Label: GEMCITABINE HYDROCHLORIDE injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution

  • NDC Code(s): 69097-313-37, 69097-314-42
  • Packager: Cipla USA Inc.
  • Category: HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL
  • DEA Schedule: None
  • Marketing Status: Abbreviated New Drug Application

Drug Label Information

Updated June 14, 2019

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  • HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
    These highlights do not include all the information needed to use GEMCITABINE FOR INJECTION safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for GEMCITABINE FOR INJECTION.

    GEMCITABINE for injection, for intravenous use
    Initial U.S. Approval: 1996

    RECENT MAJOR CHANGES

    Warnings and Precautions,

    Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (5.4)                             5/2019

    INDICATIONS AND USAGE

    Gemcitabine for injection is a nucleoside metabolic inhibitor indicated:

    • in combination with carboplatin, for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer that has relapsed at least 6 months after completion of platinum-based therapy. (1.1)
    • in combination with paclitaxel, for first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer after failure of prior anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy, unless anthracyclines were clinically contraindicated. (1.2)
    • in combination with cisplatin, for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (1.3)
    • as a single agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. (1.4)

    DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    Gemcitabine for injection is for intravenous use only.

    • Ovarian Cancer: 1000 mg/m2over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle. (2.1)
    • Breast Cancer: 1250 mg/m2over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle. (2.2)
    • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: 1000 mg/m2over 30 minutes on Days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle or 1250 mg/m2over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle. (2.3)
    • Pancreatic Cancer: 1000 mg/m2over 30 minutes once weekly for the first 7 weeks, then one week rest, then once weekly for 3 weeks of each 28-day cycle. (2.4)

    DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

    • For injection: 200 mg or 1 gram lyophilized powder in single-dose vials for reconstitution. (3)

    CONTRAINDICATIONS

    Patients with a known hypersensitivity to gemcitabine. (4)

    WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

    • Schedule-Dependent Toxicity: Increased toxicity with infusion time greater than 60 minutes or dosing more frequently than once weekly. (5.1)
    • Myelosuppression: Monitor for myelosuppression prior to each cycle and reduce or withhold dose for severe myelosuppression. (5.2,5.7)
    • Pulmonary Toxicity and Respiratory Failure: Discontinue gemcitabine for injection immediately for unexplained dyspnea or other evidence of severe pulmonary toxicity. (5.3)
    • Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (HUS): Monitor renal function prior to initiation and during treatment. Discontinue gemcitabine for injection for HUS or severe renal impairment. (5.4)
    • Hepatic Toxicity: Monitor hepatic function prior to initiation and during treatment. Discontinue gemcitabine for severe hepatic toxicity. (5.5)
    • Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Can cause fetal harm. Advise females and males of reproductive potential to use effective contraception. (5.6,8.1)
    • Exacerbation of Radiation Therapy Toxicity: May cause severe and life-threatening toxicity when administered during or within 7 days of radiation therapy. (5.7)
    • Capillary Leak Syndrome: Discontinue gemcitabine for injection. (5.8)
    • Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES): Discontinue gemcitabine for injection. (5.9)

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    The most common adverse reactions for the single agent (≥20%) are nausea/vomiting, anemia, increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST), increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT), neutropenia, increased alkaline phosphatase, proteinuria, fever, hematuria, rash, thrombocytopenia, dyspnea, and peripheral edema (6.1)

    To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Cipla Ltd at 1-866-604-3268 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

    USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

    Lactation: Advise not to breastfeed. (8.2) (7)

    See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION.

    Revised: 6/2019

  • Table of Contents
  • 1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

    1.1 Ovarian Cancer

    Gemcitabine for injection in combination with carboplatin is indicated for the treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer that has relapsed at least 6 months after completion of platinum-based therapy.

    1.2 Breast Cancer

    Gemcitabine for injection in combination with paclitaxel is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer after failure of prior anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy, unless anthracyclines were clinically contraindicated.

    1.3 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Gemcitabine for injection in combination with cisplatin is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with inoperable, locally advanced (Stage IIIA or IIIB), or metastatic (Stage IV) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    1.4 Pancreatic Cancer

    Gemcitabine for injection is indicated as first-line treatment for patients with locally advanced (nonresectable Stage II or Stage III) or metastatic (Stage IV) adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Gemcitabine for injection is indicated for patients previously treated with fluorouracil.

  • 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    2.1 Ovarian Cancer

    Recommended Dose and Schedule

    The recommended dosage of gemcitabine for injection is 1000 mg/m2 intravenously over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle in combination with carboplatin AUC 4 administered intravenously on Day 1 after gemcitabine for injection administration. Refer to carboplatin prescribing information for additional information.

    Dosage Modifications

    Recommended gemcitabine for injection dosage modifications for myelosuppression are described in Tables 1 and 2 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Refer to the recommended dosage modifications for non-hematologic adverse reactions [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].

    Table 1: Recommended Dosage Modifications for Gemcitabine for Injection for   Myelosuppression on Day of Treatment in Ovarian Cancer
    Treatment Day
    Absolute Neutrophil Count (x 106/L)

    Platelet Count
    (x 106/L)
    Dosage Modification
    Day 1

    Greater than or equal to 1500
    and
    Greater than or equal to 100,000
    None
    Less than 1500
    or
    Less than 100,000
    Delay Treatment Cycle
    Day 8

    Greater than or equal to 1500
    and
    Greater than or equal to 100,000
    None
    1000 to 1499
    or
    75,000 to 99,999
    50% of full dose
    Less than 1000
    or
    Less than 75,000
    Hold
    Recommended Dosage Modifications for Gemcitabine for Injection for  Myelosuppression in Previous Cycle in Ovarian Cancer
    Occurrence

    Myelosuppression During Treatment Cycle
    Dosage Modification
    Initial Occurrence
       Absolute neutrophil count less than 500 x 106/L for more than 5 days or
       Absolute neutrophil count less than 100 x 106/L for more than 3 days or
       Febrile neutropenia or
       Platelets less than 25,000x106/L or
       Cycle delay for more than one week due to toxicity
    Permanently reduce gemcitabine for injection to 800 mg/m2 on Days 1 and 8
    Subsequent Occurrence
    If any of the above toxicities occur after the initial dose reduction
    Permanently reduce gemcitabine for injection to 800 mg/m2 on Day 1 only

    2.2 Breast Cancer

    Recommended Dose and Schedule

    The recommended dosage of gemcitabine for injection is 1250 mg/m2 intravenously over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle in combination with paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 administered as a 3-hour intravenous infusion on Day 1 before gemcitabine for injection administration. Refer to paclitaxel prescribing information for additional information.

    Dosage Modifications

    Recommended gemcitabine for injection dosage modifications for myelosuppression are described in Table 3 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Refer to the recommended dosage modifications for non-hematologic adverse reactions [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].

    Recommended Dosage Modifications for Gemcitabine for Injection for Myelosuppression on Day of Treatment in Breast Cancer
    Treatment Day
    Absolute Neutrophil Count (x 106/L)

    Platelet Count (x 106/L)
    Dosage Modification

    Day 1

    Greater than or equal to 1500
    and
    Greater than or equal to 100,000
    None
    Less than 1500
    or
    Less than 100,000
    Hold
    Day 8

    Greater than or equal to 1200
    and
    Greater than 75,000
    None
    1000 to 1199
    or
    50,000 to75,000
    75% of full dose
    700 to 999
    and
    Greater than or equal to 50,000
    50% of full dose
    Less than 700
    or
    Less than 50,000
    Hold

    2.3 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Recommended Dose and Schedule

    28-day schedule

    The recommended dosage of gemcitabine for injection is 1000 mg/m2 intravenously over 30 minutes on Days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle in combination with cisplatin 100 mg/m2 administered intravenously on Day 1 after gemcitabine for injection administration.

    21-day schedule

    The recommended dosage of gemcitabine for injection is 1250 mg/m2 intravenously over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle in combination with cisplatin 100 mg/m2administered intravenously on Day 1 after gemcitabine for injection administration.

    Refer to cisplatin prescribing information for additional information.

    Dosage Modifications

    Recommended dosage modifications for gemcitabine for injection myelosuppression are described in Table 4 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Refer to the recommended dosage modifications for non-hematologic adverse reactions [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].

