Label: MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL- mycophenolate mofetil capsule
MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL- mycophenolate mofetil tablet, film coated

  • NDC Code(s): 0378-2250-01, 0378-2250-05, 0378-4472-01, 0378-4472-05
  • Packager: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Category: HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL
  • DEA Schedule: None
  • Marketing Status: Abbreviated New Drug Application

Drug Label Information

Updated September 20, 2018

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  • BOXED WARNING(What is this?)

    WARNING: EMBRYOFETAL TOXICITY, MALIGNANCIES and SERIOUS INFECTIONS

    Use during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of first trimester pregnancy loss and congenital malformations. Avoid if safer treatment options are available. Females of reproductive potential must be counseled regarding pregnancy prevention and planning [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Use in Special Populations (8.1, 8.3)].
    Increased risk of development of lymphoma and other malignancies, particularly of the skin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
    Increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, fungal and protozoal infections, including opportunistic infections and viral reactivation of hepatitis B and C, which may lead to hospitalizations and fatal outcomes [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
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  • HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
    These highlights do not include all the information needed to use MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL CAPSULES AND MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL TABLETS safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL CAPSULES AND MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL TABLETS.
    MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL capsules, for oral use
    MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL tablets, for oral use
    Initial U.S. Approval: 1995

    WARNING: EMBRYOFETAL TOXICITY, MALIGNANCIES AND SERIOUS INFECTIONS

    See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning

    Use during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of first trimester pregnancy loss and congenital malformations. Avoid if safer treatment options are available. Females of reproductive potential must be counseled regarding pregnancy prevention and planning [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
    Increased risk of development of lymphoma and other malignancies, particularly of the skin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
    Increased susceptibility to infections, including opportunistic infections and severe infections with fatal outcomes [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

    RECENT MAJOR CHANGES

    Warnings and Precautions (5)     8/2018

    INDICATIONS AND USAGE

    Mycophenolate mofetil is an antimetabolite immunosuppressant indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in recipients of allogeneic kidney, heart or liver transplants, and should be used in combination with other immunosuppressants. (1)

    DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    ADULTS

    DOSING

    Kidney Transplant

    1 g twice daily orally (2.2)

    Heart Transplant

    1.5 g twice daily orally (2.3)

    Liver Transplant

    1.5 g twice daily orally (2.4)

    PEDIATRICS

    Kidney Transplant

    600 mg/m2 orally twice daily, up

    to maximum of 2 g daily (2.2)

    Reduce or interrupt dosing in the event of neutropenia. ( 2.5)
    See full prescribing information (FPI) for: adjustments for renal impairment and neutropenia ( 2.5)

    DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

    Capsules: 250 mg
    Tablets: 500 mg

    CONTRAINDICATIONS

    Hypersensitivity to mycophenolate mofetil, MPA acid or any component of the drug product ( 4)

    WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

    Blood Dyscrasias (Neutropenia, Red Blood Cell Aplasia): Monitor with blood tests; consider treatment interruption or dose reduction. ( 5.4)
    Gastrointestinal Complications: Monitor for complications such as bleeding, ulceration and perforations, particularly in patients with underlying gastrointestinal disorders. ( 5.5)
    Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl-Transferase Deficiency: Avoid use of mycophenolate mofetil. ( 5.6)
    Immunizations: Avoid live attenuated vaccines. ( 5.7)
    Blood Donation: Avoid during therapy and for 6 weeks thereafter. ( 5.10)
    Semen Donation: Avoid during therapy and for 90 days thereafter. ( 5.11)

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    The most common adverse reactions in clinical trials (20% or greater) include diarrhea, leukopenia, infection, vomiting, and there is evidence of a higher frequency of certain types of infections e.g., opportunistic infection. (6.1)

    To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Mylan at 1-877-446-3679 (1-877-4-INFO-RX) or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    See FPI for drugs that may interfere with systemic exposure and reduce mycophenolate mofetil efficacy: antacids with magnesium or aluminum hydroxide, proton pump inhibitors, drugs that interfere with enterohepatic recirculation, telmisartan, calcium-free phosphate binders). ( 7.1)
    Mycophenolate mofetil may reduce effectiveness of oral contraceptives. Use of additional barrier contraceptive methods is recommended. (7.2)
    See FPI for other important drug interactions. ( 7)

    USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

    Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness in allogenic heart or liver transplants has not been established ( 8.4)
    Male Patients: Sexually active male patients and/or their female partners are recommended to use effective contraception during treatment of the male patient and for at least 90 days after cessation of treatment ( 8.3)

    See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION and Medication Guide.

    Revised: 9/2018

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  • FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS*

    WARNING: EMBRYOFETAL TOXICITY, MALIGNANCIES and SERIOUS INFECTIONS

    1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

    2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    2.1 Important Administration Instructions

    2.2 Dosing for Kidney Transplant Patients: Adults and Pediatrics

    2.3 Dosing for Heart Transplant Patients: Adults

    2.4 Dosing for Liver Transplant Patients: Adults

    2.5 Dosing Adjustments: Patients with Renal Impairment, Neutropenia

    3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

    4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

    5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

    5.1 Embryofetal Toxicity

    5.2 Lymphoma and Other Malignancies

    5.3 Serious Infections

    5.4 Blood Dyscrasias: Neutropenia and Pure Red Cell Aplasia (PRCA)

    5.5 Gastrointestinal Complications

    5.6 Patients with Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl-Transferase Deficiency (HGPRT)

    5.7 Immunizations

    5.10 Blood Donation

    5.11 Semen Donation

    6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

    6.1 Clinical Studies Experience

    6.2 Postmarketing Experience

    7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

    7.1 Effect of Other Drugs on Mycophenolate Mofetil

    7.2 Effect of Mycophenolate Mofetil on Other Drugs

    8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

    8.1 Pregnancy

    8.2 Lactation

    8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

    8.4 Pediatric Use

    8.5 Geriatric Use

    8.6 Patients with Renal Impairment

    8.7 Patients with Hepatic Impairment

    10 OVERDOSAGE

    11 DESCRIPTION

    12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

    12.1 Mechanism of Action

    12.2 Pharmacodynamics

    12.3 Pharmacokinetics

    13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

    13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

    14 CLINICAL STUDIES

    14.1 Kidney Transplantation

    14.2 Heart Transplantation

    14.3 Liver Transplantation

    15 REFERENCES

    16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

    16.1 Handling and Disposal

    16.2 Mycophenolate Mofetil Capsules 250 mg

    16.3 Mycophenolate Mofetil Tablets 500 mg

    17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

    17.1 Embryofetal Toxicity

    17.2 Development of Lymphoma and Other Malignancies

    17.3 Increased Risk of Serious Infections

    17.4 Blood Dyscrasias

    17.5 Gastrointestinal Tract Complications

    17.6 Immunizations

    17.7 Administration Instructions

    17.8 Blood Donation

    17.9 Semen Donation

    *
    Sections or subsections omitted from the full prescribing information are not listed.
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  • 1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection, in recipients of allogeneic kidney [see Clinical Studies (14.1)], heart [see Clinical Studies (14.2)] or liver transplants [see Clinical Studies (14.3)], in combination with other immunosuppressants.

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  • 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    2.1 Important Administration Instructions

    Mycophenolate Mofetil Capsules and Tablets

    Mycophenolate mofetil oral dosage forms (capsules or tablets) should not be used interchangeably with mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets without supervision of a physician with experience in immunosuppressive therapy because the rates of absorption following the administration of mycophenolate mofetil oral dosage forms and mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets are not equivalent.

    Mycophenolate mofetil tablets should not be crushed and mycophenolate mofetil capsules should not be opened or crushed. Patients should avoid inhalation or contact of the skin or mucous membranes with the powder contained in mycophenolate mofetil capsules. If such contact occurs, they must wash the area of contact thoroughly with soap and water. In case of ocular contact, rinse eyes with plain water.

    The initial oral dose of mycophenolate mofetil should be given as soon as possible following kidney, heart or liver transplant. It is recommended that mycophenolate mofetil be administered on an empty stomach. In stable transplant patients, however, mycophenolate mofetil may be administered with food if necessary [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    Patients should be instructed to take a missed dose as soon as they remember, except if it is closer than 2 hours to the next scheduled dose; in this case, they should continue to take mycophenolate mofetil at the usual times.

    2.2 Dosing for Kidney Transplant Patients: Adults and Pediatrics

    Adults

    The recommended dose for adult kidney transplant patients is 1 g orally twice daily (daily dose of 2 g).

    Pediatrics (3 months and older)

    Pediatric dosing is based on body surface area (BSA). The recommended dose of mycophenolate mofetil oral suspension for pediatric kidney transplant patients 3 months and older is 600 mg/m2, administered twice daily (maximum daily dose of 2 g or 10 mL of the oral suspension). Pediatric patients with BSA ≥ 1.25 m2 may be dosed with capsules or tablets as follows:

    Table 1. Pediatric Dosing Using Capsules or Tablets for Pediatric Kidney Transplant

    Body Surface Area

    Dosing

    1.25 m2 to < 1.5 m2

    Mycophenolate mofetil capsules 750 mg twice daily (1.5 g daily dose)

    ≥ 1.5 m2

    Mycophenolate mofetil capsules or tablets 1 g twice daily (2 g daily dose)

    2.3 Dosing for Heart Transplant Patients: Adults

    The recommended dose of mycophenolate mofetil for adult heart transplant patients is 1.5 g orally twice daily (daily dose of 3 g).

    2.4 Dosing for Liver Transplant Patients: Adults

    The recommended dose of mycophenolate mofetil for adult liver transplant patients is 1.5 g administered orally twice daily (daily dose of 3 g).

    2.5 Dosing Adjustments: Patients with Renal Impairment, Neutropenia

    Renal Impairment

    No dose adjustments are needed in kidney transplant patients with delayed graft function postoperatively [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. In kidney transplant patients with severe chronic impairment of the graft (GFR < 25 mL/min/1.73 m2), do not administer doses of mycophenolate mofetil greater than 1 g twice a day. These patients should be carefully monitored [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    Neutropenia

    If neutropenia develops (ANC < 1.3 x 103/µL), dosing with mycophenolate mofetil should be interrupted or reduced, appropriate diagnostic tests performed, and the patient managed appropriately [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

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  • 3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

    Mycophenolate Mofetil Capsules, USP are available containing 250 mg of mycophenolate mofetil, USP.

    The 250 mg capsules are hard-shell gelatin capsules with a caramel opaque cap and a lavender opaque body filled with white to off-white powder. The capsules are axially printed with MYLAN over 2250 in black ink on both the cap and body.

    Mycophenolate Mofetil Tablets, USP are available containing 500 mg of mycophenolate mofetil, USP.

    The 500 mg tablets are light pink, film-coated, oval, unscored tablets debossed with MYLAN on one side of the tablet and 472 on the other side.
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  • 4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

    Allergic reactions to mycophenolate mofetil have been observed; therefore, mycophenolate mofetil is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), mycophenolic acid (MPA) or any component of the drug product.

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  • 5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

    5.1 Embryofetal Toxicity

    Use of MMF during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of first trimester pregnancy loss and an increased risk of congenital malformations, especially external ear and other facial abnormalities including cleft lip and palate, and anomalies of the distal limbs, heart, esophagus, kidney and nervous system. Females of reproductive potential must be made aware of these risks and must be counseled regarding pregnancy prevention and planning. Avoid use of MMF during pregnancy if safer treatment options are available [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3)].

    5.2 Lymphoma and Other Malignancies

    Patients receiving immunosuppressants, including mycophenolate mofetil, are at increased risk of developing lymphomas and other malignancies, particularly of the skin [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].The risk appears to be related to the intensity and duration of immunosuppression rather than to the use of any specific agent. For patients with increased risk for skin cancer, exposure to sunlight and UV light should be limited by wearing protective clothing and using a sunscreen with a high protection factor.

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) developed in 0.4% to 1% of patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil (2 g or 3 g) with other immunosuppressive agents in controlled clinical trials of kidney, heart and liver transplant patients [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. In pediatric patients, no other malignancies besides PTLD were observed in clinical trials [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

    5.3 Serious Infections

    Patients receiving immunosuppressants, including mycophenolate mofetil, are at increased risk of developing bacterial, fungal, protozoal and new or reactivated viral infections, including opportunistic infections. The risk increases with the total immunosuppressive load. These infections may lead to serious outcomes, including hospitalizations and death [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), (6.2)].

    Serious viral infections reported include:

    Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN), especially due to BK virus infection
    JC virus-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), and
    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections: CMV seronegative transplant patients who receive an organ from a CMV seropositive donor are at highest risk of CMV viremia and CMV disease.
    Viral reactivation in patients infected with Hepatitis B and C

    Consider reducing immunosuppression in patients who develop new infections or reactivate viral infections, weighing the risk that reduced immunosuppression represents to the functioning allograft.

    PVAN, especially due to BK virus infection, is associated with serious outcomes, including deteriorating renal function and renal graft loss [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].Patient monitoring may help detect patients at risk for PVAN.

