Label: PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE- pramipexole dihydrochloride tablet

  • NDC Code(s): 68382-196-05, 68382-196-10, 68382-196-16, 68382-197-05, view more
    68382-197-10, 68382-197-16, 68382-198-05, 68382-198-10, 68382-198-16, 68382-199-05, 68382-199-10, 68382-199-16, 68382-200-05, 68382-200-10, 68382-200-16
  • Packager: Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.
  • Category: HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL
  • DEA Schedule: None
  • Marketing Status: Abbreviated New Drug Application

Drug Label Information

Updated May 3, 2018

If you are a consumer or patient please visit this version.

  • HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
    These highlights do not include all the information needed to use PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS.

    PRAMIPEXOLE dihydrochloride tablets, for oral use
    Initial U.S. Approval: 1997

    RECENT MAJOR CHANGES

    Warnings and Precautions, Postural Deformity (5.6)
    5/2018
    Warnings and Precautions, Rhabdomyolysis (5.8)
    5/2018
    Warnings and Precautions,
    Events Reported with Dopaminergic Therapy (5.10);
    Melanoma                   Removed
    5/2018

    INDICATIONS AND USAGE

    Pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets are a non-ergot dopamine agonist indicated for the treatment of:

    • Parkinson's disease (PD) (1.1)
    • Moderate-to-severe primary Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) (1.2)

    DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    *Doses should not be increased more frequently than every 5 to 7 days. Titrate to effective dose. If used with levodopa, may need to reduce levodopa dose

    Parkinson’s Disease-Normal Renal Function(2.2)


    Week
    Dosage (mg)
    Total Daily Dose (mg)
    1
    0.125 TID
    0.375
    2
    0.25 TID
    0.75
    3
    0.5 TID
    1.5
    4
    0.75 TID
    2.25
    5
    1 TID
    3
    6
    1.25 TID
    3.75
    7
    1.5 TID
    4.5
    Parkinson’s Disease-Impaired Renal Function (2.2)


    Creatinine Clearance
    Starting Dose (mg)
    Maximum Dose (mg)
    > 50 mL/min
    0.125 TID
    1.5 TID
    30 to 50 mL/min
    0.125 BID
    0.75 TID
    15 to 30 mL/min
    0.125 QD
    1.5 QD
    < 15 mL/min and hemodialysis patients

    Data not available

    *Dosing interval is 4 days to 7 days (14 days in patients with CrCl 20 mL/min to 60 mL/min

    Restless Leg Syndrome* (2.3)
    Titration Step
    Dose (mg) 2 to 3 hours before bedtime
    1
    0.125
    2 (if needed)
    0.25
    3 (if needed)
    0.5

    DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

    Tablets: 0.125 mg, 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, 1 mg, and 1.5 mg (3).

    CONTRAINDICATIONS

    None (4)

    WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

    • Falling asleep during activities of daily living: Sudden onset of sleep may occur without warning; advise patients to report symptoms (5.1)
    • Symptomatic orthostatic hypotension: Monitor during dose escalation (5.2)
    • Impulse control/Compulsive behaviors: Patients may experience compulsive behaviors and other intense urges (5.3)
    • Hallucinations and Psychotic-like Behavior: May occur; risk increases with age (5.4)
    • Dyskinesia: May be caused or exacerbated by pramipexole dihydrochloride (5.5)
    • Postural Deformity: Consider reducing the dose or discontinuing pramipexole if postural deformity occurs (5.6)

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Most common adverse reactions (incidence > 5% and greater than placebo):

    • Early PD without levodopa: nausea, dizziness, somnolence, insomnia, constipation, asthenia, and hallucinations (6.1)
    • Advanced PD with levodopa: postural (orthostatic) hypotension, dyskinesia, extrapyramidal syndrome, insomnia, dizziness, hallucinations, accidental injury, dream abnormalities, confusion, constipation, asthenia, somnolence, dystonia, gait abnormality, hypertonia, dry mouth, amnesia, and urinary frequency (6.1)
    • RLS: nausea, somnolence, fatigue, and headache (6.1)

    To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc. at 1-877-993-8779 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Dopamine antagonists: May diminish the effectiveness of pramipexole (7.1)

    USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

    Pregnancy: Based on animal data, may cause fetal harm (8.1)

    See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION and Medication Guide.