    2.4 Pancreatic Cancer

    Recommended Dose and Schedule

    The recommended dosage of gemcitabine for injection is 1000 mg/m2 intravenously over 30 minutes. The recommended treatment schedule is as follows:

    • Weeks 1 to 8: weekly dosing for the first 7 weeks followed by one week rest.

    • After week 8: weekly dosing on Days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle.

    Dosage Modifications

    Recommended dosage modifications for gemcitabine for injection for myelosuppression are described in Table 4 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Refer to the recommended dosage modifications for non-hematologic adverse reactions [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].

    Table 4: Recommended Dosage Modifications for Gemcitabine for Injection for   Myelosuppression in Pancreatic Cancer and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
    Absolute Neutrophil Count
    (x 106/L)

    Platelet count
    (x 106/L)
    Dosage Modification

    Greater than or equal to 1000
    and
    Greater than or equal to 100,000
    None
    500 to 999
    or
    50,000 to 99,999
    75% of full dose
    Less than 500
    or
    Less than 50,000
    Hold

    2.5 Dosage Modifications for Non-Hematologic Adverse Reactions

    Permanently discontinue gemcitabine for injection for any of the following

    •   Unexplained dyspnea or evidence of severe pulmonary toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
    •   Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) or severe renal impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
    •   Severe hepatic toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
    •   Capillary leak syndrome (CLS) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
    •   Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]

    Withhold gemcitabine for injection or reduce dose by 50% for other Grade 3 or 4 non-hematological adverse reactions until resolved. No dose modifications are recommended for alopecia, nausea, or vomiting.

    2.6 Preparation

    •   Gemcitabine for injection vials contain no antimicrobial preservatives and are intended for single use only.
    •   Gemcitabine for injection is a cytotoxic drug. Follow applicable special handling and disposal procedures.1
    •   Exercise caution and wear gloves when preparing gemcitabine for injection solutions. Immediately wash the skin thoroughly or rinse the mucosa with copious amounts of water if gemcitabine for injection contacts the skin or mucus membranes. Death has occurred in animal studies due to dermal absorption.
    •   Reconstitute the 200 mg vial with 5 mL and the 1 g vial with 25 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP to yield a gemcitabine for injection concentration of 38 mg/mL. Reconstituted gemcitabine for injection is a clear, colorless to light straw-colored solution.
    •   Visually inspect reconstituted product for particulate matter and discoloration. Discard if particulate matter or discoloration is observed.
    •   Withdraw the calculated dose from the vial and discard any unused portion.
    •   Prior to administration, dilute the reconstituted solution with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP to a minimum final concentration of at least 0.1 mg/mL.
    •   Store gemcitabine for injection solutions (reconstituted and diluted) at controlled room temperature of 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). Do not refrigerate as crystallization can occur. Discard gemcitabine for injection solutions if not used within 24 hours after reconstitution.
    •   No incompatibilities have been observed with infusion bottles or polyvinyl chloride bags and administration sets.
  • 3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

    For injection: 200 mg gemcitabine or 1 g gemcitabine as a sterile white to off-white lyophilized powder in single-dose vials for reconstitution.

  • 4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

    Gemcitabine for injection is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to gemcitabine. Reactions include anaphylaxis [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

  • 5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

    5.1 Schedule-Dependent Toxicity

    In clinical trials evaluating the maximum tolerated dose of gemcitabine for injection, prolongation of the infusion time beyond 60 minutes or more frequent than weekly dosing resulted in an increased incidence of clinically significant hypotension, severe flu-like symptoms, myelosuppression, and asthenia. The half-life of gemcitabine is influenced by the length of the infusion [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Refer to the recommended gemcitabine for injection dosage [see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4)].

    5.2 Myelosuppression

    Myelosuppression manifested by neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia occurs with gemcitabine for injection as a single agent and the risks are increased when gemcitabine is combined with other cytotoxic drugs. In clinical trials, Grade 3-4 neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia occurred in 25%, 8%, and 5%, respectively of the 979 patients who received single agent gemcitabine. The frequencies of Grade 3-4 neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia varied from 48% to 71%, 8% to 28%, and 5% to 55%, respectively, in patients receiving gemcitabine in combination with another drug [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

    Prior to each dose of gemcitabine for injection, obtain a complete blood count (CBC) with a differential and a platelet count. Modify the dosage as recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4)].

    5.3 Pulmonary Toxicity and Respiratory Failure

    Pulmonary toxicity, including interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary edema, and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), has been reported. In some cases, these pulmonary events can lead to fatal respiratory failure despite the discontinuation of therapy. The onset of pulmonary symptoms may occur up to 2 weeks after the last dose of gemcitabine for injection [see Adverse Reactions (6.1, 6.2)].

    Permanently discontinue gemcitabine for injection in patients who develop unexplained dyspnea, with or without bronchospasm, or evidence of severe pulmonary toxicity.

    5.4 Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), including fatalities from renal failure or the requirement for dialysis, can occur with gemcitabine for injection. In clinical trials, HUS occurred in 0.25% of 2429 patients. Most fatal cases of renal failure were due to HUS [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Serious cases of thrombotic microangiopathy other than HUS have been reported with gemcitabine for injection [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

     

    Assess renal function prior to initiation of gemcitabine for injection and periodically during treatment. Consider the diagnosis of HUS in patients who develop anemia with evidence of microangiopathic hemolysis; increased bilirubin or LDH; reticulocytosis; severe thrombocytopenia; or renal failure (increased serum creatinine or BUN). Permanently discontinue gemcitabine for injection in patients with HUS or severe renal impairment. Renal failure may not be reversible even with the discontinuation of therapy.

    5.5 Hepatic Toxicity

    Drug-induced liver injury, including liver failure and death, has been reported in patients receiving gemcitabine for injection alone or with other potentially hepatotoxic drugs [see Adverse Reactions (6.1, 6.2)]. Administration of gemcitabine for injection in patients with concurrent liver metastases or a pre-existing medical history of hepatitis, alcoholism, or liver cirrhosis can lead to exacerbation of the underlying hepatic insufficiency Assess hepatic function prior to initiation of gemcitabine for injection and periodically during treatment. Permanently discontinue gemcitabine for injection in patients who develop severe hepatic toxicity.

    5.6 Embryofetal Toxicity

    Based on animal data and its mechanism of action, gemcitabine for injection can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Gemcitabine was teratogenic, embryotoxic, and fetotoxic in mice and rabbits.

    Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with gemcitabine for injection and for 6 months after the final dose. Advise male patients with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with gemcitabine for injection and for 3 months following the final dose [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3)].

    5.7 Exacerbation of Radiation Therapy Toxicity

    Gemcitabine for injection is not recommended for use in combination with radiation therapy.

    Concurrent (given together or ≤7 days apart) — Life-threatening mucositis, especially esophagitis and pneumonitis occurred in a trial in which gemcitabine for injection was administered at a dose of 1000 mg/m2 to patients with non-small cell lung cancer for up to 6 consecutive weeks concurrently with thoracic radiation.

    Non-concurrent (given >7 days apart) — Excessive toxicity has not been observed when gemcitabine for injection is administered more than 7 days before or after radiation. Radiation recall has been reported in patients who received gemcitabine after prior radiation.

    5.8 Capillary Leak Syndrome

    Capillary leak syndrome (CLS) with severe consequences has been reported in patients receiving gemcitabine for injection as a single agent or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. Permanently discontinue gemcitabine for injection if CLS develops during therapy.

    5.9 Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) has been reported in patients receiving gemcitabine for injection as a single agent or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. PRES can present with headache, seizure, lethargy, hypertension, confusion, blindness, and other visual and neurologic disturbances. Confirm the diagnosis of PRES with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Permanently discontinue gemcitabine for injection if PRES develops during therapy.