    PML, which is sometimes fatal, commonly presents with hemiparesis, apathy, confusion, cognitive deficiencies, and ataxia [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. In immunosuppressed patients, physicians should consider PML in the differential diagnosis in patients reporting neurological symptoms.

    The risk of CMV viremia and CMV disease is highest among transplant recipients seronegative for CMV at time of transplant who receive a graft from a CMV seropositive donor. Therapeutic approaches to limiting CMV disease exist and should be routinely provided. Patient monitoring may help detect patients at risk for CMV disease.

    Viral reactivation has been reported in patients infected with HBV or HCV. Monitoring infected patients for clinical and laboratory signs of active HBV or HCV infection is recommended.

    5.4 Blood Dyscrasias: Neutropenia and Pure Red Cell Aplasia (PRCA)

    Severe neutropenia [absolute neutrophil count (ANC) < 0.5 x 103/µL] developed in transplant patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil 3 g daily [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].Patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil should be monitored for neutropenia. Neutropenia has been observed most frequently in the period from 31 to 180 days post-transplant in patients treated for prevention of kidney, heart and liver rejection. The development of neutropenia may be related to mycophenolate mofetil itself, concomitant medications, viral infections, or a combination of these causes. If neutropenia develops (ANC < 1.3 x 103/µL), dosing with mycophenolate mofetil should be interrupted or the dose reduced, appropriate diagnostic tests performed, and the patient managed appropriately [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].

    Patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil should be instructed to report immediately any evidence of infection, unexpected bruising, bleeding or any other manifestation of bone marrow depression.

    Consider monitoring with complete blood counts weekly for the first month, twice monthly for the second and third months, and monthly for the remainder of the first year.

    Cases of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) have been reported in patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil in combination with other immunosuppressive agents. In some cases, PRCA was found to be reversible with dose reduction or cessation of mycophenolate mofetil therapy. In transplant patients, however, reduced immunosuppression may place the graft at risk.

    5.5 Gastrointestinal Complications

    Gastrointestinal bleeding requiring hospitalization, ulceration and perforations were observed in clinical trials. Physicians should be aware of these serious adverse effects particularly when administering mycophenolate mofetil to patients with a gastrointestinal disease.

    5.6 Patients with Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl-Transferase Deficiency (HGPRT)

    Mycophenolate mofetil is an inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitor; therefore it should be avoided in patients with hereditary deficiencies of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HGPRT) such as Lesch-Nyhan and Kelley-Seegmiller syndromes because it may cause an exacerbation of disease symptoms characterized by the overproduction and accumulation of uric acid leading to symptoms associated with gout such as acute arthritis, tophi, nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis and renal disease including renal failure.

    5.7 Immunizations

    During treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, the use of live attenuated vaccines should be avoided and patients should be advised that vaccinations may be less effective. Advise patients to discuss with the physician before seeking any immunizations.

    5.10 Blood Donation

    Patients should not donate blood during therapy and for at least 6 weeks following discontinuation of mycophenolate mofetil because their blood or blood products might be administered to a female of reproductive potential or a pregnant woman.

    5.11 Semen Donation

    Based on animal data, men should not donate semen during therapy and for 90 days following discontinuation of mycophenolate mofetil [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].

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  • 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

    The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the label:

    Embryofetal Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
    Lymphomas and Other Malignancies [see Warnings and Precautions 5.2)]
    Serious Infections [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
    Blood Dyscrasias: Neutropenia, Pure Red Cell Aplasia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
    Gastrointestinal Complications [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]

    6.1 Clinical Studies Experience

    Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

    The data described below primarily derive from five randomized, active-controlled double-blind 12-month trials of mycophenolate mofetil in de novo kidney (3) heart (1) and liver (1) transplant patients [see Clinical Studies (14.1, 14.2 and 14.3)].

    Mycophenolate Mofetil Oral

    The incidence of adverse reactions for mycophenolate mofetil was determined in five randomized, comparative, double-blind trials in the prevention of rejection in kidney, heart and liver transplant patients (two active- and one placebo-controlled trials, one active-controlled trial, and one active-controlled trial, respectively) [see Clinical Studies (14.1, 14.2 and 14.3)].

    The three de novo kidney studies with 12-month duration compared two dose levels of oral mycophenolate mofetil (1 g twice daily and 1.5 g twice daily) with azathioprine (2 studies) or placebo (1 study) when administered in combination with cyclosporine (Sandimmune®) and corticosteroids to prevent acute rejection episodes. One study also included anti-thymocyte globulin (ATGAM®) induction therapy.

    In the de novo heart transplantation study with 12-month duration, patients received mycophenolate mofetil 1.5 g twice daily (n = 289) or azathioprine 1.5 to 3 mg/kg/day (n = 289), in combination with cyclosporine (Sandimmune® or Neoral®) and corticosteroids as maintenance immunosuppressive therapy.

    In the de novo liver transplantation study with 12-month duration, patients received mycophenolate mofetil 1 g twice daily intravenously for up to 14 days followed by mycophenolate mofetil 1.5 g twice daily orally or azathioprine 1 to 2 mg/kg/day intravenously followed by azathioprine 1 to 2 mg/kg/day orally, in combination with cyclosporine (Neoral®) and corticosteroids as maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. The total number of patients enrolled was 565.

    Approximately 53% of the kidney transplant patients, 65% of the heart transplant patients, and 48% of the liver transplant patients were treated for more than 1 year. Adverse reactions reported in ≥ 20% of patients in the mycophenolate mofetil treatment groups are presented below. The safety data of three kidney transplantation studies are pooled together.

    Table 3. Adverse Reactions in Controlled Studies of De Novo Kidney, Heart or Liver Transplantation (Reported in ≥ 20% of Patients in the Mycophenolate Mofetil Group)

     

    Kidney Studies

    Heart Study

    Liver Study

    Mycophenolate
    Mofetil
    2 g/day

    Mycophenolate
    Mofetil
    3 g/day

    Azathioprine
    1 to 2
    mg/kg/day or
    100 to 150
    mg/day

    Mycophenolate
    Mofetil
    3 g/day

    Azathioprine
    1.5 to 3
    mg/kg/day

    Mycophenolate
    Mofetil
    3 g/day

    Azathioprine
    1 to 2
    mg/kg/day

     

    (n = 336)

    (n = 330)

    (n = 326)

    (n = 289)

    (n = 289)

    (n = 277)

    (n = 287)

     

    %

    %

    %

    %

    %

    %

    %

    Body as a Whole

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

       Infection

    18.2

    20.9

    19.9

    25.6

    19.4

    27.1

    25.1

       Sepsis

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    27.4

    26.5

       Ascites

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    24.2

    22.6

    Hematologic and Lymphatic

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

       Anemia

    25.6

    25.8

    23.6

    42.9

    43.9

    43.0

    53.0

       Leukopenia

    23.2

    34.5

    24.8

    30.4

    39.1

    45.8

    39.0

       Thrombocytopenia

    -

    -

    -

    23.5

    27.0

    38.3

    42.2

       Leukocytosis

    -

    -

    -

    40.5

    35.6

    22.4

    21.3

    Urogenital

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

       Urinary tract infection

    37.2

    37.0

    33.7

    -

    -

    -

    -

    Cardiovascular

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

       Hypertension

    32.4

    28.2

    32.2

    77.5

    72.3

    62.1

    59.6

       Hypotension

    -

    -

    -

    32.5

    36.0

    -

    -

       Tachycardia

    -

    -

    -

    20.1

    18.0

    22.0

    15.7

    Metabolic and Nutritional

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

       Peripheral edema

    28.6

    27.0

    28.2

    64.0

    53.3

    48.4

    47.7

       Hypercholesterolemia

    -

    -

    -

    41.2

    38.4

    -

    -

       Edema

    -

    -

    -

    26.6

    25.6

    28.2

    28.2

       Hypokalemia

    -

    -

    -

    31.8

    25.6

    37.2

    41.1

       Hyperkalemia

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    22.0

    23.7

       Hyperglycemia

    -

    -

    -

    46.7

    52.6

    43.7

    48.8

       Creatinine increased

    -

    -

    -

    39.4

    36.0

    -

    -

       BUN increased

    -

    -

    -

    34.6

    32.5

    -

    -

       Lactic dehydrogenase increased

    -

    -

    -

    23.2

    17.0

    -

    -

       Hypomagnesemia

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    39.0

    37.6

       Hypocalcemia

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    30.0

    30.0

    Digestive

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

       Diarrhea

    31.0

    36.1

    20.9

    45.3

    34.3

    51.3

    49.8

       Constipation

    22.9

    18.5

    22.4

    41.2

    37.7

    37.9

    38.3

       Nausea

    19.9

    23.6

    24.5

    54.0

    54.3

    54.5

    51.2

       Dyspepsia

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    22.4

    20.9

       Vomiting

    -

    -

    -

    33.9

    28.4

    32.9

    33.4

       Anorexia

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    25.3

    17.1

       Liver function tests abnormal

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    24.9

    19.2

    Respiratory

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

       Infection

    22.0

    23.9

    19.6

    37.0

    35.3

    -

    -

       Dyspnea

    -

    -

    -

    36.7

    36.3

    31.0

    30.3

       Cough increased

    -

    -

    -

    31.1

    25.6

    -

    -

       Sinusitis

    -

    -

    -

    26.0

    19.0

    -

    -

       Pleural effusion

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    34.3

    35.9

    Skin and Appendages

     

     

     

     

     

     

      

       Rash

    -

    -

    -

    22.1

    18.0

    -

    -

    Nervous System

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

       Tremor

    -

    -

    -

    24.2

    23.9

    33.9

    35.5

       Insomnia

    -

    -

    -

    40.8

    37.7

    52.3

    47.0

       Dizziness

    -

    -

    -

    28.7

    27.7

    -

    -

       Anxiety

    -

    -

    -

    28.4

    23.9

    -

    -

       Paresthesia

    -

    -

    -

    20.8

    18.0

    -

    -

    In the three de novo kidney studies, patients receiving 2 g/day of mycophenolate mofetil had an overall better safety profile than did patients receiving 3 g/day of mycophenolate mofetil.

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) developed in 0.4% to 1% of patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil (2 g or 3 g daily) with other immunosuppressive agents in controlled clinical trials of kidney, heart and liver transplant patients followed for at least 1 year [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].Non-melanoma skin carcinomas occurred in 1.6% to 4.2% of patients, other types of malignancy in 0.7% to 2.1% of patients. Three-year safety data in kidney and heart transplant patients did not reveal any unexpected changes in incidence of malignancy compared to the 1-year data. In pediatric patients, PTLD was observed in 1.35% (2/148) by 12 months post-transplant.

    Severe neutropenia (ANC < 0.5 x 103/µL) developed in up to 2.0% of kidney transplant patients, up to 2.8% of heart transplant patients and up to 3.6% of liver transplant patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil 3 g daily [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Dosage and Administration (2.5)].

    Table 4 shows the incidence of opportunistic infections that occurred in the kidney, heart, and liver transplant populations in the azathioprine-controlled prevention trials:

    Table 4. Opportunistic Viral and Fungal Infections in Controlled Studies of De Novo Kidney, Heart or Liver Transplantation

     

    Kidney Studies

    Heart Study

    Liver Study

    Mycophenolate
    Mofetil
    2 g/day

    Mycophenolate
    Mofetil
    3 g/day

    Azathioprine
    1 to 2 mg/kg/day
    or 100 to 150
    mg/day

    Mycophenolate
    Mofetil
    3 g/day

    Azathioprine
    1.5 to 3
    mg/kg/day

    Mycophenolate
    Mofetil
    3 g/day

    Azathioprine
    1 to 2
    mg/kg/day

    (n = 336)

    (n = 330)

    (n = 326)

    (n = 289)

    (n = 289)

    (n = 277)

    (n = 287)

    %

    %

    %

    %

    %

    %

    %

    Herpes simplex

    16.7

    20.0

    19.0

    20.8

    14.5

    10.1

    5.9

    Cytomegalovirus

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    -Viremia/syndrome

    13.4

    12.4

    13.8

    12.1

    10.0

    14.1

    12.2

    - Tissue invasive disease

    8.3

    11.5

    6.1

    11.4

    8.7

    5.8

    8.0

    Herpes zoster

    6.0

    7.6

    5.8

    10.7

    5.9

    4.3

    4.9

    - Cutaneous disease

    6.0

    7.3

    5.5

    10.0

    5.5

    4.3

    4.9

    Candida

    17.0

    17.3

    18.1

    18.7

    17.6

    22.4

    24.4

    - Mucocutaneous

    15.5

    16.4

    15.3

    18.0

    17.3

    18.4

    17.4

    The following other opportunistic infections occurred with an incidence of less than 4% in mycophenolate mofetil patients in the above azathioprine-controlled studies: Herpes zoster visceral disease; Candida urinary tract infection, fungemia/disseminated disease and tissue invasive disease; Cryptococcosis; Aspergillus/Mucor; Pneumocystis jirovecii.

