls 10 to 17 years of age (mean age 14.1 years) with HeFH, taking a stable dose of an FDA-approved statin (with LDL-C > 130 mg/dL) or naïve to lipid-lowering therapy (with LDL-C > 160 mg/dL). This study had 3 periods: a single-blind, placebo stabilization period; an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled treatment period; and an 18-week, open-label treatment period. Forty-seven (24%) patients were taking statins and 147 (76%) patients were statin-naïve at screening. The mean baseline LDL-C at Day 1 was approximately 199 mg/dL.

    During the double-blind treatment period, patients were assigned randomly to treatment: Colesevelam hydrochloride 3.8 g/day (n=64), colesevelam hydrochloride 1.9 g/day (n=65), or placebo (n=65). In total, 186 patients completed the double-blind treatment period. After 8 weeks of treatment, colesevelam hydrochloride 3.8 g/day significantly decreased plasma levels of LDL-C, non-HDL-C, TC, and Apo B and significantly increased HDL-C. A moderate, non-statistically significant increase in TG was observed versus placebo (Table 9).

    Table 9: Response to Colesevelam Hydrochloride 3.8 g Compared to Placebo in Pediatric Patients 10 to 17 Years of Age – Mean Percent Change in Lipid Parameters from Baseline to Week 8
    *
    For triglycerides, median % change from baseline.
    p≤0.05 for lipid parameters compared to placebo

    Treatment Difference

    TC

    LDL-C

    Apo B

    HDL-C

    Non-HDL-C

    TG*

    (N=128)

    (N=128)

    (N=124)

    (N=128)

    (N=128)

    (N=128)

    Colesevelam hydrochloride 3.8 g vs. Placebo

    -7

    -13

    -8

    +6

    –11

    +5

    Values represent LS mean. Only patients with values at both study baseline and endpoint are included in this table. Study baseline was defined as the last value measured before or on Day 1 prior to the first dose of randomized study medication.

    Results were based on the ITT population with LOCF

    During the open-label treatment period patients were treated with colesevelam hydrochloride 3.8 g/day. In total, 173 (89%) patients completed 26 weeks of treatment. Results at Week 26 were consistent with those at Week 8.

  • 16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

    Colesevelam Hydrochloride Tablets, 625 mg are supplied as off-white to pale yellow film-coated oval tablets, debossed with “L61” on one side and plain on the other side. Colesevelam hydrochloride tablets are available as follows:
    Unit dose packages of 30 (5 x 6) NDC 60687-385-25

    Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from moisture.

    FOR YOUR PROTECTION: Do not use if blister is torn or broken.

  • 17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

    Hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis:
    Inform patients that colesevelam hydrochloride may increase their serum triglycerides which can lead to hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis. Instruct patients to discontinue colesevelam hydrochloride and seek prompt medical attention if the symptoms of acute pancreatitis occur (e.g., severe abdominal pain with or without nausea and vomiting) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

    Gastrointestinal:
    Inform patients that colesevelam hydrochloride may cause bowel obstruction. Instruct patients to promptly discontinue colesevelam hydrochloride and seek medical attention if severe abdominal pain or severe constipation occurs [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

    Drug and Vitamin interactions:
    Advise patients that colesevelam hydrochloride has drug interactions and colesevelam hydrochloride may decrease the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. Instruct patients to take oral vitamins at least 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride. Instruct patients to inform their physician about all the drugs and vitamins that they are prescribed or take over the counter [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Drug Interactions (7)].

    Hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease:
    Inform patients that colesevelam hydrochloride may increase serum triglycerides and that the long-term effect of hypertriglyceridemia on the risk of coronary artery disease is uncertain [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

    Administration [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]:
    Tablets:
    Advise patients to take colesevelam hydrochloride tablets with a meal and liquid. Inform patients that colesevelam hydrochloride tablets can be taken as 6 tablets once daily or 3 tablets twice daily.

    Females of Reproductive Potential:
    Advise females of reproductive potential that colesevelam hydrochloride may reduce the effectiveness of oral contraceptives, and to take oral contraceptives at least 4 hours before taking colesevelam hydrochloride [see Drug Interactions (7) and Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].

    Active Ingredient: Product of Taiwan

  • PACKAGING INFORMATION

    American Health Packaging unit dose blisters (see How Supplied section) contain drug product from Amneal Pharmaceuticals LLC as follows:
    (625 mg / 30 UD) NDC 60687-385-25 packaged from NDC 0115-1320

    Distributed by:
    American Health Packaging
    Columbus, OH 43217

    8438525/0120F

  • Package/Label Display Panel – Carton – 625 mg

    625 mg Colesevelam HCl Tablets Carton

    NDC 60687- 385-25

    Colesevelam
    Hydrochloride
    Tablets

    625 mg

    30 Tablets (5 x 6)                 Rx Only

    Each Tablet Contains: Active Ingredient:
    Colesevelam hydrochloride ...........................625 mg

    Usual Dosage: See package insert for full
    prescribing information.

    Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions
    permitted between 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see
    USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from
    moisture.

    Keep this and all drugs out of reach of children.

    FOR YOUR PROTECTION: Do not use if blister is
    torn or broken.

    The drug product contained in this package is from
    NDC # 0115-1320, Amneal Pharmaceuticals LLC.

    Distributed by:
    American Health Packaging
    Columbus, Ohio 43217

    738525
    0438525/0120OS

  • Package/Label Display Panel – Blister – 625 mg

    625 mg Colesevelam HCl Tablet Blister

    Colesevelam
    Hydrochloride
    Tablet

    625 mg

  • INGREDIENTS AND APPEARANCE
    COLESEVELAM HYDROCHLORIDE 
    colesevelam hydrochloride tablet, coated
    Product Information
    Product TypeHUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUGItem Code (Source)NDC:60687-385(NDC:0115-1320)
    Route of AdministrationORAL
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
    COLESEVELAM HYDROCHLORIDE (UNII: P4SG24WI5Q) (COLESEVELAM - UNII:1XU104G55N) COLESEVELAM HYDROCHLORIDE625 mg
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient NameStrength
    SILICON DIOXIDE (UNII: ETJ7Z6XBU4)  
    COPOVIDONE K25-31 (UNII: D9C330MD8B)  
    HYPROMELLOSE 2910 (6 MPA.S) (UNII: 0WZ8WG20P6)  
    HYPROMELLOSE 2910 (15 MPA.S) (UNII: 36SFW2JZ0W)  
    MAGNESIUM STEARATE (UNII: 70097M6I30)  
    MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE (UNII: OP1R32D61U)  
    POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 6000 (UNII: 30IQX730WE)  
    TALC (UNII: 7SEV7J4R1U)  
    Product Characteristics
    Colorwhite (off-white to pale yellow) Scoreno score
    ShapeOVALSize8mm
    FlavorImprint Code L61
    Contains    
    Packaging
    #Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    1NDC:60687-385-2530 in 1 BOX, UNIT-DOSE07/19/2018
    1NDC:60687-385-951 in 1 BLISTER PACK; Type 0: Not a Combination Product
    Image of Product
    Marketing Information
    Marketing CategoryApplication Number or Monograph CitationMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    ANDAANDA09160007/19/2018
    Labeler - American Health Packaging (929561009)
    Establishment
    NameAddressID/FEIBusiness Operations
    American Health Packaging929561009repack(60687-385)