  • 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

    The following clinically significant adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labelling:

    •   Hypersensitivity [see Contraindications (4)]
    •   Schedule-Dependent Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
    •   Myelosuppression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
    •   Pulmonary Toxicity and Respiratory Failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
    •   Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
    •   Hepatic Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
    •   Exacerbation of Radiation Therapy Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
    •   Capillary Leak Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
    •   Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]

    6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

    Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

    Single Agent:

    The data described below reflect exposure to gemcitabine as a single agent administered at doses between 800 mg/m2to 1250 mg/m2intravenously over 30 minutes once weekly in 979 patients with various malignancies. The most common (≥20%) adverse reactions of single agent gemcitabine are nausea/vomiting, anemia, increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT), increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST), neutropenia, increased alkaline phosphatase, proteinuria, fever, hematuria, rash, thrombocytopenia, dyspnea, and edema. The most common (≥5%) Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions were neutropenia, nausea/vomiting, increased ALT, increased alkaline phosphatase, anemia, increased AST, and thrombocytopenia. Approximately 10% of the 979 patients discontinued gemcitabine for injection due to adverse reactions. Adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of gemcitabine for injection in 2% of 979 patients were cardiovascular adverse reactions (myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, arrhythmia, and hypertension) and adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of gemcitabine for injection in <1% of 979 patients were anemia, thrombocytopenia, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, nausea/vomiting, fever, rash, dyspnea, hemorrhage, infection, stomatitis, somnolence, flu-like syndrome, and edema.

    Tables 5 and 6 present the incidence of selected adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities reported in patients with various malignancies receiving single agent gemcitabine across 5 clinical trials. Additional clinically significant adverse reactions are provided following Table 6.

    Table 5 Selected Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥10% of Patients Receiving Single Agent Gemcitabinea

    aa Grade based on criteria from the World Health Organization (WHO).

    b For approximately 60% of patients, non-laboratory adverse reactions were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related.

    c N=699-974; all patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data.

    Adverse Reactionsb
    Gemcitabinec
    All Grades
    (%)
    Grade 3
    (%)
    Grade 4
    (%)
    Nausea and Vomiting
    69
    13
    1
    Fever
    41
    2
    0
    Rash
    30
    <1
    0
    Dyspnea
    23
    3
    <1
    Diarrhea
    19
    1
    0
    Hemorrhage
    17
    <1
    <1
    Infection
    16
    1
    <1
    Alopecia
    15
    <1
    0
    Stomatitis
    11
    <1
    0
    Somnolence
    11
    <1
    <1
    Paresthesias
    10
    <1
    0
    Table 6: Selected Laboratory Abnormalities Occurring in Patients Receiving Single Agent Gemcitabinea
    Laboratory Abnormalityb
    Gemcitabinec
    All Grades
    (%)
    Grade 3
    (%)
    Grade 4
    (%)
    Hematologic
    Anemia
    68
    7
    1
    Neutropenia
    63
    19
    6
    Thrombocytopenia
    24
    4
    1
    Hepatic
    Increased ALT
    68
    8
    2
    Increased AST
    67
    6
    2
    Increased Alkaline Phosphatase
    55
    7
    2
    Hyperbilirubinemia
    13
    2
    <1
    Renal
    Proteinuria
    45
    <1
    0
    Hematuria
    35
    <1
    0
    Increased BUN
    16
    0
    0
    Increased Creatinine
    8
    <1
    0

    Additional adverse reactions include the following:

    •   Transfusion requirements: Red blood cell transfusions (19%); platelet transfusions (<1%)
    •   Edema: Edema (13%), peripheral edema (20%), generalized edema (<1%)
    •   Flu-like symptoms: Fever, asthenia, anorexia, headache, cough, chills, myalgia, asthenia insomnia, rhinitis, sweating, and/or malaise (19%)
    •   Infection: Sepsis (<1%)
    •   Extravasation: Injection-site reactions (4%)
    •   Allergic: Bronchospasm (<2%); anaphylactoid reactions

    Ovarian Cancer

    Tables 7 and 8 presents the incidence of selected adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities occurring in ≥10% of gemcitabine-treated patients and at a higher incidence in the gemcitabine with carboplatin arm, reported in a randomized trial (Study 1) of gemcitabine with carboplatin (n=175) compared to carboplatin alone (n=174) for the second-line treatment of ovarian cancer in women with disease that had relapsed more than 6 months following first-line platinum-based chemotherapy [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Additional clinically significant adverse reactions, occurring in <10% of patients, are provided following Table 8.

    The proportion of patients with dose adjustments for carboplatin (1.8% versus 3.8%), doses of carboplatin omitted (0.2% versus 0) and discontinuing treatment for adverse reactions (11% versus 10%), were similar between arms. Dose adjustment for gemcitabine occurred in 10% of patients and gemcitabine dose was omitted in 14% of patients in the gemticabine/carboplatin arm.

    : Table 7.Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥10% of Patients Receiving Gemcitabine with carboplatin and at Higher Incidence than in Patients Receiving Single Agent Carboplatin [Between Arm Difference of ≥5% (All Grades) or ≥2% (Grades 3-4)] in Study 1a

    a    Grade based on National Cancer Institute CTC Version 2.0..

    b       Regardless of causality.

    Adverse Reactionsb
    Gemcitabine / Carboplatinc
    (N=175)
    Carboplatind
    (N=174)
    All Grades
    (%)
    Grade 3
    (%)
    Grade 4
    (%)
    All Grades
    (%)
    Grade 3 (%)
    Grade 4 (%)

    Nausea
    69
    6
    0
    61
    3
    0
    Alopecia
    49
    0
    0
    17
    0
    0
    Vomiting
    46
    6
    0
    36
    2
    <1
    Constipation
    42
    6
    1
    37
    3
    0
    Fatigue
    40
    3
    <1
    32
    5
    0
    Diarrhea
    25
    3
    0
    14
    <1
    0
    Stomatitis/Pharyngitis
    22
    <1
    0
    13
    0
    0
    Table 8: Laboratory Abnormalities Occurring in Patients Receiving Gemcitabine with Carboplatin and at Higher Incidence than in Patients Receiving Single Agent Carboplatin [Between Arm Difference of ≥5% (All Grades) or ≥2% (Grades 3-4)] in Study 1a

    a    Grade based on National Cancer Institute CTC Version 2.0.

    b    Regardless of causality.

    c    Percent of patients receiving transfusions. Transfusions are not CTC-graded events. Blood transfusions included both packed red blood cells and whole blood.

    Laboratory Abnormalityb
    Gemcitabine/Carboplatin
    (N=175)
    Carboplatin
    (N=174)
    All Grades
    (%)
    Grade 3 (%)
    Grade 4
    (%)
    All Grades
    (%)
    Grade 3
    (%)
    Grade 4
    (%)
    Hematologic
    Neutropenia
    90
    42
    29
    58
    11
    1
    Anemia
    86
    22
    6
    75
    9
    2
    Thrombocytopenia
    78
    30
    5
    57
    10
    1
    RBC Transfusionsc
    38
    -
    -
    15
    -
    -
    Platelet Transfusionsc
    9
    -
    -
    3
    -
    -

    Hematopoietic growth factors were administered more frequently in the gemcitabine-containing arm: leukocyte growth factor (24% and 10%) and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (7% and 3.9%).

    The following clinically relevant Grade 3 and 4 adverse reactions occurred more frequently in the gemcitabine with carboplatin arm: dyspnea (3.4% versus 2.9%), febrile neutropenia (1.1% versus 0), hemorrhagic event (2.3% versus 1.1 %), motor neuropathy (1.1% versus 0.6%), and rash/desquamation (0.6% versus 0).

    Breast Cancer

    Tables 9 and 10 present the incidence of selected adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities occurring in ≥10% of gemcitabine for injection-treated patients and at a higher incidence in the gemcitabine with paclitaxel arm, reported in a randomized trial (Study 2) of gemcitabine with paclitaxel (n=262) compared to paclitaxel alone (n=259) for the first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in women who received anthracycline-containing chemotherapy in the adjuvant/neoadjuvant setting or for whom anthracyclines were contraindicated [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. Additional clinically significant adverse reactions, occurring in <10% of patients, are provided following Table

    The requirement for dose reduction of paclitaxel were higher for patients in the gemcitabine/paclitaxel arm (5% versus 2%). The number of paclitaxel doses omitted (<1%), the proportion of patients discontinuing treatment for adverse reactions (7% versus 5%) and the number of treatment-related deaths (1 patient in each arm) were similar between the two arms.