    In patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil (2 g or 3 g) in controlled studies for prevention of kidney, heart or liver rejection, fatal infection/sepsis occurred in approximately 2% of kidney and heart patients and in 5% of liver patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

    The following adverse reactions were reported with 3% to < 20% incidence in kidney, heart, and liver transplant patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil, in combination with cyclosporine and corticosteroids.

    Table 5. Adverse Reactions Reported in 3% to < 20% of Patients Treated with Mycophenolate Mofetil in Combination with Cyclosporine and Corticosteroids

    Body System

    Body as a

    Whole

    Abscess, cellulitis, chills occurring with fever, malaise, peritonitis

    Hematologic and

    Lymphatic

    coagulation disorder, ecchymosis, pancytopenia, petechia, polycythemia, prothrombin time increased, thromboplastin time increased

    Urogenital

    acute kidney failure, albuminuria, dysuria, hematuria, kidney failure, kidney tubular necrosis, pain, pyelonephritis, scrotal edema

    Cardiovascular

    angina pectoris, arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, bradycardia, congestive heart failure, extrasystole, heart failure, hypotension, palpitation, pericardial effusion, pulmonary hypertension, supraventricular tachycardia, supraventricular extrasystoles, syncope, tachycardia, ventricular extrasystole, ventricular tachycardia

    Metabolic and

    Nutritional

    acidosis, hypercholesteremia, hyperlipemia

    Digestive

    anorexia, esophagitis, flatulence, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gastrointestinal moniliasis, gingivitis, gum hyperplasia, hepatitis, ileus, jaundice, melena, mouth ulceration, nausea and vomiting, oral moniliasis, stomach ulcer, stomatitis

    Respiratory

    bronchitis, epistaxis, hemoptysis, lung edema, pharyngitis, pleural effusion, pneumonia, respiratory moniliasis, rhinitis, sinusitis

    Skin and

    Appendages

    acne, fungal dermatitis, hemorrhage, hirsutism, pruritus, rash, skin benign neoplasm, skin carcinoma, vesiculobullous rash

    Pediatric Study

    The type and frequency of adverse events in a clinical study for prevention of kidney allograft rejection in 100 pediatric patients 3 months to 18 years of age dosed with mycophenolate mofetil oral suspension 600 mg/m2 twice daily (up to 1 g twice daily) were generally similar to those observed in adult patients dosed with mycophenolate mofetil capsules at a dose of 1 g twice daily with the exception of abdominal pain, fever, infection, pain, sepsis, diarrhea, vomiting, pharyngitis, respiratory tract infection, hypertension, leukopenia, and anemia, which were observed in a higher proportion in pediatric patients.

    Geriatrics

    Elderly patients (≥ 65 years), particularly those who are receiving mycophenolate mofetil as part of a combination immunosuppressive regimen, may be at increased risk of certain infections (including cytomegalovirus [CMV] tissue invasive disease) and possibly gastrointestinal hemorrhage and pulmonary edema, compared to younger individuals [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

    6.2 Postmarketing Experience

    The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of mycophenolate mofetil. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure:

    Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Congenital malformations and spontaneous abortions, mainly in the first trimester, have been reported following exposure to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in combination with other immunosuppressants during pregnancy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Use in Specific Populations (8.1), (8.3)]. Congenital malformations include:

    -Facial malformations: cleft lip, cleft palate, micrognathia, hypertelorism of the orbits

    -Abnormalities of the ear and eye: abnormally formed or absent external/middle ear, coloboma, microphthalmos

    -Malformations of the fingers: polydactyly, syndactyly, brachydactyly

    -Cardiac abnormalities: atrial and ventricular septal defects

    -Esophageal malformations: esophageal atresia

    -Nervous system malformations: such as spina bifida.

    Digestive: colitis, pancreatitis, isolated cases of intestinal villous atrophy.
    Hematologic and Lymphatic: Cases of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and hypogammaglobulinemia have been reported in patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil in combination with other immunosuppressive agents [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
    Infections: Meningitis, infectious endocarditis, tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial infection, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, BK virus infection, viral reactivation of hepatitis B and hepatitis C [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
    Respiratory: Interstitial lung disorders, fatal pulmonary fibrosis, have been reported rarely and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary symptoms ranging from dyspnea to respiratory failure in post-transplant patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil.
    Close
  • 7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

    7.1 Effect of Other Drugs on Mycophenolate Mofetil

    Table 6. Drug Interactions with Mycophenolate Mofetil that Affect Mycophenolic Acid (MPA) Exposure

    Antacids with Magnesium or Aluminum Hydroxide

    Clinical Impact

    Concomitant use with an antacid containing magnesium or aluminum hydroxide decreases MPA systemic exposure [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], which may reduce mycophenolate mofetil efficacy.

    Prevention or

    Management

    Administer magnesium or aluminum hydroxide containing antacids at least 2h after mycophenolate mofetil administration.

    Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs)

    Clinical Impact

    Concomitant use with PPIs decreases MPA systemic exposure [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], which may reduce mycophenolate mofetil efficacy.

    Prevention or Management

    Monitor patients for alterations in efficacy when PPIs are co-administered with mycophenolate mofetil.

    Examples

    Lansoprazole, pantoprazole

    Drugs that Interfere with Enterohepatic Recirculation

    Clinical Impact

    Concomitant use with drugs that directly interfere with enterohepatic recirculation, or indirectly interfere with enterohepatic recirculation by altering the gastrointestinal flora, can decrease MPA systemic exposure [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], which may reduce mycophenolate mofetil efficacy.

    Prevention or Management

    Monitor patients for alterations in efficacy or mycophenolate mofetil related adverse reactions when these drugs are co-administered with mycophenolate mofetil.

    Examples

    Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, bile acid sequestrants (cholestyramine), rifampin as well as aminoglycoside, cephalosporin, fluoroquinolone and penicillin classes of antimicrobials

    Drugs Modulating Glucuronidation

    Clinical Impact

    Concomitant use with drugs inducing glucuronidation decreases MPA systemic exposure, potentially reducing mycophenolate mofetil efficacy, while use with drugs inhibiting glucuronidation increases MPA systemic exposure [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], which may increase the risk of mycophenolate mofetil related adverse reactions.

    Prevention or Management

    Monitor patients for alterations in efficacy or mycophenolate mofetil related adverse reactions when these drugs are co-administered with mycophenolate mofetil.

    Examples

    Telmisartan (induces glucuronidation); isavuconazole (inhibits glucuronidation).

    Calcium Free Phosphate Binders

    Clinical Impact

    Concomitant use with calcium free phosphate binders decrease MPA systemic exposure [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], which may reduce mycophenolate mofetil efficacy.

    Prevention or Management

    Administer calcium free phosphate binders at least 2 hours after mycophenolate mofetil.

    Examples

    Sevelamer

    7.2 Effect of Mycophenolate Mofetil on Other Drugs

    Table 7. Drug Interactions with Mycophenolate Mofetil that Affect Other Drugs

    Drugs that Undergo Renal Tubular Secretion

    Clinical Impact

    When concomitantly used with mycophenolate mofetil, its metabolite MPAG, may compete with drugs eliminated by renal tubular secretion which may increase plasma concentrations and/or adverse reactions associated with these drugs.

    Prevention or Management

    Monitor for drug-related adverse reactions in patients with renal impairment.

    Examples

    Acyclovir, ganciclovir, probenecid, valacyclovir, valganciclovir

    Combination Oral Contraceptives

    Clinical Impact

    Concomitant use with mycophenolate mofetil decreased the systemic exposure to levonorgestrel, but did not affect the systemic exposure to ethinylestradiol [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], which may result in reduced combination oral contraceptive effectiveness.

    Prevention or Management

    Use additional barrier contraceptive methods.

    Close
  • 8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

     

    8.1 Pregnancy

    Pregnancy Exposure Registry

    There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to mycophenolate during pregnancy and those becoming pregnant within 6 weeks of discontinuing mycophenolate mofetil treatment. To report a pregnancy or obtain information about the registry, visit www.mycophenolateREMS.com or call 1-800-617-8191.

    Risk Summary

    Use of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of first trimester pregnancy loss and an increased risk of multiple congenital malformations in multiple organ systems [see Human Data]. Oral administration of mycophenolate to rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis produced congenital malformations and pregnancy loss at doses less than the recommended clinical dose (0.02 to 0.1 times the recommended clinical doses in kidney and heart transplant patients) [see Animal Data].

    Consider alternative immunosuppressants with less potential for embryofetal toxicity. Risks and benefits of mycophenolate mofetil should be discussed with the pregnant woman.

    The estimated background risk of pregnancy loss and congenital malformations in organ transplant populations is not clear. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

    Data

    Human Data

    A spectrum of congenital malformations (including multiple malformations in individual newborns) has been reported in 23 to 27% of live births in MMF exposed pregnancies, based on published data from pregnancy registries. Malformations that have been documented include external ear, eye, and other facial abnormalities including cleft lip and palate, and anomalies of the distal limbs, heart, esophagus, kidney, and nervous system.

    Based on published data from pregnancy registries, the risk of first trimester pregnancy loss has been reported at 45 to 49% following MMF exposure.

    Animal Data

    In animal reproductive toxicology studies, there were increased rates of fetal resorptions and malformations in the absence of maternal toxicity. Oral administration of MMF to pregnant rats from Gestational Day 7 to Day 16 produced increased embryofetal lethality and fetal malformations including anophthalmia, agnathia, and hydrocephaly at doses equivalent to 0.03 and 0.02 times the recommended human doses for renal and cardiac transplant patients, respectively, when corrected for BSA. Oral administration of MMF to pregnant rabbits from Gestational Day 7 to Day 19 produced increased embryofetal lethality and fetal malformations included ectopia cordis, ectopic kidneys, diaphragmatic hernia, and umbilical hernia at dose equivalents as low as 0.1 and 0.06 times the recommended human doses for renal and cardiac transplant patients, respectively, when corrected for BSA.

    8.2 Lactation

    Risk Summary

    There are no data on the presence of mycophenolate in human milk, or the effects on milk production. There are limited data in the National Transplantation Pregnancy Registry on the effects of mycophenolate on a breastfed child [see Data]. Studies in rats treated with MMF have shown mycophenolic acid (MPA) to be present in milk. Because available data are limited, it is not possible to exclude potential risks to a breastfeeding infant.

    The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for mycophenolate mofetil and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from mycophenolate mofetil or from the underlying maternal condition.

    Data

    Limited information is available from the National Transplantation Pregnancy Registry. Of seven infants reported by the National Transplantation Pregnancy Registry to have been breastfed while the mother was taking mycophenolate, all were born at 34-40 weeks gestation, and breastfed for up to 14 months. No adverse events were reported.

    8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

    Females of reproductive potential must be made aware of the increased risk of first trimester pregnancy loss and congenital malformations and must be counseled regarding pregnancy prevention and planning.

    Pregnancy Planning

    For patients who are considering pregnancy, consider alternative immunosuppressants with less potential for embryofetal toxicity whenever possible. Risks and benefits of mycophenolate mofetil should be discussed with the patient.

    Pregnancy Testing

    To prevent unplanned exposure during pregnancy, all females of reproductive potential should have a serum or urine pregnancy test with a sensitivity of at least 25 mIU/mL immediately before starting mycophenolate mofetil. Another pregnancy test with the same sensitivity should be done 8 to 10 days later. Repeat pregnancy tests should be performed during routine follow-up visits. Results of all pregnancy tests should be discussed with the patient. In the event of a positive pregnancy test, consider alternative immunosuppressants with less potential for embryofetal toxicity whenever possible.

    Contraception

    Female Patients

    Females of reproductive potential taking mycophenolate mofetil must receive contraceptive counseling and use acceptable contraception (see Table 8 for acceptable contraception methods). Patients must use acceptable birth control during the entire mycophenolate mofetil therapy, and for 6 weeks after stopping mycophenolate mofetil, unless the patient chooses abstinence.

    Patients should be aware that mycophenolate mofetil reduces blood levels of the hormones from the oral contraceptive pill and could theoretically reduce its effectiveness [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].

    Table 8. Acceptable Contraception Methods For Females Of Reproductive Potential

    Pick from the following birth control options:

    Option 1

    Methods to Use Alone

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs)
    Tubal sterilization
    Patient’s partner vasectomy

    OR

    Option 2

    Hormone Methods

    choose 1

    Barrier Methods

    choose 1

    Choose One Hormone Method
    AND

    One Barrier Method

    Estrogen and Progesterone

    Oral Contraceptive Pill
    Transdermal patch
    Vaginal ring

     

    Progesterone-only

    Injection
    Implant

    AND

    Diaphragm with spermicide
    Cervical cap with spermicide
    Contraceptive sponge
    Male condom
    Female condom

    OR

    Option 3

    Barrier Methods

    choose 1

    Barrier Methods

    choose 1

    Choose One Barrier Method from each column (must choose two methods)

    Diaphragm with spermicide
    Cervical cap with spermicide
    Contraceptive sponge

    AND

    Male condom
    Female condom

    Male Patients

    Genotoxic effects have been observed in animal studies at exposures exceeding the human therapeutic exposures by approximately 2.5 times. Thus, the risk of genotoxic effects on sperm cells cannot be excluded. Based on this potential risk, sexually active male patients and/or their female partners are recommended to use effective contraception during treatment of the male patient and for at least 90 days after cessation of treatment. Also, based on the potential risk of genotoxic effects, male patients should not donate sperm during treatment with mycophenolate mofetil and for at least 90 days after cessation of treatment [see Use in Special Populations (8.1), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1), Patient Counseling Information (17.9)].

    8.4 Pediatric Use

    Safety and effectiveness of mycophenolate mofetil have been established in pediatric patients 3 months and older for the prophylaxis of kidney rejection after allogeneic kidney transplant. Use of mycophenolate mofetil in this population is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of mycophenolate mofetil in adults with additional data from one open-label, pharmacokinetic and safety study of mycophenolate mofetil in pediatric patients after receiving allogeneic kidney transplant [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), Clinical Studies (14.1)].

    Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients receiving allogeneic heart or liver transplants have not been established.

    8.5 Geriatric Use

    Clinical studies of mycophenolate mofetil did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should take into consideration the presence of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function and of concomitant drug therapies. [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Drug Interactions (7)].

    8.6 Patients with Renal Impairment

    Patients with Kidney Transplant

    No dose adjustments are needed in kidney transplant patients experiencing delayed graft function postoperatively but patients should be carefully monitored [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].In kidney transplant patients with severe chronic impairment of the graft (GFR < 25 mL/min/1.73 m2), no dose adjustments are necessary; however, doses greater than 1 g administered twice a day should be avoided.

    Patients with Heart and Liver Transplant

    No data are available for heart or liver transplant patients with severe chronic renal impairment. Mycophenolate mofetil may be used for heart or liver transplant patients with severe chronic renal impairment if the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks.

    8.7 Patients with Hepatic Impairment

    Patients with Kidney Transplant

    No dose adjustments are recommended for kidney transplant patients with severe hepatic parenchymal disease. However, it is not known whether dose adjustments are needed for hepatic disease with other etiologies [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    Patients with Heart Transplant

    No data are available for heart transplant patients with severe hepatic parenchymal disease.

    Close
  • 10 OVERDOSAGE

    Possible signs and symptoms of acute overdose include hematological abnormalities such as leukopenia and neutropenia, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and dyspepsia.

    The experience with overdose of mycophenolate mofetil in humans is limited. The reported effects associated with overdose fall within the known safety profile of the drug. The highest dose administered to kidney transplant patients in clinical trials has been 4 g/day. In limited experience with heart and liver transplant patients in clinical trials, the highest doses used were 4 g/day or 5 g/day. At doses of 4 g/day or 5 g/day, there appears to be a higher rate, compared to the use of 3 g/day or less, of gastrointestinal intolerance (nausea, vomiting, and/or diarrhea), and occasional hematologic abnormalities, particularly neutropenia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

    Treatment and Management: MPA and the phenolic glucuronide metabolite of MPA (MPAG) are usually not removed by hemodialysis. However, at high MPAG plasma concentrations (> 100 µg/mL), small amounts of MPAG are removed. By increasing excretion of the drug, MPA can be removed by bile acid sequestrants, such as cholestyramine [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    Close
  • 11 DESCRIPTION

    Mycophenolate mofetil is an antimetabolite immunosuppressant. It is the 2-morpholinoethyl ester of mycophenolic acid (MPA), an immunosuppressive agent; inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitor.

    The chemical name for mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is 2-Morpholinoethyl (E)-6-(4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-5-phthalanyl)-4-methyl-4-hexenoate. It has a molecular formula of C23H31NO7, a molecular weight of 433.50, and the following structural formula:

    Mofetil Structural Formula

    Mycophenolate mofetil, USP is a white to almost white crystalline powder. It is practically soluble in water (43 µg/mL at pH 7.4); the solubility increases in acidic medium (4.27 mg/mL at pH 3.6). It is freely soluble in acetone, soluble in methanol, and sparingly soluble in ethanol. The apparent partition coefficient in 1-octanol/water (pH 7.4) buffer solution is 238. The pKa values for MMF are 5.6 for the morpholino group and 8.5 for the phenolic group.

    Mycophenolate mofetil is available for oral administration as capsules containing 250 mg of mycophenolate mofetil and tablets containing 500 mg of mycophenolate mofetil.

    Inactive ingredients in mycophenolate mofetil 250 mg capsules include black iron oxide, colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, FD&C Blue No. 2, gelatin, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, pregelatinized starch (corn), red iron oxide, sodium lauryl sulfate, titanium dioxide and yellow iron oxide. In addition, the imprinting ink contains the following: ammonium hydroxide, black iron oxide, propylene glycol, and shellac glaze.

    Inactive ingredients in mycophenolate mofetil 500 mg tablets include colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, povidone, pregelatinized starch (corn), red iron oxide, sodium lauryl sulfate, talc, titanium dioxide and yellow iron oxide.

    Close
  • 12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

     

    12.1 Mechanism of Action

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is absorbed following oral administration and hydrolyzed to mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active metabolite. MPA is a selective, uncompetitive, and reversible inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), and therefore inhibits the de novo pathway of guanosine nucleotide synthesis without incorporation into DNA. Because T- and B-lymphocytes are critically dependent for their proliferation on de novo synthesis of purines, whereas other cell types can utilize salvage pathways, MPA has potent cytostatic effects on lymphocytes. MPA inhibits proliferative responses of T- and B-lymphocytes to both mitogenic and allospecific stimulation. Addition of guanosine or deoxyguanosine reverses the cytostatic effects of MPA on lymphocytes. MPA also suppresses antibody formation by B-lymphocytes. MPA prevents the glycosylation of lymphocyte and monocyte glycoproteins that are involved in intercellular adhesion to endothelial cells and may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes into sites of inflammation and graft rejection. MMF did not inhibit early events in the activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, such as the production of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), but did block the coupling of these events to DNA synthesis and proliferation.

    12.2 Pharmacodynamics

    There is a lack of information regarding the pharmacodynamic effects of MMF.

    12.3 Pharmacokinetics

    Absorption

    Following oral and intravenous administration, MMF undergoes complete conversion to MPA, the active metabolite. In 12 healthy volunteers, the mean absolute bioavailability of oral MMF relative to intravenous MMF was 94%. Two 500 mg mycophenolate mofetil tablets have been shown to be bioequivalent to four 250 mg mycophenolate mofetil capsules. Five mL of the 200 mg/mL constituted mycophenolate mofetil oral suspension have been shown to be bioequivalent to four 250 mg capsules.

    The mean (± SD) pharmacokinetic parameters estimates for MPA following the administration of MMF given as single doses to healthy volunteers, and multiple doses to kidney, heart, and liver transplant patients, are shown in Table 9. The area under the plasma-concentration time curve (AUC) for MPA appears to increase in a dose-proportional fashion in kidney transplant patients receiving multiple oral doses of MMF up to a daily dose of 3 g (1.5 g twice daily) (see Table 9).

    Table 9. Pharmacokinetic Parameters for MPA [mean (± SD)] Following Administration of MMF to Healthy Volunteers (Single Dose), and Kidney, Heart, and Liver Transplant Patients (Multiple Doses)
    *
    AUC (0-12h) values quoted are extrapolated from data from samples collected over 4 hours.

    Healthy Volunteers

    Dose/Route

    Tmax

    (h)

    Cmax

    (mcg/mL)

    Total AUC (mcg•h/mL)

    Single dose

    1 g/oral

    0.80

    (± 0.36)

    (n = 129)

    24.5

    (± 9.5)

    (n = 129)

    63.9

    (± 16.2)

    (n = 117)

    Kidney Transplant Patients (twice daily dosing) Time After Transplantation

    Dose/Route

    Tmax

    (h)

    Cmax

    (mcg/mL)

    Interdosing Interval AUC(0-12h)

    (mcg•h/mL)

    5 days

    1 g/iv

    1.58

    (± 0.46)

    (n = 31)

    12.0

    (± 3.82)

    (n = 31)

    40.8

    (± 11.4)

    (n = 31)

    6 days

    1 g/oral

    1.33

    (± 1.05)

    (n = 31)

    10.7

    (± 4.83)

    (n = 31)

    32.9

    (± 15.0)

    (n = 31)

    Early (Less than 40 days)

    1 g/oral

    1.31

    (± 0.76)

    (n = 25)

    8.16

    (± 4.50)

    (n = 25)

    27.3

    (± 10.9)

    (n = 25)

    Early (Less than 40 days)

    1.5 g/oral

    1.21

    (± 0.81)

    (n = 27)

    13.5

    (± 8.18)

    (n = 27)

    38.4

    (± 15.4)

    (n = 27)

    Late (Greater than 3 months)

    1.5 g/oral

    0.90

    (± 0.24)

    (n = 23)

    24.1

    (± 12.1)

    (n = 23)

    65.3

    (± 35.4)

    (n = 23)

    Heart transplant Patients (twice daily dosing) Time After Transplantation

    Dose/Route

    Tmax

    (h)

    Cmax

    (mcg/mL)

    Interdosing Interval AUC(0-12h)

    (mcg•h/mL)

    Early (Day before discharge)

    1.5 g/oral

    1.8

    (± 1.3)

    (n = 11)

    11.5

    (± 6.8)

    (n = 11)

    43.3

    (± 20.8)

    (n = 9)

    Late (Greater than 6 months)

    1.5 g/oral

    1.1

    (± 0.7)

    (n = 52)

    20.0

    (± 9.4)

    (n = 52)

    54.1*

    (± 20.4)

    (n = 49)

    Liver transplant Patients (twice daily dosing) Time After Transplantation

    Dose/Route

    Tmax

    (h)

    Cmax

    (mcg/mL)

    Interdosing Interval AUC(0-12h)

    (mcg•h/mL)

    4 to 9 days

    1 g/iv

    1.50

    (± 0.517)

    (n = 22)

    17.0

    (± 12.7)

    (n = 22)

    34.0

    (± 17.4)

    (n = 22)

    Early (5 to 8 days)

    1.5 g/oral

    1.15

    (± 0.432)

    (n = 20)

    13.1

    (± 6.76)

    (n = 20)

    29.2

    (± 11.9)

    (n = 20)

    Late (Greater than 6 months)

    1.5 g/oral

    1.54

    (± 0.51)

    (n = 6)

    19.3

    (± 11.7)

    (n = 6)

    49.3

    (± 14.8)

    (n = 6)

    In the early post-transplant period (less than 40 days post-transplant), kidney, heart, and liver transplant patients had mean MPA AUCs approximately 20% to 41% lower and mean Cmax approximately 32% to 44% lower compared to the late transplant period (i.e., 3 to 6 months post-transplant) (non-stationarity in MPA pharmacokinetics).

    Mean MPA AUC values following administration of 1 g twice daily intravenous mycophenolate mofetil over 2 hours to kidney transplant patients for 5 days were about 24% higher than those observed after oral administration of a similar dose in the immediate post-transplant phase.

    In liver transplant patients, administration of 1 g twice daily intravenous mycophenolate mofetil followed by 1.5 g twice daily oral mycophenolate mofetil resulted in mean MPA AUC estimates similar to those found in kidney transplant patients administered 1 g mycophenolate mofetil twice daily.

    Effect of Food

    Food (27 g fat, 650 calories) had no effect on the extent of absorption (MPA AUC) of MMF when administered at doses of 1.5 g twice daily to kidney transplant patients. However, MPA Cmax was decreased by 40% in the presence of food [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].

    Distribution

    The mean (± SD) apparent volume of distribution of MPA in 12 healthy volunteers was approximately 3.6 (± 1.5) L/kg. At clinically relevant concentrations, MPA is 97% bound to plasma albumin. The phenolic glucuronide metabolite of MPA (MPAG) is 82% bound to plasma albumin at MPAG concentration ranges that are normally seen in stable kidney transplant patients; however, at higher MPAG concentrations (observed in patients with kidney impairment or delayed kidney graft function), the binding of MPA may be reduced as a result of competition between MPAG and MPA for protein binding. Mean blood to plasma ratio of radioactivity concentrations was approximately 0.6 indicating that MPA and MPAG do not extensively distribute into the cellular fractions of blood.

    In vitro studies to evaluate the effect of other agents on the binding of MPA to human serum albumin (HSA) or plasma proteins showed that salicylate (at 25 mg/dL with human serum albumin) and MPAG (at ≥ 460 mcg/mL with plasma proteins) increased the free fraction of MPA. MPA at concentrations as high as 100 mcg/mL had little effect on the binding of warfarin, digoxin or propranolol, but decreased the binding of theophylline from 53% to 45% and phenytoin from 90% to 87%.

    Elimination

    Mean (± SD) apparent half-life and plasma clearance of MPA are 17.9 (± 6.5) hours and 193 (± 48) mL/min following oral administration and 16.6 (± 5.8) hours and 177 (± 31) mL/min following intravenous administration, respectively.