    Table 9: Selected Adverse Reactions Occurring in Patients Receiving Gemcitabine with Paclitaxel and at Higher Incidence than in Patients Receiving Single Agent Paclitaxel [Between Arm Difference of ≥5% (All Grades) or ≥2% (Grades 3-4)] in Study 2a $Table Footer a Grade based on National Cancer Institute CTC Version 2.0.b Non-laboratory events were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related. $EndTableFooter
    Adverse Reactionsb
    Gemcitabine /Paclitaxel
    (N=262)
    Paclitaxel
    (N=259)
    All Grades (%)
    Grade 3 (%)
    Grade 4 (%)
    All Grades (%)
    Grade 3 (%)
    Grade 4 (%)
    Alopecia
    90
    14
    4
    92
    19
    3
    Neuropathy-Sensory
    64
    5
    <1
    58
    3
    0
    Nausea
    50
    1
    0
    31
    2
    0
    Fatigue
    40
    6
    <1
    28
    1
    <1
    Vomiting
    29
    2
    0
    15
    2
    0
    Diarrhea
    20
    3
    0
    13
    2
    0
    Anorexia
    17
    0
    0
    12
    <1
    0
    Neuropathy-Motor
    15
    2
    <1
    10
    <1
    0
    Stomatitis/Pharyngitis
    13
    1
    <1
    8
    <1
    0
    Fever
    12
    <1
    0
    3
    0
    0
    Rash/Desquamation
    11
    <1
    <1
    5
    0
    0
    Febrile Neutropenia
    6
    5
    <1
    2
    1
    0
    Table 10: Selected Laboratory Abnormalities Occurring in >10% of Patients Receiving Gemcitabine with Paclitaxel and at a Higher Incidence than Patients Receiving Single Agent Paclitaxel [Between Arm Difference of ≥5% (All Grades) or ≥2% (Grades 3-4)] in Study 2a

    a Grade based on National Cancer Institute CTC Version 2.0.

    b Regardless of causality.

    Laboratory Abnormalityb
    Gemcitabine / Paclitaxelc
    (N=262)
    Etoposide/ Paclitaxeld
    (N=259)
    All Grades (%)
    Grade 3 (%)
    Grade 4 (%)
    All Grades (%)
    Grade 3 (%)
    Grade 4 (%)
    Hematologic
    Anemia
    69
    6
    1
    51
    3
    <1
    Neutropenia
    69
    31
    17
    31
    4
    7
    Thrombocytopenia
    26
    5
    <1
    7
    <1
    <1
    Hepatobiliary
    Increased ALT
    18
    5
    <1
    6
    <1
    0
    Increased AST
    16
    2
    0
    5
    <1
    0

    Clinically relevant Grade 3 or 4 dyspnea occurred with a higher incidence in the gemcitabine with paclitaxel arm compared with the paclitaxel arm (1.9% versus 0)

    Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Tables 11 and 12 presents the incidence of selected adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities, occurring in ≥10% of gemcitabine-treated patients and at a higher incidence in the gemcitabine with cisplatin arm, reported in a randomized trial (Study 3) of gemcitabine with cisplatin (n=260) administered in 28-day cycles as compared to cisplatin alone (n=262) in patients receiving first-line treatment for locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC [see Clinical Studies (14.3)].

    Patients randomized to gemcitabine with cisplatin received a median of 4 cycles of treatment and those randomized to cisplatin alone received a median of 2 cycles of treatment. In this trial, the requirement for dose adjustments (>90% versus 16%), discontinuation of treatment for adverse reactions (15% versus 8%), and the proportion of patients hospitalized (36% versus 23%) were all higher for patients receiving gemcitabine with cisplatin compared to those receiving cisplatin alone. The incidence of febrile neutropenia (3% versus<1%), sepsis (4% versus 1%), Grade 3 cardiac dysrhythmias (3% versus <1%) were all higher in the gemcitabine with cisplatin arm compared to the cisplatin alone arm. The two-drug combination was more myelosuppressive with 4 (1.5%) possibly treatment-related deaths, including 3 resulting from myelosuppression with infection and one case of renal failure associated with pancytopenia and infection. No deaths due to treatment were reported on the cisplatin arm.

    Table 11: Selected Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥10% Patients Receiving Gemcitabine with Cisplatin and at Higher Incidence than in Patients Receiving Single Agent Cisplatin [Between Arm Difference of ≥5% (All Grades) or ≥2% (Grades 3-4)] in Study 3a

    Grade based on National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC).

    b    Non-laboratory events were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related.

    c    N=217-253 all gemcitabine/cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data

    d    N=213-248; all cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data

    Adverse Reactionsb

    Gemcitabine/Cisplatinc
    Cisplatind
    All Grades
    (%)
    Grade 3
    (%)
    Grade 4
    (%)
    All Grades
    (%)
    Grade 3
    (%)
    Grade 4
    (%)
    Nausea
    93
    25
    2
    87
    20
    <1
    Vomiting
    78
    11
    12
    71
    10
    9
    Alopecia
    53
    1
    0
    33
    0
    0
    Neuro Motor
    35
    12
    0
    15
    3
    0
    Diarrhea
    24
    2
    2
    13
    0
    0
    Neuro Sensory
    23
    1
    0
    18
    1
    0
    Infection
    18
    3
    2
    12
    1
    0
    Fever
    16
    0
    0
    5
    0
    0
    Neuro Cortical
    16
    3
    1
    9
    1
    0
    Neuro Mood
    16
    1
    0
    10
    1
    0
    Local
    15
    0
    0
    6
    0
    0
    Neuro Headache
    14
    0
    0
    7
    0
    0
    Stomatitis
    14
    1
    0
    5
    0
    0
    Hemorrhage
    14
    1
    0
    4
    0
    0
    Hypotension
    12
    1
    0
    7
    1
    0
    Rash
    11
    0
    0
    3
    0
    0
    Table 12: Selected Laboratory Abnormalities Occurring in >10% of Patients Receiving Gemcitabine with Cisplatin and at Higher Incidence than in Patients Receiving Single Agent Cisplatin [Between Arm Difference of ≥5% (All Grades) or ≥2% (Grades 3-4)] in Study 3a

    a Grade based on National Cancer Institute CTC.

    b Regardless of causality.

    c N=217-253; all gemcitabine/cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data

    d N=213-248; all cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data

    e Percent of patients receiving transfusions. Percent transfusions are not CTC-graded events.

    Laboratory Abnormalityb
    Gemcitabine / Cisplatinc  
    Cisplatind
    All Grades (%)
    Grade 3 (%)
    Grade 4 (%)
    All Grades (%)
    Grade 3 (%)
    Grade 4 (%)
    Hematologic
    Anemia
    89
    22
    3
    67
    6
    1
    Thrombocytopenia
    85
    25
    25
    13
    3
    1
    Neutropenia
    79
    22
    35
    20
    3
    1
    Lymphopenia
    75
    25
    18
    51
    12
    5
    RBC Transfusionse
    39
    -
    -
    13
    -
    -
    Platelet Transfusionse
    21
    -
    -
    <1
    -
    -
    Hepatic
    Increased Transaminases
    22
    2
    1
    10
    1
    0
    Increased Alkaline Phosphatase
    19
    1
    0
    13
    0
    0
    Renal
    Increased Creatinine
    38
    4
    <1
    31
    2
    <1
    Proteinuria
    23
    0
    0
    18
    0
    0
    Hematuria
    15
    0
    0
    13
    0
    0
    Other Laboratory
    Hyperglycemia
    30
    4
    0
    23
    3
    0
    Hypomagnesemia
    30
    4
    3
    17
    2
    0
    Hypocalcemia
    18
    2
    0
    7
    0
    <1

    Tables 13 and 14 present the incidence of selected adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities, occurring in ≥10% of gemcitabine-treated patients and at a higher incidence in the gemcitabine with cisplatin arm, reported in a randomized trial (Study 4) of gemcitabine with cisplatin (n=69) administered in 21-day cycles as compared to etoposide with cisplatin (n=66) in patients receiving first-line treatment for locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC [see Clinical Studies (14.3)]. Additional clinically significant adverse reactions are provided following Table 14.

    Patients in the gemcitabine/cisplatin (GC) arm received a median of 5 cycles and those in the etoposide/cisplatin (EC) arm received a median of 4 cycles. The majority of patients receiving more than one cycle of treatment required dose adjustments; 81% in the GC arm and 68% in the EC arm. The incidence of hospitalizations for adverse reactions was 22% in the GC arm and 27% in the EC arm. The proportion of patients who discontinued treatment for adverse reactions was higher in the GC arm (14% versus 8%). The proportion of patients who were hospitalized for febrile neutropenia was lower in the GC arm (7% versus 12%). There was one death attributed to treatment, a patient with febrile neutropenia and renal failure, which occurred in the GC arm.

    Table 13: Selected Adverse Reactions in Patients Receiving Gemcitabine with Cisplatin in Study 4a

    a Grade based on criteria from the WHO.

    b Non-laboratory events were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related. Pain data were not collected.

    c N=67-69; all gemcitabine/cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data.

    d N=57-63; all Etoposide/cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data.

    e Flu-like syndrome and edema were not graded.

    Adverse Reactionsb

    Gemcitabine/Cisplatinc
    Etoposide/Cisplatind
    All Grades
    (%)
    Grade 3
    (%)
    Grade 4
    (%)
    All Grades
    (%)
    Grade 3
    (%)
    Grade 4
    (%)
    Nausea and Vomiting
    96
    35
    4
    86
    19
    7
    Alopecia
    77
    13
    0
    92
    51
    0
    Paresthesias
    38
    0
    0
    16
    2
    0
    Infection
    28
    3
    1
    21
    8
    0
    Stomatitis
    20
    4
    0
    18
    2
    0
    Diarrhea
    14
    1
    1
    13
    0
    2
    Edemae
    12
    -
    -
    2
    -
    -
    Rash
    10
    0
    0
    3
    0
    0
    Hemorrhage
    9
    0
    3
    3
    0
    3
    Fever
    6
    0
    0
    3
    0
    0
    Somnolence
    3
    0
    0
    3
    2
    0
    Flu-like Syndromee
    3
    -
    -
    0
    -
    -
    Dyspnea
    1
    0
    1
    3
    0
    0
    Table 14: Selected Laboratory Abnormalities Occurring in Patients Receiving Gemcitabine with Cisplatin in Study 4a

    a Grade based on criteria from the WHO.

    b Regardless of causality.

    c N=67-69; all gemcitabine/cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data.

    d N=57-63; all Etoposide/cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data.

    e WHO grading scale not applicable to proportion of patients with transfusions.

    Laboratory Abnormalityb
    Gemcitabine /Cisplatinc
    Etoposide/Cisplatind
    All Grades (%)
    Grade 3
    (%)
    Grade 4
    (%)
    All Grades
    (%)
    Grade 3 (%)
    Grade 4
    (%)
    Hematologic
    Anemia
    88
    22
    0
    77
    13
    2
    Neutropenia
    88
    36
    28
    87
    20
    56
    Thrombocytopenia
    81
    39
    16
    45
    8
    5
    RBC Transfusionsc
    29
    -
    -
    21
    -
    -
    Platelet Transfusionse
    3
    -
    -
    8
    -
    -
    Hepatic
    Increased Alkaline Phosphatase
    16
    0
    0
    11
    0
    0
    Increased ALT
    6
    0
    0
    12
    0
    0
    Increased AST
    3
    0
    0
    11
    0
    0
    Renal
    Hematuria
    22
    0
    0
    10
    0
    0
    Proteinuria
    12
    0
    0
    5
    0
    0
    Increased BUN
    6
    0
    0
    4
    0
    0
    Increased Creatinine
    2
    0
    0
    2
    0
    0

    Hematopoietic growth factors were administered more frequently in the gemcitabine-containing arm: leukocyte growth factor (24% and 10%) and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (7% and 3.9%).

    The following clinically relevant Grade 3 and 4 adverse reactions occurred more frequently in the gemcitabine with carboplatin arm: dyspnea (3.4% versus 2.9%), febrile neutropenia (1.1% versus 0), hemorrhagic event (2.3% versus 1.1%), motor neuropathy (1.1% versus 0.6%), and rash/desquamation (0.6% versus 0).

    6.2 Postmarketing Experience

    The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of gemcitabine for injection. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

    •   Blood and lymphatic system : Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA)
    •   Cardiovascular : Congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, supraventricular arrhythmias.
    •   Vascular : Peripheral vasculitis, gangrene, capillary leak syndrome
    •   Skin : Cellulitis, pseudocellulitis, severe skin reactions, including desquamation and bullous skin eruptions
    •   Hepatic : Hepatic failure, hepatic veno-occlusive disease
    •   Pulmonary : Interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary edema, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pulmonary eosinophilia
    •   Nervous System : Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES)
  • 8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

    8.1 Pregnancy

    Risk Summary

    Based on animal data and its mechanism of action, gemcitabine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)]. There are no available data on the use of gemcitabine in pregnant women. In animal reproduction studies, gemcitabine was teratogenic, embryotoxic, and fetotoxic in mice and rabbits (see Data). Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus [see Use in Special Populations (8.3)].

    In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriages in clinically recognized pregnancies 2-4% and 15-20% respectively.

    Data

    Animal Data

    Gemcitabine is embryotoxic in mice. Daily dosing of gemcitabine to pregnant mice increased the incidence of fetal malformation (cleft palate, incomplete ossification) at doses of 1.5 mg/kg/day [approximately 0.005 times the 1000 mg/m2clinical dose based on body surface area (BSA)]. Gemcitabine was embryotoxic and fetotoxic in rabbits. Daily dosing of gemcitabine to pregnant rabbits resulted in fetotoxicity (decreased fetal viability, reduced litter sizes, and developmental delays) and increased the incidence of fetal malformations (fused pulmonary artery, absence of gall bladder) at doses of 0.1 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.002 times the 1000 mg/m2clinical dose based on BSA).

    8.3 Lactation

    Risk Summary

    There is no information regarding the presence of gemcitabine or its metabolites in human milk, or their effects on the breastfed infant or on milk production. Due to the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants from gemcitabine, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with gemcitabine and for at least one week following the last dose.

    8.6 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

    Pregnancy Testing

    Verify pregnancy status in females of reproductive potential prior to initiating gemcitabine [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

    Contraception

    Gemcitabine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

    Females

    Because of the potential for genotoxicity, advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with gemcitabine and for 6 months after the final dose of gemcitabine.

    Males

    Because of the potential for genotoxicity, advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with gemcitabine and for 3 months after the final dose [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

    Infertility

    Males

    Based on animal studies, gemcitabine may impair fertility in males of reproductive potential [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)]. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible.

    8.4 Pediatric Use

    The safety and effectiveness of gemcitabine for injection have not been established in pediatric patients.

    The safety and pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine were evaluated in a trial in pediatric patients with refractory leukemia. The maximum tolerated dose was 10 mg/m2/min for 360 minutes weekly for three weeks followed by a one-week rest period.

    The safety and activity of gemcitabine for injection were evaluated in a trial of pediatric patients with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (22 patients) and acute myelogenous leukemia (10 patients) at a dose of 10 mg/m2/min administered over 360 minutes weekly for three weeks followed by a one-week rest period. Patients with M1 or M2 bone marrow on Day 28 who did not experience unacceptable toxicity were eligible to receive a maximum of one additional four-week course. Toxicities observed included myelosuppression, febrile neutropenia, increased serum transaminases, nausea, and rash/desquamation. No meaningful clinical activity was observed in this trial.

    8.5 Geriatric Use

    Gemcitabine clearance is decreased in females [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. In single agent studies of gemcitabine for injection, women, especially older women, were more likely not to proceed to a subsequent cycle and to experience Grade 3-4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia [see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.2. 2.3, 2.4)].

    8.8 Gender

    Gemcitabine clearance is affected by gender [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. In single-agent studies of gemcitabine for injection, women, especially older women, were more likely not to proceed to a subsequent cycle and to experience Grade 3/4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.

  • 10 OVERDOSAGE

    There is no known antidote for overdoses of gemcitabine. Myelosuppression, paresthesias, and severe rash were the principal toxicities seen when a single dose as high as 5700 mg/m2was administered by intravenous infusion over 30 minutes every 2 weeks to several patients in a dose-escalation study. In the event of suspected overdose, monitor with appropriate blood counts and provide supportive therapy, as necessary.