    Metabolism

    The parent drug, MMF, can be measured systemically during the intravenous infusion; however, approximately 5 minutes after the infusion is stopped or after oral administration, MMF concentrations are below the limit of quantitation (0.4 mcg/mL).

    Metabolism to MPA occurs pre-systemically after oral dosing. MPA is metabolized principally by glucuronyl transferase to form MPAG, which is not pharmacologically active. In vivo, MPAG is converted to MPA during enterohepatic recirculation. The following metabolites of the 2-hydroxyethyl-morpholino moiety are also recovered in the urine following oral administration of MMF to healthy subjects: N-(2-carboxymethyl)-morpholine, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-morpholine, and the N-oxide of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-morpholine.

    Due to the enterohepatic recirculation of MPAG/MPA, secondary peaks in the plasma MPA concentration-time profile are usually observed 6 to 12 hours post-dose. Bile sequestrants, such as cholestyramine, reduce MPA AUC by interfering with this enterohepatic recirculation of the drug [see Overdose (10)and Drug Interaction Studies below].

    Excretion

    Negligible amount of drug is excreted as MPA (less than 1% of dose) in the urine. Orally administered radiolabeled MMF resulted in complete recovery of the administered dose, with 93% of the administered dose recovered in the urine and 6% recovered in feces. Most (about 87%) of the administered dose is excreted in the urine as MPAG. At clinically encountered concentrations, MPA and MPAG are usually not removed by hemodialysis. However, at high MPAG plasma concentrations (> 100 mcg/mL), small amounts of MPAG are removed.

    Increased plasma concentrations of MMF metabolites (MPA 50% increase and MPAG about a 3-fold to 6-fold increase) are observed in patients with renal insufficiency [see Specific Populations].

    Specific Populations

    Patients with Renal Impairment

    The mean (± SD) pharmacokinetic parameters for MPA following the administration of oral MMF given as single doses to non-transplant subjects with renal impairment are presented in Table 10.

    In a single-dose study, MMF was administered as a capsule or as an intravenous infusion over 40 minutes. Plasma MPA AUC observed after oral dosing to volunteers with severe chronic renal impairment (GFR < 25 mL/min/1.73 m2) was about 75% higher relative to that observed in healthy volunteers (GFR > 80 mL/min/1.73 m2). In addition, the single-dose plasma MPAG AUC was 3-fold to 6-fold higher in volunteers with severe renal impairment than in volunteers with mild renal impairment or healthy volunteers, consistent with the known renal elimination of MPAG. No data are available on the safety of long-term exposure to this level of MPAG.

    Plasma MPA AUC observed after single-dose (1 g) intravenous dosing to volunteers (n = 4) with severe chronic renal impairment (GFR < 25 mL/min/1.73 m2) was 62.4 mcg•h/mL (± 19.3). Multiple dosing of MMF in patients with severe chronic renal impairment has not been studied.

    Patients with Delayed Graft Function or Nonfunction

    In patients with delayed renal graft function post-transplant, mean MPA AUC(0-12h) was comparable to that seen in post-transplant patients without delayed renal graft function. There is a potential for a transient increase in the free fraction and concentration of plasma MPA in patients with delayed renal graft function. However, dose adjustment does not appear to be necessary in patients with delayed renal graft function. Mean plasma MPAG AUC(0-12h) was 2-fold to 3-fold higher than in post-transplant patients without delayed renal graft function [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].

    In eight patients with primary graft non-function following kidney transplantation, plasma concentrations of MPAG accumulated about 6-fold to 8-fold after multiple dosing for 28 days. Accumulation of MPA was about 1-fold to 2-fold.

    The pharmacokinetics of MMF are not altered by hemodialysis. Hemodialysis usually does not remove MPA or MPAG. At high concentrations of MPAG (> 100 mcg/mL), hemodialysis removes only small amounts of MPAG.

    Patients with Hepatic Impairment

    The mean (± SD) pharmacokinetic parameters for MPA following the administration of oral MMF given as single doses to non-transplant subjects with hepatic impairment is presented in Table 10.

    In a single-dose (1 g oral) study of 18 volunteers with alcoholic cirrhosis and 6 healthy volunteers, hepatic MPA glucuronidation processes appeared to be relatively unaffected by hepatic parenchymal disease when pharmacokinetic parameters of healthy volunteers and alcoholic cirrhosis patients within this study were compared. However, it should be noted that for unexplained reasons, the healthy volunteers in this study had about a 50% lower AUC as compared to healthy volunteers in other studies, thus making comparisons between volunteers with alcoholic cirrhosis and healthy volunteers difficult. In a single-dose (1 g intravenous) study of 6 volunteers with severe hepatic impairment (aminopyrine breath test less than 0.2% of dose) due to alcoholic cirrhosis, MMF was rapidly converted to MPA. MPA AUC was 44.1 mcg•h/mL (± 15.5).

    Table 10. Pharmacokinetic Parameters for MPA [mean (± SD)] Following Single Doses of MMF Capsules in Chronic Renal and Hepatic Impairment

    Pharmacokinetic Parameters for Renal Impairment

    Dose

    Tmax

    (h)

    Cmax

    (mcg/mL)

    AUC(0-96h) (mcg•h/mL)

    Healthy Volunteers

       GFR greater than 80 mL/min/1.73 m2

       (n = 6)

    1 g

    0.75

    (± 0.27)

    25.3

    (± 7.99)

    45.0

    (± 22.6)

    Mild Renal Impairment

       GFR 50 to 80 mL/min/1.73 m2

       (n = 6)

    1 g

    0.75

    (± 0.27)

    26.0

    (± 3.82)

    59.9

    (± 12.9)

    Moderate Renal Impairment

       GFR 25 to 49 mL/min/1.73 m2

       (n = 6)

    1 g

    0.75

    (± 0.27)

    19.0

    (± 13.2)

    52.9

    (± 25.5)

    Severe Renal Impairment

       GFR less than 25 mL/min/1.73 m2

       (n = 7)

    1 g

    1.00

    (± 0.41)

    16.3

    (± 10.8)

    78.6

    (± 46.4)

    Pharmacokinetic Parameters for Hepatic Impairment

    Dose

    Tmax

    (h)

    Cmax

    (mcg/mL)

    AUC(0-48h) (mcg•h/mL)

    Healthy Volunteers

       (n = 6)

    1 g

    0.63

    (± 0.14)

    24.3

    (± 5.73)

    29.0

    (± 5.78)

    Alcoholic Cirrhosis

       (n = 18)

    1 g

    0.85

    (± 0.58)

    22.4

    (± 10.1)

    29.8

    (± 10.7)

    Pediatric Patients

    The pharmacokinetic parameters of MPA and MPAG have been evaluated in 55 pediatric patients (ranging from 1 year to 18 years of age) receiving mycophenolate mofetil oral suspension at a dose of 600 mg/m2 twice daily (up to a maximum of 1 g twice daily) after allogeneic kidney transplantation. The pharmacokinetic data for MPA is provided in Table 11.

    Table 11. Mean (± SD) Computed Pharmacokinetic Parameters for MPA by Age and Time after Allogeneic Kidney Transplantation
    *
    adjusted to a dose of 600 mg/m 2
    a subset of 1 to < 6 yr
    n = 20
    §
    n = 16

    Age Group (n)

    Time

    Tmax

    (h)

    Dose Adjusted* Cmax

    (mcg/mL)

    Dose Adjusted* AUC0-12 (mcg•h/mL)

     

    1 to less than 2 yr     (6)

    1 to less than 6 yr    (17)

    6 to less than 12 yr (16)

    12 to 18 yr              (21)

    Early (Day 7)

     

    3.03 (4.07)

    1.63 (2.85)

    0.940 (0.546)

    1.16 (0.830)

     

    10.3 (5.80)

    13.2 (7.16)

    13.1 (6.30)

    11.7 (10.7)

     

    22.5 (6.66)

    27.4 (9.54)

    33.2 (12.1)

    26.3 (9.14)

     

    1 to less than 2 yr    (4)

    1 to less than 6 yr   (15)

    6 to less than 12 yr (14)

    12 to 18 yr              (17)

    Late (Month 3)

     

    0.725 (0.276)

    0.989 (0.511)

    1.21 (0.532)

    0.978 (0.484)

     

    23.8 (13.4)

    22.7 (10.1)

    27.8 (14.3)

    17.9 (9.57)

     

    47.4 (14.7)

    49.7 (18.2)

    61.9 (19.6)

    53.6 (20.3)§

     

    1 to less than 2 yr    (4)

    1 to less than 6 yr   (12)

    6 to less than 12 yr (11)

    12 to 18 yr              (14)

    Late (Month 9)

     

    0.604 (0.208)

    0.869 (0.479)

    1.12 (0.462)

    1.09 (0.518)

     

    25.6 (4.25)

    30.4 (9.16)

    29.2 (12.6)

    18.1 (7.29)

     

    55.8 (11.6)

    61.0 (10.7)

    66.8 (21.2)

    56.7 (14.0)

    The mycophenolate mofetil oral suspension dose of 600 mg/m2 twice daily (up to a maximum of 1 g twice daily) achieved mean MPA AUC values in pediatric patients similar to those seen in adult kidney transplant patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil capsules at a dose of 1 g twice daily in the early post-transplant period. There was wide variability in the data. As observed in adults, early post-transplant MPA AUC values were approximately 45% to 53% lower than those observed in the later post-transplant period (> 3 months). MPA AUC values were similar in the early and late post-transplant period across the 1 to 18-year age range.

    Male and Female Patients

    Data obtained from several studies were pooled to look at any gender-related differences in the pharmacokinetics of MPA (data were adjusted to 1 g oral dose). Mean (± SD) MPA AUC(0-12h) for males (n = 79) was 32.0 (± 14.5) and for females (n = 41) was 36.5 (± 18.8) mcg•h/mL while mean (± SD) MPA Cmax was 9.96 (± 6.19) in the males and 10.6 (± 5.64) mcg/mL in the females. These differences are not of clinical significance.

    Geriatric Patients

    The pharmacokinetics of mycophenolate mofetil and its metabolites have not been found to be altered in elderly transplant patients when compared to younger transplant patients.

    Drug Interaction Studies

    Acyclovir

    Coadministration of MMF (1 g) and acyclovir (800 mg) to 12 healthy volunteers resulted in no significant change in MPA AUC and Cmax. However, MPAG and acyclovir plasma AUCs were increased 10.6% and 21.9%, respectively.

    Antacids with Magnesium and Aluminum Hydroxides

    Absorption of a single dose of MMF (2 g) was decreased when administered to 10 rheumatoid arthritis patients also taking Maalox® TC (10 mL qid). The Cmax and AUC(0-24h) for MPA were 33% and 17% lower, respectively, than when MMF was administered alone under fasting conditions.

    Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs)

    Coadministration of PPIs (e.g., lansoprazole, pantoprazole) in single doses to healthy volunteers and multiple doses to transplant patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil has been reported to reduce the exposure to MPA. An approximate reduction of 30 to 70% in the Cmax and 25% to 35% in the AUC of MPA has been observed, possibly due to a decrease in MPA solubility at an increased gastric pH.

    Cholestyramine

    Following single-dose administration of 1.5 g MMF to 12 healthy volunteers pretreated with 4 g three times a day of cholestyramine for 4 days, MPA AUC decreased approximately 40%. This decrease is consistent with interruption of enterohepatic recirculation which may be due to binding of recirculating MPAG with cholestyramine in the intestine.

    Cyclosporine

    Cyclosporine (Sandimmune®) pharmacokinetics (at doses of 275 to 415 mg/day) were unaffected by single and multiple doses of 1.5 g twice daily of MMF in 10 stable kidney transplant patients. The mean (± SD) AUC(0-12h) and Cmax of cyclosporine after 14 days of multiple doses of MMF were 3290 (± 822) ng•h/mL and 753 (± 161) ng/mL, respectively, compared to 3245 (± 1088) ng•h/mL and 700 (± 246) ng/mL, respectively, 1 week before administration of MMF.

    Cyclosporine A interferes with MPA enterohepatic recirculation. In kidney transplant patients, mean MPA exposure (AUC(0-12h)) was approximately 30-50% greater when MMF was administered without cyclosporine compared with when MMF was coadministered with cyclosporine. This interaction is due to cyclosporine inhibition of multidrug-resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP-2) transporter in the biliary tract, thereby preventing the excretion of MPAG into the bile that would lead to enterohepatic recirculation of MPA. This information should be taken into consideration when MMF is used without cyclosporine.

    Drugs Affecting Glucuronidation

    Concomitant administration of drugs inhibiting glucuronidation of MPA may increase MPA exposure (e.g., increase of MPA AUC(0-∞) by 35% was observed with concomitant administration of isavuconazole).

    Concomitant administration of telmisartan and mycophenolate mofetil resulted in an approximately 30% decrease in MPA concentrations. Telmisartan changes MPA’s elimination by enhancing PPAR gamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) expression, which in turn results in an enhanced UGT1A9 expression and glucuronidation activity.