  • 11 DESCRIPTION

    Gemcitabine is a nucleoside metabolic inhibitor. Gemcitabine hydrochloride is 2´-deoxy-2´, 2´-difluorocytidine monohydrochloride (β-isomer) with the following structural formula:

    1

    The empirical formula for gemcitabine hydrochloride is C9H11F2N3O4 • HCl. It has a molecular weight of 299.66 g/mol.

    Gemcitabine hydrochloride is soluble in water, slightly soluble in methanol, and practically insoluble in ethanol and polar organic solvents.

    Gemcitabine for injection, USP is a sterile white to off-white lyophilized powder and available as 200 mg and 1 g single-dose vials for intravenous use only. Each 200 mg vial contains 200 mg gemcitabine hydrochloride (expressed as free base), 200 mg mannitol and 12.5 mg sodium acetate. Each 1 g vial contains 1 g gemcitabine hydrochloride (expressed as free base), 1 g mannitol, and 25 mg sodium acetate. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment.

  • 12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

    12.1 Mechanism of Action

    Gemcitabine kills cells undergoing DNA synthesis and blocks the progression of cells through the G1/S-phase boundary. Gemcitabine is metabolized by nucleoside kinases to diphosphate (dFdCDP) and triphosphate (dFdCTP) nucleosides. Gemcitabine diphosphate inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme responsible for catalyzing the reactions that generate deoxynucleoside triphosphates for DNA synthesis, resulting in reductions in deoxynucleotide concentrations, including dCTP. Gemcitabine triphosphate competes with dCTP for incorporation into DNA. The reduction in the intracellular concentration of dCTP by the action of the diphosphate enhances the incorporation of gemcitabine triphosphate into DNA (self-potentiation). After the gemcitabine nucleotide is incorporated into DNA, only one additional nucleotide is added to the growing DNA strands, which eventually results in the initiation of apoptotic cell death.

    12.3 Pharmacokinetics

    The pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine were examined in 353 patients with various solid tumors. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived using data from patients treated for varying durations of therapy given weekly with periodic rest weeks and using both short infusions (<70 minutes) and long infusions (70 to 285 minutes). The total gemcitabine for injection dose varied from 500 mg/m2 to 3600 mg/m2.

    Distribution

    The volume of distribution was increased with infusion length. Volume of distribution of gemcitabine was 50 L/m2following infusions lasting <70 minutes. For long infusions, the volume of distribution rose to 370 L/m2.

    Gemcitabine pharmacokinetics are linear and are described by a 2-compartment model. Population pharmacokinetic analyses of combined single and multiple dose studies showed that the volume of distribution of gemcitabine was significantly influenced by duration of infusion and sex. Gemcitabine plasma protein binding is negligible.

    Elimination

    Metabolism

    The active metabolite, gemcitabine triphosphate, can be extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The half-life of the terminal phase for gemcitabine triphosphate from mononuclear cells ranges from 1.7 to 19.4 hours.

    Excretion

    Gemcitabine disposition was studied in 5 patients who received a single 1000 mg/m2of radiolabeled drug as a 30-minute infusion. Within one week, 92% to 98% of the dose was recovered, almost entirely in the urine. Gemcitabine (<10%) and the inactive uracil metabolite, 2´-deoxy-2´,2´-difluorouridine (dFdU) accounted for 99% of the excreted dose. The metabolite dFdU is also found in plasma.

    Specific Populations

    Geriatric Patients

    Clearance of gemcitabine was affected by age. The lower clearance in geriatric patients results in higher concentrations of gemcitabine for any given dose. Differences in either clearance or volume of distribution based on patient characteristics or the duration of infusion result in changes in half-life and plasma concentrations. Table 15 shows plasma clearance and half-life of gemcitabine following short infusions for typical patients by age and sex.

    Table 15 Gemcitabine Clearance and Half-Life for the "Typical" Patient

    a Half-life for patients receiving a <70 minute infusion.

    Age

    Clearance Men (L/hr/m2)
    Clearance Women (L/hr/m2)
    Half-Lifea Men (min)
    Half-Lifea Women (min)
    29
    92.2
    69.4
    42
    49
    45
    75.7
    57.0
    48
    57
    65
    55.1
    41.5
    61
    73
    79
    40.7
    30.7
    79
    94

    Gemcitabine half-life for short infusions ranged from 42 to 94 minutes and for long infusions varied from 245 to 638 minutes, depending on age and sex, reflecting a greatly increased volume of distribution with longer infusions.

    Male and Female Patients

    Females have lower clearance and longer half-lives than male patients as described in Table 15.

    Patients with Renal Impairment

    No clinical studies have been conducted with gemcitabine in patients with decreased renal function.

    Patients with Hepatic Impairment

    No clinical studies have been conducted with gemcitabine in patients with decreased hepatic function.

    Drug Interaction Studies

    When gemcitabine (1250 mg/m2on Days 1 and 8) and cisplatin (75 mg/m2on Day 1) were administered in patients with NSCLC, the clearance of gemcitabine on Day 1 was 128 L/hr/m2and on Day 8 was 107 L/hr/m2. Data from patients with NSCLC demonstrate that gemcitabine and carboplatin given in combination does not alter the pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine or carboplatin compared to administration of either single agent; however, due to wide confidence intervals and small sample size, interpatient variability may be observed.

    Data from metastatic breast cancer patients shows that gemcitabine has little or no effect on the pharmacokinetics (clearance and half-life) of paclitaxel and paclitaxel has little or no effect on the pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine.

  • 13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

    13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

    Long-term animal studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of gemcitabine for injection have not been conducted. Gemcitabine was mutagenic in an in vitro mouse lymphoma (L5178Y) assay and was clastogenic in an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. Gemcitabine intraperitoneal doses of 0.5 mg/kg/day [about 1/700 the 1000 mg/m2 clinical dose based on body surface area (BSA)] in male mice resulted in moderate to severe hypospermatogenesis, decreased fertility, and decreased implantations. In female mice, fertility was not affected but maternal toxicities were observed at 1.5 mg/kg/day administered intravenously (about 1/200 the 1000 mg/m2 clinical dose based on BSA) and fetotoxicity or embryolethality was observed at 0.25 mg/kg/day administered intravenously (about 1/1300 the 1000 mg/m2clinical dose based on BSA).

  • 14 CLINICAL STUDIES

    14.1 Ovarian Cancer

    The efficacy of gemcitabine for injection was evaluated in a randomized trial (Study 1) conducted in women with advanced ovarian cancer that had relapsed at least 6 months after first-line platinum-based therapy. Patients were randomized to receive either gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle with carboplatin AUC 4 on Day 1 after gemcitabine administration (n=178) or carboplatin AUC 5 on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle (n=178). The major efficacy outcome measure was progression free survival (PFS).

    A total of 356 patients were enrolled. Demographics and baseline characteristics are shown in Table 16.

    Efficacy results are presented in Table 17 and Figure 1. The addition of gemcitabine to carboplatin resulted in statistically significant improvements in PFS and overall response rate. Approximately 75% of patients in each arm received additional chemotherapy for disease progression; 13 of 120 patients in the carboplatin alone arm received gemcitabine for treatment of disease progression. There was no significant difference in overall survival between the treatment arms.

    Table 16 Baseline Demographics and Clinical Characteristics for Study 1

    a    patients on gemcitabine with carboplatin arm and 4 patients on carboplatin arm had no baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status.

    b    patients on gemcitabine with carboplatin arm and 1 patient on carboplatin arm had platinum-free interval <6 months.

    Gemcitabine/Carboplatin
    (N=178)
    Carboplatin
    (N=178)
    Median age, years
    59
    58
    Range
    36 to 78
    21 to 81
    Baseline ECOG performance status 0-1a
    94%
    95%
    Disease Status
    Evaluable
    8%
    3%
    Bidimensionally measurable
    92%
    96%
    Platinum-free intervalb
    6-12 months
    40%
    40%
    >12 months
    59%
    60%
    First-line therapy
    Platinum-taxane combination
    70%
    71%
    Platinum-non-taxane combination
    29%
    28%
    Platinum monotherapy
    1%
    1%
    Table 17 Efficacy Results in Study 1

    a CI=confidence interval

    b Log rank, unadjusted.

    c Chi square.

    d CR=Complete response.

    e PR with PRNM=Partial response with partial response, non-measurable disease.

    f Independently reviewed cohort -gemcitabine/carboplatin (n=121), carboplatin (n=101); independent reviewers unable to measure disease detected by sonography or physical exam.