    Ganciclovir

    Following single-dose administration to 12 stable kidney transplant patients, no pharmacokinetic interaction was observed between MMF (1.5 g) and intravenous ganciclovir (5 mg/kg). Mean (± SD) ganciclovir AUC and Cmax (n = 10) were 54.3 (± 19.0) mcg•h/mL and 11.5 (± 1.8) mcg/mL, respectively, after coadministration of the two drugs, compared to 51.0 (± 17.0) mcg•h/mL and 10.6 (± 2.0) mcg/mL, respectively, after administration of intravenous ganciclovir alone. The mean (± SD) AUC and Cmax of MPA (n = 12) after coadministration were 80.9 (± 21.6) mcg•h/mL and 27.8 (± 13.9) mcg/mL, respectively, compared to values of 80.3 (± 16.4) µg•h/mL and 30.9 (± 11.2) mcg/mL, respectively, after administration of MMF alone.

    Oral Contraceptives

    A study of coadministration of mycophenolate mofetil (1 g twice daily) and combined oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol (0.02 mg to 0.04 mg) and levonorgestrel (0.05 mg to 0.20 mg), desogestrel (0.15 mg) or gestodene (0.05 mg to 0.10 mg) was conducted in 18 women with psoriasis over 3 consecutive menstrual cycles. Mean serum levels of LH, FSH and progesterone were not significantly affected. Mean AUC(0-24h) was similar for ethinylestradiol and 3-keto desogestrel; however, mean levonorgestrel AUC(0-24h) significantly decreased by about 15%. There was large inter-patient variability (% CV in the range of 60% to 70%) in the data, especially for ethinylestradiol.

    Sevelamer

    Concomitant administration of sevelamer and MMF in adult and pediatric patients decreased the mean MPA Cmax and AUC(0-12h) by 36% and 26% respectively.

    Antimicrobials

    Antimicrobials eliminating beta-glucuronidase-producing bacteria in the intestine (e.g., aminoglycoside, cephalosporin, fluoroquinolone, and penicillin classes of antimicrobials) may interfere with the MPAG/MPA enterohepatic recirculation thus leading to reduced systemic MPA exposure. Information concerning antibiotics is as follows:

    Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole: Following single-dose administration of MMF (1.5 g) to 12 healthy male volunteers on day 8 of a 10-day course of trimethoprim 160 mg/sulfamethoxazole 800 mg administered twice daily, no effect on the bioavailability of MPA was observed. The mean (± SD) AUC and C max of MPA after concomitant administration were 75.2 (± 19.8) mcg•h/mL and 34.0 (± 6.6) µg/mL, respectively, compared to 79.2 (± 27.9) mcg•h/mL and 34.2 (± 10.7) mcg/mL, respectively, after administration of MMF alone.
    Norfloxacin and Metronidazole: Following single-dose administration of MMF (1 g) to 11 healthy volunteers on day 4 of a 5-day course of a combination of norfloxacin and metronidazole, the mean MPA AUC (0-48h) was significantly reduced by 33% compared to the administration of MMF alone (p < 0.05). The mean (± SD) MPA AUC (0-48h) after coadministration of MMF with norfloxacin or metronidazole separately was 48.3 (± 24) mcg·h/mL and 42.7 (± 23) mcg·h/mL, respectively, compared with 56.2 (± 24) mcg·h/mL after administration of MMF alone.
    Ciprofloxacin and Amoxicillin Plus Clavulanic Acid : A total of 64 mycophenolate mofetil-treated kidney transplant recipients received either oral ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid 375 mg three times daily for 7 or at least 14 days, respectively. Approximately 50% reductions in median trough MPA concentrations (pre-dose) from baseline (mycophenolate mofetil alone) were observed in 3 days following commencement of oral ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid. These reductions in trough MPA concentrations tended to diminish within 14 days of antimicrobial therapy and ceased within 3 days of discontinuation of antibiotics.
    Rifampin: In a single heart-lung transplant patient, after correction for dose, a 67% decrease in MPA exposure (AUC (0-12h)) has been observed with concomitant administration of MMF and rifampin.
    Close
  • 13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

     

    13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

    In a 104-week oral carcinogenicity study in mice, MMF in daily doses up to 180 mg/kg was not tumorigenic. The highest dose tested was 0.4 times the recommended clinical dose (2 g/day) in renal transplant patients and 0.3 times the recommended clinical dose (3 g/day) in cardiac transplant patients when corrected for differences in body surface area (BSA). In a 104-week oral carcinogenicity study in rats, MMF in daily doses up to 15 mg/kg was not tumorigenic. The highest dose was 0.07 times the recommended clinical dose in kidney transplant patients and 0.05 times the recommended clinical dose in heart transplant patients when corrected for BSA. While these animal doses were lower than those given to patients, they were maximal in those species and were considered adequate to evaluate the potential for human risk [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

    The genotoxic potential of MMF was determined in five assays. MMF was genotoxic in the mouse lymphoma/thymidine kinase assay and the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. MMF was not genotoxic in the bacterial mutation assay, the yeast mitotic gene conversion assay or the Chinese hamster ovary cell chromosomal aberration assay.

    MMF had no effect on fertility of male rats at oral doses up to 20 mg/kg/day. This dose represents 0.1 times the recommended clinical dose in renal transplant patients and 0.06 times the recommended clinical dose in cardiac transplant patients when corrected for BSA. In a female fertility and reproduction study conducted in rats, oral doses of 4.5 mg/kg/day caused malformations (principally of the head and eyes) in the first generation offspring in the absence of maternal toxicity. This dose was 0.02 times the recommended clinical dose in renal transplant patients and 0.01 times the recommended clinical dose in cardiac transplant patients when corrected for BSA. No effects on fertility or reproductive parameters were evident in the dams or in the subsequent generation.

    Close
  • 14 CLINICAL STUDIES

    14.1 Kidney Transplantation

    Adults

    The three de novo kidney transplantation studies compared two dose levels of oral mycophenolate mofetil (1 g twice daily and 1.5 g twice daily) with azathioprine (2 studies) or placebo (1 study) to prevent acute rejection episodes. One of the two studies with azathioprine (AZA) control arm also included anti-thymocyte globulin (ATGAM®) induction therapy. The geographic location of the investigational sites of these studies are included in Table 12.

    In all three de novo kidney transplantation studies, the primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients in each treatment group who experienced treatment failure within the first 6 months after transplantation. Treatment failure was defined as biopsy-proven acute rejection on treatment or the occurrence of death, graft loss or early termination from the study for any reason without prior biopsy-proven rejection.

    Mycophenolate mofetil, in combination with corticosteroids and cyclosporine, reduced (statistically significant at 0.05 level) the incidence of treatment failure within the first 6 months following transplantation (Table 12). Patients who prematurely discontinued treatment were followed for the occurrence of death or graft loss, and the cumulative incidence of graft loss and patient death combined are summarized in Table 13. Patients who prematurely discontinued treatment were not followed for the occurrence of acute rejection after termination.

    Table 12. Treatment Failure in De Novo Kidney Transplantation Studies
    *Does not include death and graft loss as reason for early termination.

    USA Studya

     

    (N = 499 patients)

    Mycophenolate Mofetil

    2 g/day

    (n = 167 patients)

    Mycophenolate Mofetil

    3 g/day

    (n = 166 patients)

    AZA

    1 to 2 mg/kg/day

     

    (n = 166 patients)

    All 3 groups received anti-thymocyte globulin induction, cyclosporine and corticosteroids

    All treatment failures

    31.1%

    31.3%

    47.6%

    Early termination without prior acute rejectionb

    9.6%

    12.7%

    6.0%

    Biopsy-proven rejection episode on treatment

    19.8%

    17.5%

    38.0%

    Europe/Canada/ Australia Studyc

    (N = 503 patients)

    Mycophenolate Mofetil

    2 g/day

    (n = 173 patients)

    Mycophenolate Mofetil

    3 g/day

    (n = 164 patients)

    AZA

    100 to 150 mg/day

     

    (n = 166 patients)

    No induction treatment administered; all 3 groups received cyclosporine and corticosteroids.

    All treatment failures

    38.2%

    34.8%

    50.0%

    Early termination without prior acute rejectionb

    13.9%

    15.2%

    10.2%

    Biopsy-proven rejection episode on treatment

    19.7%

    15.9%

    35.5%

    Europe Studyd

     

    (N = 491 patients)

    Mycophenolate Mofetil

    2 g/day

    (n = 165 patients)

    Mycophenolate Mofetil

    3 g/day

    (n = 160 patients)

    Placebo

     

      

    (n = 166 patients)

    No induction treatment administered; all 3 groups received cyclosporine and corticosteroids.

    All treatment failures

    30.3%

    38.8%

    56.0%

    Early termination without prior acute rejectionb

    11.5%

    22.5%

    7.2%

    Biopsy-proven rejection episode on treatment

    17.0%

    13.8%

    46.4%

    No advantage of mycophenolate mofetil at 12 months with respect to graft loss or patient death (combined) was established (Table 13). Numerically, patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil 2 g/day and 3 g/day experienced a better outcome than controls in all three studies; patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil 2 g/day experienced a better outcome than mycophenolate mofetil 3 g/day in two of the three studies. Patients in all treatment groups who terminated treatment early were found to have a poor outcome with respect to graft loss or patient death at 1 year.

    Table 13. De Novo Kidney Transplantation Studies Cumulative Incidence of Combined Graft Loss or Patient Death at 12 Months

    Study

    Mycophenolate Mofetil

    2 g/day

    Mycophenolate Mofetil

    3 g/day

    Control

    (AZA or Placebo)

    USA

    8.5%

    11.5%

    12.2%

    Europe/Canada/Australia

    11.7%

    11.0%

    13.6%

    Europe

    8.5%

    10.0%

    11.5%

    Pediatrics-De Novo Kidney transplantation PK Study with Long Term Follow-Up

    One open-label, safety and pharmacokinetic study of mycophenolate mofetil oral suspension 600 mg/m2 twice daily (up to 1 g twice daily) in combination with cyclosporine and corticosteroids was performed at centers in the United States (9), Europe (5) and Australia (1) in 100 pediatric patients (3 months to 18 years of age) for the prevention of renal allograft rejection. Mycophenolate mofetil was well tolerated in pediatric patients [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)], and the pharmacokinetics profile was similar to that seen in adult patients dosed with 1 g twice daily mycophenolate mofetil capsules [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].The rate of biopsy-proven rejection was similar across the age groups (3 months to < 6 years, 6 years to < 12 years, 12 years to 18 years). The overall biopsy-proven rejection rate at 6 months was comparable to adults. The combined incidence of graft loss (5%) and patient death (2%) at 12 months post-transplant was similar to that observed in adult kidney transplant patients.

    14.2 Heart Transplantation

    A double-blind, randomized, comparative, parallel-group, multicenter study in primary de novo heart transplant recipients was performed at centers in the United States (20), in Canada (1), in Europe (5) and in Australia (2). The total number of patients enrolled (ITT population) was 650; 72 never received study drug and 578 received study drug (Safety Population). Patients received mycophenolate mofetil 1.5 g twice daily (n = 289) or AZA 1.5 to 3 mg/kg/day (n = 289), in combination with cyclosporine (Sandimmune® or Neoral®) and corticosteroids as maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. The two primary efficacy endpoints were: (1) the proportion of patients who, after transplantation, had at least one endomyocardial biopsy-proven rejection with hemodynamic compromise, or were re-transplanted or died, within the first 6 months, and (2) the proportion of patients who died or were re-transplanted during the first 12 months following transplantation. Patients who prematurely discontinued treatment were followed for the occurrence of allograft rejection for up to 6 months and for the occurrence of death for 1 year.

    The analyses of the endpoints showed:

    Rejection: No difference was established between mycophenolate mofetil and AZA with respect to biopsy-proven rejection with hemodynamic compromise.
    Survival: Mycophenolate mofetil was shown to be at least as effective as AZA in preventing death or re-transplantation at 1 year (see Table 14).
    Table 14. De Novo Heart Transplantation Study Rejection at 6 Months/Death or Re-transplantation at 1 Year
    *
    Hemodynamic compromise occurred if any of the following criteria were met: pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≥ 20 mm or a 25% increase; cardiac index < 2.0 L/min/m 2 or a 25% decrease; ejection fraction ≤ 30%; pulmonary artery oxygen saturation ≤ 60% or a 25% decrease; presence of new S3 gallop; fractional shortening was ≤ 20% or a 25% decrease; inotropic support required to manage the clinical condition.