    Efficacy Parameter
    Gemcitabine/Carboplatin (N=178)
    Carboplatin (N=178)
    Progression-Free Survival
    Median (95% CIa) in months
    8.6 (8.0, 9.7)
    5.8 (5.2, 7.1)
    Hazard Ratio (95% CI)
    0.72 (0.57, 0.90)
    p-valueb
    p=0.0038
    Overall Survival
    Median (95% CI) in months
    18.0 (16.2, 20.3)
    17.3 (15.2, 19.3)
    Hazard Ratio (95% CI)
    0.98 (0.78, 1.24)
    p-valueb
    p=0.8977
    Overall Response Rate by Investigator Review
    47.2%
    30.9%
    p-valuec
    p=0.0016
    CRd
    14.6%
    6.2%
    PR with PRNMe
    32.6%
    24.7%
    Overall Response Ratef by Independent Review
    46.3%
    35.6%
    p-valuec
    p=0.11
    CRd
    9.1%
    4.0%
    PR with PRNMe
    37.2%
    31.7%
    2

    Figure 1: Kaplan-Meier Curves for Progression Free Survival in Study 1.

    14.2 Breast Cancer

    The efficacy of gemcitabine for injection were evaluated in a multinational, randomized, open-label trial (Study 2) conducted in women receiving initial treatment for metastatic breast cancer and who have received prior adjuvant/neoadjuvant anthracycline chemotherapy unless clinically contraindicated. Patients were randomized to receive either gemcitabine 1250 mg/m2on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle with paclitaxel 175 mg/m2administered on Day 1 before gemcitabine administration (n=267) or paclitaxel 175 mg/m2on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle (n=262). The major efficacy outcome measure was time to documented disease progression.

    A total of 529 patients were enrolled. Demographic and baseline characteristics were similar between treatment arms (Table 18).

    Efficacy results are presented in Table 19 and Figure 2. The addition of gemcitabine to paclitaxel resulted in statistically significant improvement in time to documented disease progression and overall response rate compared to paclitaxel alone. There was no significant difference in overall survival.

    Table 18 Baseline Demographics and Clinical Characteristics for Study 2

    a Karnofsky Performance Status

    Gemcitabine/Paclitaxel
    (N=267)
    Paclitaxel
    (N=262)
    Median age (years)
    53
    52
    Range
    26 to 83
    26 to 75
    Metastatic disease
    97%
    97%
    Baseline KPSa ≥90
    70%
    74%
    Number of tumor sites
    1-2
    57%
    59%
    ≥3
    43%
    41%
    Visceral disease
    73%
    73%
    Prior anthracycline
    97%
    96%
    Table 19 Efficacy Results in Study 2

    a These represent reconciliation of investigator and Independent Review Committee assessments according to a predefined algorithm.

    b Based on the ITT population.

    Efficacy Parameter
    Gemcitabine /Paclitaxel
    (N=267)
    Paclitaxel
    (N=262)
    Time to Documented Disease Progressiona
    Median (95% CI) in months
    5.2 (4.2, 5.6)
    2.9 (2.6, 3.7)
    Hazard Ratio (95% CI)
    0.650 (0.524, 0.805)
    p-value
    p<0.0001
    Overall Survivalb
    Median (95% CI) in months
    18.6 (16.5, 20.7)
    15.8 (14.1, 17.3)
    Hazard Ratio (95% CI)
    0.86 (0.71, 1.04)
    p-value
    Not Significant
    Overall Response Rate
    40.8%
    22.1%
    (95% CI)
    (34.9, 46.7)
    (17.1, 27.2)
    p-value
    p<0.0001
    3

    Figure 2: Kaplan-Meier Curves for Time to Documented Disease Progression in Study 2

    14.3 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    The efficacy of gemcitabine for injection was evaluated in two randomized, multicenter trials.

    Study 3: 28-Day Schedule

    A multinational, randomized trial (Study 3) compared gemcitabine with cisplatin to cisplatin alone in the treatment of patients with inoperable Stage IIIA, IIIB, or IV NSCLC who had not received prior chemotherapy. Patients were randomized to receive either gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2on Days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle with cisplatin 100 mg/m2on Day 1 after gemcitabine administration (N=260) or cisplatin 100 mg/m2on Day 1 of each 28-day cycle (N=262). The major efficacy outcome measure was overall survival.

    A total of 522 patients were enrolled. Demographics and baseline characteristics (Table 20) were similar between arms with the exception of histologic subtype of NSCLC, with 48% of patients on the cisplatin arm and 37% of patients on the gemcitabine with cisplatin arm having adenocarcinoma.

    Efficacy results are presented in Table 21 and Figure 3.

    Study 4: 21-Day Schedule

    A randomized (1:1), multicenter trial (Study 4) was conducted in patients with Stage IIIB or IV NSCLC. Patients were randomized to receive either gemcitabine 1250 mg/m2on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle with cisplatin 100 mg/m2on Day 1 after gemcitabine administration or etoposide 100 mg/m2intravenously on Days 1, 2, and 3 with cisplatin 100 mg/m2on Day 1 of each 21 -day cycle. The major efficacy outcome measure was response rate.

    A total of 135 patients were enrolled. Demographics and baseline characteristics are summarized in Table 20.

    Efficacy results are presented in Table 21. There was no significant difference in survival between the two treatment arms. The median survival was 8.7 months for the gemcitabine with cisplatin arm versus 7 months for the etoposide with cisplatin arm. Median time to disease progression for the gemcitabine with cisplatin arm was 5 months compared to 4.1 months on the etoposide with cisplatin arm (Log rank p=0.015, two-sided). The objective response rate for the gemcitabine with cisplatin arm was 33% compared to 14% on the etoposide with cisplatin arm (Fisher's Exact p=0.01, two-sided).

    Table 20 Baseline Demographics and Clinical Characteristics for Studies 3 and 4

    a: N/A Not applicable.

    b: Karnofsky Performance Status.

    Trial
    28-day Schedule (Study 3)
    21-day Schedule (Study 4)
    Gemcitabine /Cisplatin (N=260)
    Cisplatin
    (N=262)
    Gemcitabine /Cisplatin (N=69)
    Etoposide/Cisplatin
    (N=66)
    Male
    70%
    71%
    93%
    92%
    Median age, years
    62
    63
    58
    60
    Range
    36 to 88
    35 to 79
    33 to 76
    35 to 75
    Stage IIIA
    7%
    7%
    N/Aa
    N/Aa
    Stage IIIB
    26%
    23%
    48%
    52%
    Stage IV
    67%
    70%
    52%
    49%
    Baseline KPSb 70 to 80
    41%
    44%
    45%
    52%
    Baseline KPSb 90 to 100
    57%
    55%
    55%
    49%
    Table 21 Efficacy Results for Studies 3 and 4 $TableFotter a CI=confidence intervals.b p-value two-sided Fisher's Exact test for difference in binomial proportions; log rank test for time-to-event analyses. $EndTableFotter
    Trial
    28-day Schedule (Study 3)
    21-day Schedule (Study 4)
    Efficacy Parameter
    Gemcitabine /Cisplatin (N=260)
    Cisplatin (N=262)
    Gemcitabine / Cisplatin (N=69)
    Etoposide/Cisplatin (N=66)
    Survival
    Median (95% CIa) in months
    9.0 (8.2, 11.0)
    7.6 (6.6, 8.8)
    8.7 (7.8, 10.1)
    7.0 (6.0, 9.7)
    p-valuef
    p=0.008
    p=0.18
    Time to Disease Progression
    Median (95% CIa) in months
    5.2 (4.2, 5.7)
    3.7 (3.0, 4.3)
    5.0 (4.2, 6.4)
    4.1 (2.4, 4.5)
    p-valueb
    p=0.009
    p=0.05
    Tumor Response
    26%
    10%
    33%
    14%
    p-valueb
    p<0.0001
    p=0.01
    Figure

    Figure 3: Kaplan-Meier Curves for Overall Survival in Study 3

    14.4 Pancreatic Cancer

    The efficacy of gemcitabine for injection was evaluated in two trials (Studies 5 and 6), a randomized, single-blind, two-arm, active-controlled trial (Study 5) conducted in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer who had received no prior chemotherapy and in a single-arm, open-label, multicenter trial (Study 6) conducted in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer previously treated with fluorouracil or a fluorouracil-containing regimen. In Study 5, patients were randomized to receive either gemcitabine for injection 1000 mg/m2intravenously over 30 minutes once weekly for 7 weeks followed by a one-week rest, then once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks every 28-days in subsequent cycles (n=63) or fluorouracil 600 mg/m2intravenously over 30 minutes once weekly (n=63). In Study 6, all patients received gemcitabine for injection 1000 mg/m2intravenously over 30 minutes once weekly for 7 weeks followed by a one-week rest, then once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks every 28-days in subsequent cycles.

    The major efficacy outcome measure in both trials was "clinical benefit response". A patient was considered to have had a clinical benefit response if either of the following occurred:

    The patient achieved a ≥50% reduction in pain intensity (Memorial Pain Assessment Card) or analgesic consumption, or a 20-point or greater improvement in performance status (Karnofsky Performance Status) for a period of at least 4 consecutive weeks, without showing any sustained worsening in any of the other parameters. Sustained worsening was defined as 4 consecutive weeks with either any increase in pain intensity or analgesic consumption or a 20-point decrease in performance status occurring during the first 12 weeks of therapy.

    OR

    The patient was stable on all of the aforementioned parameters and showed a marked, sustained weight gain (≥7% increase maintained for ≥4 weeks) not due to fluid accumulation.

    Study 5 enrolled 126 patients. Demographics and baseline characteristics were similar between the arms (Table 22).

    The efficacy results are shown in Table 23 and Figure 4. Patients treated with gemcitabine for injection had statistically significant increases in clinical benefit response, survival, and time to disease progression compared to those randomized to receive fluorouracil. No confirmed objective tumor responses were observed in either treatment arm.

    Table 22 Baseline Demographics and Clinical Characteristics for Study 5

    a Karnofsky Performance Status.

    Gemcitabine
    (N=63)
    Fluorouracil
    (N=63)
    Male
    54%
    54%
    Median age, years
    62
    61
    Range
    37 to 79
    36 to 77
    Stage IV disease
    71%
    76%
    Baseline KPSa ≤70
    70%
    68%
    Table 23 Efficacy Results in Study 5

    a     p-value for clinical benefit response calculated using the two-sided test for difference in binomial proportions. All other p-values are calculated using log rank test.

    Efficacy Parameter
    Gemcitabine
    (N=63)
    Fluorouracil
    (N=63)
    Clinical Benefit Response
    p-valuea
    22.2%
    4.8%
    p=0.004
    Overall Survival
    Median (95% CI) in months
    5.7 (4.7, 6.9)
    4.2 (3.1, 5.1)
    p-valuea
    p=0.0009
    Time to Disease Progression
    Median (95% CI) in months
    2.1 (1.9, 3.4)
    0.9 (0.9, 1.1)
    p-valuea
    p=0.0013
    5

    Figure 4: Kaplan-Meier Survival Curve

  • 15 REFERENCES

    • OSHA Hazardous Drugs." OSHA . http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/hazardousdrugs/index.html
  • 16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

    Gemcitabine for injection, USP, is a sterile white to off-white lyophilized powder available in single-dose vials individually packaged in a carton containing 200 mg or 1 g gemcitabine:

     200 mg vial: NDC 69097-313-37.

    1 g vial: NDC 69097-314-42.

    Gemcitabine is a cytotoxic drug. Follow applicable special handling and disposal procedures.1Store at controlled room temperature 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

  • 17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

    Myelosuppression

    Advise patients of the risks of myelosuppression. Instruct patients to immediately contact their healthcare provider should any signs or symptoms of infection, including fever, or if bleeding or signs of anemia, occur [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

    Pulmonary Toxicity

    Advise patients of the risks of pulmonary toxicity, including respiratory failure and death. Instruct patients to immediately contact their healthcare provider for development of shortness of breath, wheezing, or cough [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

    Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome and Renal Failure

    Advise patients of the risks of hemolytic uremic syndrome and associated renal failure. Instruct patients to immediately contact their healthcare provider for changes in the color or volume of urine output or for increased bruising or bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

    Hepatic Toxicity

    Advise patients of the risks of hepatic toxicity including liver failure and death. Instruct patients to immediately contact their healthcare provider for signs of jaundice or for pain/tenderness in the right upper abdominal quadrant [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

    Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

    Advise females and males of reproductive potential that gemcitabine can cause fetal harm. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with gemcitabine and for 6 months after the final dose. Advise male patients with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with gemcitabine and for 3 months after the final dose [see Warnings and Precaution (5.6), Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3)].

    Lactation

    Advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with gemcitabine and for at least one week after the last dose [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].

    Infertility

    Advise males of reproductive potential of the potential for reduced fertility with gemcitabine [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

    Manufactured By:

    Cipla Ltd.,

    Verna Goa, INDIA.

    Manufactured for:

    Cipla USA, Inc.

    1560 Sawgrass Corporate Parkway,

    Suite 130, Sunrise, FL 33323

    Revised: 6/2019

  • PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL

    NDC 69097-313-37              Rx Only

         Gemcitabine

    for Injection, USP

         200 mg/vial

         (lyophilized)

    DO NOT REFRIGERATE

    For Intravenous Use Only

    Sterile Single-Dose Vial

                Cipla

    cipla-carton-200mg

    cipla-carton-200mg

     NDC 69097-314-42              Rx Only

          Gemcitabine

    for Injection, USP

             1 g/ vial

         (lyophilized)

    DO NOT REFRIGERATE

    For Intravenous Use Only

    Sterile Single-Dose Vial

                 Cipla

    cipla-carton-1g

    cipla-carton-1g

  • INGREDIENTS AND APPEARANCE
    GEMCITABINE HYDROCHLORIDE 
    gemcitabine hydrochloride injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution
    Product Information
    Product TypeHUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUGItem Code (Source)NDC:69097-313
    Route of AdministrationINTRAVENOUS
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
    GEMCITABINE HYDROCHLORIDE (UNII: U347PV74IL) (GEMCITABINE - UNII:B76N6SBZ8R) GEMCITABINE200 mg  in 5 mL
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient NameStrength
    MANNITOL (UNII: 3OWL53L36A) 200 mg  in 5 mL
    SODIUM HYDROXIDE (UNII: 55X04QC32I)  
    HYDROCHLORIC ACID (UNII: QTT17582CB)  
    Packaging
    #Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    1NDC:69097-313-371 in 1 CARTON07/25/2011
    15 mL in 1 VIAL, SINGLE-USE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product
    Marketing Information
    Marketing CategoryApplication Number or Monograph CitationMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    ANDAANDA07875907/25/2011
    GEMCITABINE HYDROCHLORIDE 
    gemcitabine hydrochloride injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution
    Product Information
    Product TypeHUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUGItem Code (Source)NDC:69097-314
    Route of AdministrationINTRAVENOUS
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
    GEMCITABINE HYDROCHLORIDE (UNII: U347PV74IL) (GEMCITABINE - UNII:B76N6SBZ8R) GEMCITABINE1 g  in 25 mL
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient NameStrength
    MANNITOL (UNII: 3OWL53L36A) 1 g  in 25 mL
    SODIUM ACETATE (UNII: 4550K0SC9B) 62.5 g  in 25 mL
    SODIUM HYDROXIDE (UNII: 55X04QC32I)  
    HYDROCHLORIC ACID (UNII: QTT17582CB)  
    Packaging
    #Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    1NDC:69097-314-421 in 1 CARTON07/25/2011
    125 mL in 1 VIAL, SINGLE-USE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product
    Marketing Information
    Marketing CategoryApplication Number or Monograph CitationMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
    ANDAANDA07875907/25/2011
    Labeler - Cipla USA Inc. (078719707)
    Registrant - Cipla USA Inc. (078719707)