    All Patients (ITT)

    Treated Patients

    AZA

    N = 323

    Mycophenolate Mofetil

    N = 327

    AZA

    N = 289

    Mycophenolate Mofetil

    N = 289

    Biopsy-proven rejection with hemodynamic compromise at 6 months*

    121 (38%)

    120 (37%)

    100 (35%)

    92 (32%)

    Death or re-transplantation at 1 year

    49 (15.2%)

    42 (12.8%)

    33 (11.4%)

    18 (6.2%)

    14.3 Liver Transplantation

    A double-blind, randomized, comparative, parallel-group, multicenter study in primary hepatic transplant recipients was performed at centers in the United States (16), in Canada (2), in Europe (4) and in Australia (1). The total number of patients enrolled was 565. Per protocol, patients received mycophenolate mofetil 1 g twice daily intravenously for up to 14 days followed by mycophenolate mofetil 1.5 g twice daily orally or AZA 1 to 2 mg/kg/day intravenously followed by AZA 1 to 2 mg/kg/day orally, in combination with cyclosporine (Neoral®) and corticosteroids as maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. The actual median oral dose of AZA on study was 1.5 mg/kg/day (range of 0.3 to 3.8 mg/kg/day) initially and 1.26 mg/kg/day (range of 0.3 to 3.8 mg/kg/day) at 12 months. The two primary endpoints were: (1) the proportion of patients who experienced, in the first 6 months post-transplantation, one or more episodes of biopsy-proven and treated rejection or death or re-transplantation, and (2) the proportion of patients who experienced graft loss (death or re-transplantation) during the first 12 months post-transplantation. Patients who prematurely discontinued treatment were followed for the occurrence of allograft rejection and for the occurrence of graft loss (death or re-transplantation) for 1 year.

    In combination with corticosteroids and cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil demonstrated a lower rate of acute rejection at 6 months and a similar rate of death or re-transplantation at 1 year compared to AZA (Table 15).

    Table 15. De Novo Liver Transplantation Study Rejection at 6 Months/Death or Retransplantation at 1 Year

    AZA

    N = 287

    Mycophenolate Mofetil

    N = 278

    Biopsy-proven, treated rejection at 6 months (includes death or re-transplantation)

    137 (47.7%)

    107 (38.5%)

    Death or re-transplantation at 1 year

    42 (14.6%)

    41 (14.7%)

    Close
  • 15 REFERENCES

    1. “OSHA Hazardous Drugs.” OSHA. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/hazardousdrugs/index.html

    Close
  • 16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

    16.1 Handling and Disposal

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has demonstrated teratogenic effects in humans [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Mycophenolate mofetil tablets should not be crushed and mycophenolate mofetil capsules should not be opened or crushed. Avoid inhalation or direct contact with skin or mucous membranes of the powder contained in mycophenolate mofetil capsules [see Dosage and Administration (2.6)].Follow applicable special handling and disposal procedures1.

    16.2 Mycophenolate Mofetil Capsules 250 mg

    Mycophenolate Mofetil Capsules, USP are available containing 250 mg of mycophenolate mofetil, USP.

    The 250 mg capsules are hard-shell gelatin capsules with a caramel opaque cap and a lavender opaque body filled with white to off-white powder. The capsules are axially printed with MYLAN over 2250 in black ink on both the cap and body. They are available as follows:

    NDC 0378-2250-01
    bottles of 100 capsules

    NDC 0378-2250-05
    bottles of 500 capsules

    Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]

    Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.

    16.3 Mycophenolate Mofetil Tablets 500 mg

    Mycophenolate Mofetil Tablets, USP are available containing 500 mg of mycophenolate mofetil, USP.

    The 500 mg tablets are light pink, film-coated, oval, unscored tablets debossed with MYLAN on one side of the tablet and 472 on the other side. They are available as follows:

    NDC 0378-4472-01
    bottles of 100 tablets

    NDC 0378-4472-05
    bottles of 500 tablets

    Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]

    Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.

    PHARMACIST: Dispense a Medication Guide with each prescription.

    Close
  • 17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

    Information for Patients See FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide and Instructions for Use).

    17.1 Embryofetal Toxicity

    Pregnancy loss and malformations

    Inform females of reproductive potential and pregnant women that use of mycophenolate mofetil during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of first trimester pregnancy loss and an increased risk of congenital malformations. Advise that they must use an acceptable form of contraception [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3)].
    Encourage pregnant women to enroll in the Pregnancy Exposure Registry. This registry monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to mycophenolate [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

    Contraception

    Discuss pregnancy testing, pregnancy prevention and planning with females of reproductive potential [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].
    Females of reproductive potential must use an acceptable form of birth control during the entire mycophenolate mofetil therapy and for 6 weeks after stopping mycophenolate mofetil, unless the patient chooses abstinence. Mycophenolate mofetil may reduce effectiveness of oral contraceptives. Use of additional barrier contraceptive methods is recommended [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].
    For patients who are considering pregnancy, discuss appropriate alternative immunosuppressants with less potential for embryofetal toxicity. Risks and benefits of mycophenolate mofetil should be discussed with the patient.
    Advise sexually active male patients and/or their partners to use effective contraception during the treatment of the male patient and for at least 90 days after cessation of treatment. This recommendation is based on findings of animal studies [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

    17.2 Development of Lymphoma and Other Malignancies

    Inform patients that they are at increased risk of developing lymphomas and other malignancies, particularly of the skin, due to immunosuppression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
    Advise patients to limit exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet (UV) light by wearing protective clothing and use of sunscreen with high protection factor.

    17.3 Increased Risk of Serious Infections

    Inform patients that they are at increased risk of developing a variety of infections due to immunosuppression. Instruct them to contact their physician if they develop any of the signs and symptoms of infection explained in the Medication Guide.

    17.4 Blood Dyscrasias

    Inform patients that they are at increased risk for developing blood adverse effects such as anemia or low white blood cells. Advise patients to immediately contact their healthcare provider if they experience any evidence of infection, unexpected bruising, or bleeding, or any other manifestation of bone marrow suppression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

    17.5 Gastrointestinal Tract Complications

    Inform patients that mycophenolate mofetil can cause gastrointestinal tract complications including bleeding, intestinal perforations, and gastric or duodenal ulcers. Advise the patient to contact their healthcare provider if they have symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding, or sudden onset or persistent abdominal pain [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

    17.6 Immunizations

    Inform patients that mycophenolate mofetil can interfere with the usual response to immunizations. Before seeking vaccines on their own, advise patients to discuss first with their physician [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

    17.7 Administration Instructions

    Advise patients not to crush mycophenolate mofetil tablets and not to open mycophenolate mofetil capsules.
    Advise patients to avoid inhalation or contact of the skin or mucous membranes with the powder contained in mycophenolate mofetil capsules. If such contact occurs, they must wash the area of contact thoroughly with soap and water. In case of ocular contact, rinse eyes with plain water.
    Advise patients to take a missed dose as soon as they remember, except if it is closer than 2 hours to the next scheduled dose; in this case they should continue to take mycophenolate mofetil at the usual times.

    17.8 Blood Donation

    Advise patients not to donate blood during therapy and for at least 6 weeks following discontinuation of mycophenolate mofetil.

    17.9 Semen Donation

    Advise males of childbearing potential not to donate semen during therapy and for 90 days following discontinuation of mycophenolate mofetil.

    Close
  • Medication Guide

    Mycophenolate Mofetil Capsules, USP

    and

    Mycophenolate Mofetil Tablets, USP

    (mye'' koe fen' oh late moe' fe til)

    Read the Medication Guide that comes with mycophenolate mofetil before you start taking it and each time you refill your prescription. There may be new information. This Medication Guide does not take the place of talking with your doctor about your medical condition or treatment.

    What is the most important information I should know about mycophenolate mofetil?

    Mycophenolate mofetil can cause serious side effects, including:

    Increased risk of loss of a pregnancy (miscarriage) and higher risk of birth defects. Females who take mycophenolate mofetil during pregnancy have a higher risk of miscarriage during the first 3 months (first trimester), and a higher risk that their baby will be born with birth defects.

    If you are a female who can become pregnant, your doctor must talk with you about acceptable birth control methods (contraceptive counseling) to use while taking mycophenolate mofetil. You should have 1 pregnancy test immediately before starting mycophenolate mofetil and another pregnancy test 8 to 10 days later. Pregnancy tests should be repeated during routine follow-up visits with your doctor. Talk to your doctor about the results of all of your pregnancy tests.
     
    You must use acceptable birth control during your entire mycophenolate mofetil treatment and for 6 weeks after stopping mycophenolate mofetil, unless at any time you choose to avoid sexual intercourse (abstinence) with a man completely. Mycophenolate mofetil decreases blood levels of the hormones in birth control pills that you take by mouth. Birth control pills may not work as well while you take mycophenolate mofetil, and you could become pregnant. If you take birth control pills while using mycophenolate mofetil you must also use another form of birth control. Talk to your doctor about other birth control methods that you can use while taking mycophenolate mofetil.
    If you are a sexually active male whose female partner can become pregnant while you are taking mycophenolate mofetil, use effective contraception during treatment and for at least 90 days after stopping mycophenolate mofetil.
    If you plan to become pregnant, talk with your doctor. Your doctor will decide if other medicines to prevent rejection may be right for you.
    If you become pregnant while taking mycophenolate mofetil, do not stop taking mycophenolate mofetil. Call your doctor right away. You and your doctor may decide that other medicines to prevent rejection may be right for you. You and your doctor should report your pregnancy to the Mycophenolate Pregnancy Registry either:
    o
    By phone at 1-800-617-8191 or
    o
    By visiting the REMS website at: www.mycophenolateREMS.com

    The purpose of this registry is to gather information about the health of you and your baby.

    Increased risk of getting certain cancers. People who take mycophenolate mofetil have a higher risk of getting lymphoma, and other cancers, especially skin cancer. Tell your doctor if you have:

    unexplained fever, prolonged tiredness, weight loss or lymph node swelling
    a brown or black skin lesion with uneven borders, or one part of the lesion does not look like the other
    a change in the size and color of a mole
    a new skin lesion or bump
    any other changes to your health

    Increased risk of getting serious infections. Mycophenolate mofetil weakens the body’s immune system and affects your ability to fight infections. Serious infections can happen with mycophenolate mofetil and can lead to hospitalizations and death. These serious infections can include:

    Viral infections. Certain viruses can live in your body and cause active infections when your immune system is weak. Viral infections that can happen with mycophenolate mofetil include:
    o
    Shingles, other herpes infections, and cytomegalovirus (CMV). CMV can cause serious tissue and blood infections.
    o
    BK virus. BK virus can affect how your kidney works and cause your transplanted kidney to fail.
    o
    Hepatitis B and C viruses. Hepatitis viruses can affect how your liver works. Talk to your doctor about how hepatitis viruses may affect you.
    A brain infection called Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). In some patients, mycophenolate mofetil may cause an infection of the brain that may cause death. You are at risk for this brain infection because you have a weakened immune system. Call your doctor right away if you have any of the following symptoms:
    o
    weakness on one side of the body
    o
    you do not care about things you usually care about (apathy)
    you are confused or have problems thinking
    you cannot control your muscles
    Fungal infections. Yeasts and other types of fungal infections can happen with mycophenolate mofetil and can cause serious tissue and blood infections (See “What are the possible side effects of mycophenolate mofetil?”).

    Call your doctor right away if you have any of the following signs and symptoms of infection:

    temperature of 100.5°F or greater
    cold symptoms, such as a runny nose or sore throat
    flu symptoms, such as an upset stomach, stomach pain, vomiting or diarrhea
    earache or headache
    pain during urination
    white patches in the mouth or throat
    unexpected bruising or bleeding
    cuts, scrapes or incisions that are red, warm and oozing pus

     

    See “What are the possible side effects of mycophenolate mofetil?” for information about other serious side effects.

    What is mycophenolate mofetil?

    Mycophenolate mofetil is a prescription medicine to prevent rejection (antirejection medicine) in people who have received a kidney, heart or liver transplant. Rejection is when the body’s immune system perceives the new organ as a “foreign” threat and attacks it.
    Mycophenolate mofetil is used with other medicines containing cyclosporine and corticosteroids.

    Who should not take mycophenolate mofetil?

    Do not take mycophenolate mofetil if you are allergic to mycophenolate mofetil or any of the ingredients in mycophenolate mofetil capsules or tablets. See the end of this Medication Guide for a complete list of ingredients in mycophenolate mofetil capsules and tablets.

    What should I tell my doctor before taking mycophenolate mofetil?

    Tell your doctor about all of your medical conditions, including if you:

    have any digestive problems, such as ulcers.
    have Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome, or another rare inherited deficiency hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HGPRT). You should not take mycophenolate mofetil if you have one of these disorders.
    plan to receive any vaccines. People taking mycophenolate mofetil should not receive live vaccines. Some vaccines may not work as well during treatment with mycophenolate mofetil.
    are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. See “What is the most important information I should know about mycophenolate mofetil?”
    are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if mycophenolate mofetil passes into breast milk. You and your doctor will decide if you will take mycophenolate mofetil or breastfeed.

    Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins and herbal supplements. Some medicines may affect the way mycophenolate mofetil works, and mycophenolate mofetil may affect how some medicines work.

    Especially tell your doctor if you take:

    birth control pills (oral contraceptives). See “What is the most important information I should know about mycophenolate mofetil?”
    sevelamer (Renagel ®, Renvela ). These products should be taken at least 2 hours after taking mycophenolate mofetil.
    acyclovir (Zovirax ®), valacyclovir (Valtrex ®), ganciclovir (CYTOVENE ® -IV, Vitrasert ®), valganciclovir (VALCYTE ®).
    rifampin (Rifater ®, Rifamate ®, Rimactane ®, Rifadin ®).
    antacids that contain magnesium and aluminum (mycophenolate mofetil and the antacid should not be taken at the same time).
    proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (Prevacid ®, Protonix ®).
    sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (BACTRIM , BACTRIM DS ).
    norfloxacin (Noroxin ®) and metronidazole (Flagyl ®, Flagyl ® ER, Flagyl ® IV, Metro IV, Helidac ®, Pylera ).
    ciprofloxacin (Cipro ®, Cipro ® XR, Ciloxan ®, Proquin ® XR) and amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid (Augmentin ®, Augmentin XR ).
    azathioprine (Azasan ®, Imuran ®).
    cholestyramine (Questran Light ®, Questran ®, Locholest Light, Locholest, Prevalite ®).

    Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them to show to your doctor or nurse and pharmacist when you get a new medicine. Do not take any new medicine without talking with your doctor.

    How should I take mycophenolate mofetil?

    Take mycophenolate mofetil exactly as prescribed.
    Do not stop taking mycophenolate mofetil or change the dose unless your doctor tells you to.
    If you miss a dose of mycophenolate mofetil, or you are not sure when you took your last dose, take your prescribed dose of mycophenolate mofetil as soon as you remember. If your next dose is less than 2 hours away, skip the missed dose and take your next dose at your normal scheduled time. Do not take 2 doses at the same time. Call your doctor if you are not sure what to do.
    Take mycophenolate mofetil capsules and tablets on an empty stomach, unless your doctor tells you otherwise. Do not crush mycophenolate mofetil tablets.
    Do not open or crush mycophenolate mofetil capsules.
    If you are not able to swallow mycophenolate mofetil tablets or capsules, your doctor may prescribe mycophenolate mofetil oral suspension. This is a liquid form of mycophenolate mofetil. Your pharmacist will mix the medicine before you pick it up from a pharmacy.
    Do not mix mycophenolate mofetil oral suspension with any other medicine. Mycophenolate mofetil oral suspension should not be mixed with any type of liquids before taking the dose.
    Do not breathe in (inhale) or let mycophenolate mofetil powder or oral suspension come in contact with your skin or mucous membranes.
    o
    If you accidentally get the powder or oral suspension on the skin, wash the area well with soap and water.
    o
    If you accidentally get the powder or oral suspension in your eyes or other mucous membranes, flush with plain water.
    If you take too much mycophenolate mofetil, call your doctor or the poison control center right away.

    What should I avoid while taking mycophenolate mofetil capsules and tablets?

    Avoid becoming pregnant. See “What is the most important information I should know about mycophenolate mofetil?”
    Limit the amount of time you spend in sunlight. Avoid using tanning beds or sunlamps. People who take mycophenolate mofetil have a higher risk of getting skin cancer (See “What is the most important information I should know about mycophenolate mofetil?”). Wear protective clothing when you are in the sun and use a sunscreen with a high protection factor. This is especially important if your skin is very fair or if you have a family history of skin cancer.
    You should not donate blood while taking mycophenolate mofetil and for at least 6 weeks after stopping mycophenolate mofetil.
    You should not donate sperm while taking mycophenolate mofetil and for 90 days after stopping mycophenolate mofetil.
    Mycophenolate mofetil may influence your ability to drive and use machines (See “What are the possible side effects of mycophenolate mofetil?”). If you experience drowsiness, confusion, dizziness, tremor, or low blood pressure during treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, you should be cautious about driving or using heavy machines.

    What are the possible side effects of mycophenolate mofetil?

    Mycophenolate mofetil can cause serious side effects, including:

    See “What is the most important information I should know about mycophenolate mofetil?”
    Low blood cell counts. People taking high doses of mycophenolate mofetil each day may have a decrease in blood counts, including:
    o
    white blood cells, especially neutrophils. Neutrophils fight against bacterial infections. You have a higher chance of getting an infection when your white blood cell count is low. This is most common from 1 month to 6 months after your transplant.
    o
    red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen to your body tissues. You have a higher chance of getting severe anemia when your red blood cell count is low.
    o
    platelets. Platelets help with blood clotting.

    Your doctor will do blood tests before you start taking mycophenolate mofetil and during treatment with mycophenolate mofetil to check your blood cell counts. Tell your doctor right away if you have any signs of infection (See “What is the most important information I should know about mycophenolate mofetil?”), including any unexpected bruising or bleeding. Also, tell your doctor if you have unusual tiredness, lack of energy, dizziness or fainting.

    Stomach problems. Stomach problems including intestinal bleeding, a tear in your intestinal wall (perforation) or stomach ulcers can happen in people who take mycophenolate mofetil. Bleeding can be severe and you may have to be hospitalized for treatment. Call your doctor right away if you have sudden or severe stomach-area pain or stomach-area pain that does not go away, or if you have diarrhea.

    The most common side effects of mycophenolate mofetil include:

    diarrhea
    blood problems including low white and red blood cell counts
    infections
    blood pressure problems
    fast heart beat
    swelling of the lower legs, ankles and feet
    changes in laboratory blood levels, including high levels of blood sugar (hyperglycemia)
    stomach problems including diarrhea, constipation, nausea and vomiting
    rash
    nervous system problems such as headache, dizziness and tremor

    Side effects that can happen more often in children than in adults taking mycophenolate mofetil include:

    stomach area pain
    fever
    infection
    pain
    blood infection (sepsis)
    diarrhea
    vomiting
    sore throat
    colds (respiratory tract infections)
    high blood pressure
    low white blood cell count
    low red blood cell count

    These are not all of the possible side effects of mycophenolate mofetil. Tell your doctor about any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.

    Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. You may also report side effects to Mylan at 1-877-446-3679 (1-877-4-INFO-RX).

    How should I store mycophenolate mofetil?

    Store mycophenolate mofetil capsules and tablets at room temperature between 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
    Keep mycophenolate mofetil tablets in the light resistant container that it comes in.

    Keep mycophenolate mofetil and all medicines out of the reach of children.

    General Information about the safe and effective use of mycophenolate mofetil.

    Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use mycophenolate mofetil for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give mycophenolate mofetil to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them.

    This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about mycophenolate mofetil. If you would like more information, talk with your doctor. You can ask your doctor or pharmacist for information about mycophenolate mofetil that is written for health professionals.

    What are the ingredients in mycophenolate mofetil capsules and tablets?

    Active Ingredient: mycophenolate mofetil

    Inactive Ingredients:

    Mycophenolate mofetil 250 mg capsules: black iron oxide, colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, FD&C Blue No. 2, gelatin, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, pregelatinized starch (corn), red iron oxide, sodium lauryl sulfate, titanium dioxide and yellow iron oxide. In addition, the imprinting ink contains the following: ammonium hydroxide, black iron oxide, propylene glycol, and shellac glaze.

    Mycophenolate mofetil 500 mg tablets: colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, povidone, pregelatinized starch (corn), red iron oxide, sodium lauryl sulfate, talc, titanium dioxide and yellow iron oxide.

    Manufactured for: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc., Morgantown, WV 26505 U.S.A.

    For more information, call Mylan at 1-877-446-3679 (1-877-4-INFO-RX).

    The brands listed are trademarks of their respective owners.

    This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

    Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
    Morgantown, WV 26505 U.S.A.

    Revised: 9/2018
    MYCO:R9mpbmh/MG:MYCO:R8mpb/ MG:MYCO:R8mh

    Close
  • PACKAGE/LABEL PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL – 250 mg

    NDC 0378-2250-01

    Mycophenolate
    Mofetil
    Capsules, USP
    250 mg

    PHARMACIST: Dispense the accompanying
    Medication Guide to each patient.

    Rx only 100 Capsules

    Each capsule contains:
    Mycophenolate mofetil, USP 250 mg

    Dispense in a tight, light-resistant
    container as defined in the USP
    using a child-resistant closure.

    Keep container tightly closed.

    Keep this and all medication
    out of the reach of children.

    Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
    [See USP Controlled Room
    Temperature.]

    Usual Dosage: See accompanying
    prescribing information.

    CAUTION: Special Handling and
    Disposal Instructions - see
    prescribing information.

    Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
    Morgantown, WV 26505 U.S.A.

    Mylan.com

    RM2250A6

    Mycophenolate Mofetil Tablets 250 mg Bottle Label
    Close
  • PACKAGE/LABEL PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL – 500 mg

    PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 500 mg Tablets

    NDC 0378-4472-01

    Mycophenolate
    Mofetil
    Tablets, USP
    500 mg

    PHARMACIST: Dispense the accompanying
    Medication Guide to each patient.

    Rx only 100 Tablets

    Each tablet contains:
    Mycophenolate mofetil, USP 500 mg

    Dispense in a tight, light-resistant
    container as defined in the USP
    using a child-resistant closure.

    Keep container tightly closed.

    Keep this and all medication
    out of the reach of children.

    Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
    [See USP Controlled Room
    Temperature.]

    Usual Dosage: See accompanying
    prescribing information.

    CAUTION: Special Handling and
    Disposal Instructions - see
    prescribing information.

    Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
    Morgantown, WV 26505 U.S.A.

    Mylan.com

    RM4472A5

    Mycophenolate Mofetil Tablets 500 mg Bottle Label
    Close
  • INGREDIENTS AND APPEARANCE
    MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL 
    mycophenolate mofetil capsule
    Product Information
    Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG Item Code (Source) NDC:0378-2250
    Route of Administration ORAL
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
    MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL (UNII: 9242ECW6R0) (MYCOPHENOLIC ACID - UNII:HU9DX48N0T) MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL 250 mg
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient Name Strength
    SILICON DIOXIDE (UNII: ETJ7Z6XBU4)  
    CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM (UNII: M28OL1HH48)  
    MAGNESIUM STEARATE (UNII: 70097M6I30)  
    MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE (UNII: OP1R32D61U)  
    STARCH, CORN (UNII: O8232NY3SJ)  
    SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE (UNII: 368GB5141J)  
    FERROSOFERRIC OXIDE (UNII: XM0M87F357)  
    FD&C BLUE NO. 2 (UNII: L06K8R7DQK)  
    GELATIN, UNSPECIFIED (UNII: 2G86QN327L)  
    FERRIC OXIDE RED (UNII: 1K09F3G675)  
    TITANIUM DIOXIDE (UNII: 15FIX9V2JP)  
    FERRIC OXIDE YELLOW (UNII: EX438O2MRT)  
    AMMONIA (UNII: 5138Q19F1X)  
    PROPYLENE GLYCOL (UNII: 6DC9Q167V3)  
    SHELLAC (UNII: 46N107B71O)  
    Product Characteristics
    Color BROWN (caramel opaque) , PURPLE (lavender opaque) Score no score
    Shape CAPSULE Size 19mm
    Flavor Imprint Code MYLAN;2250
    Contains     
    Packaging
    # Item Code Package Description Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    1 NDC:0378-2250-01 100 in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 05/04/2009
    2 NDC:0378-2250-05 500 in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 05/04/2009
    Marketing Information
    Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    ANDA ANDA065520 05/04/2009
    MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL 
    mycophenolate mofetil tablet, film coated
    Product Information
    Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG Item Code (Source) NDC:0378-4472
    Route of Administration ORAL
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
    MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL (UNII: 9242ECW6R0) (MYCOPHENOLIC ACID - UNII:HU9DX48N0T) MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL 500 mg
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient Name Strength
    SILICON DIOXIDE (UNII: ETJ7Z6XBU4)  
    CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM (UNII: M28OL1HH48)  
    MAGNESIUM STEARATE (UNII: 70097M6I30)  
    MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE (UNII: OP1R32D61U)  
    POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL, UNSPECIFIED (UNII: 3WJQ0SDW1A)  
    POLYVINYL ALCOHOL, UNSPECIFIED (UNII: 532B59J990)  
    POVIDONE, UNSPECIFIED (UNII: FZ989GH94E)  
    STARCH, CORN (UNII: O8232NY3SJ)  
    FERRIC OXIDE RED (UNII: 1K09F3G675)  
    SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE (UNII: 368GB5141J)  
    TALC (UNII: 7SEV7J4R1U)  
    TITANIUM DIOXIDE (UNII: 15FIX9V2JP)  
    FERRIC OXIDE YELLOW (UNII: EX438O2MRT)  
    Product Characteristics
    Color PINK (light pink) Score no score
    Shape OVAL Size 19mm
    Flavor Imprint Code MYLAN;472
    Contains     
    Packaging
    # Item Code Package Description Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    1 NDC:0378-4472-01 100 in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 05/04/2009
    2 NDC:0378-4472-05 500 in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 05/04/2009
    Marketing Information
    Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    ANDA ANDA065521 05/04/2009
    Labeler - Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc. (059295980)
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