    Revised: 5/2018

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  • FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS*
  • 1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

    1.1 Parkinson’s Disease

    Pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets are indicated for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    1.2 Restless Legs Syndrome

    Pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets are indicated for the treatment of moderate-to-severe primary Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS).

    Close
  • 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    2.1 General Dosing Considerations

    Pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets are taken orally, with or without food.

    If a significant interruption in therapy with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets has occurred, re-titration of therapy may be warranted.

    2.2 Dosing for Parkinson’s Disease

    In all clinical studies, dosage was initiated at a subtherapeutic level to avoid intolerable adverse effects and orthostatic hypotension. Pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets should be titrated gradually in all patients. The dose should be increased to achieve a maximum therapeutic effect, balanced against the principal side effects of dyskinesia, hallucinations, somnolence, and dry mouth.

    Dosing in Patients with Normal Renal Function

    Initial Treatment

    Doses should be increased gradually from a starting dose of 0.375 mg/day given in three divided doses and should not be increased more frequently than every 5 to 7 days. A suggested ascending dosage schedule that was used in clinical studies is shown in Table 1:

    Table 1Ascending Dosage Schedule of Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets for Parkinson’s Disease
    Week
    Dosage (mg)
    Total Daily Dose (mg)
    1
    0.125 three times a day
    0.375
    2
    0.25 three times a day
    0.75
    3
    0.5 three times a day
    1.50
    4
    0.75 three times a day
    2.25
    5
    1 three times a day
    3
    6
    1.25 three times a day
    3.75
    7
    1.5 three times a day
    4.50

    Maintenance Treatment

    Pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets were effective and well tolerated over a dosage range of 1.5 to 4.5 mg/day administered in equally divided doses three times per day with or without concomitant levodopa (approximately 800 mg/day).

    In a fixed-dose study in early Parkinson's disease patients, doses of 3 mg, 4.5 mg, and 6 mg per day of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets were not shown to provide any significant benefit beyond that achieved at a daily dose of 1.5 mg/day. However, in the same fixed-dose study, the following adverse events were dose related: postural hypotension, nausea, constipation, somnolence, and amnesia. The frequency of these events was generally 2-fold greater than placebo for pramipexole doses greater than 3 mg/day. The incidence of somnolence reported with pramipexole at a dose of 1.5 mg/day was comparable to placebo.

    When pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets are used in combination with levodopa, a reduction of the levodopa dosage should be considered. In a controlled study in advanced Parkinson's disease, the dosage of levodopa was reduced by an average of 27% from baseline.

    Dosing in Patients with Renal Impairment

    The recommended dosing of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets in Parkinson's disease patients with renal impairment is provided in Table 2.

    Table 2Dosing of Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets in Parkinson’s Disease Patients with Renal Impairment
    Renal Status
    Starting Dose (mg)
    Maximum Dose (mg)
    Normal to mild impairment (creatinine Cl > 50 mL/min)
    0.125 three times a day
    1.5 three times a day
    Moderate impairment (creatinine Cl = 30 to 50 mL/min)
    0.125 twice a day
    0.75 three times a day
    Severe impairment (creatinine Cl = 15 to < 30 mL/min)
    0.125 once a day
    1.5 once a day 
    Very severe impairment (creatinine Cl < 15 mL/min and hemodialysis patients)
    The use of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets has not been adequately studied in this group of patients.

    Discontinuation of Treatment

    Pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets may be tapered off at a rate of 0.75 mg per day until the daily dose has been reduced to 0.75 mg. Thereafter, the dose may be reduced by 0.375 mg per day [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].

    2.3 Dosing for Restless Legs Syndrome

    The recommended starting dose of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets is 0.125 mg taken once daily 2 hours to 3 hours before bedtime. For patients requiring additional symptomatic relief, the dose may be increased every 4 days to 7 days (Table 3). Although the dose of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets was increased to 0.75 mg in some patients during long-term open-label treatment, there is no evidence that the 0.75 mg dose provides additional benefit beyond the 0.5 mg dose.

    Table 3 Ascending Dosage Schedule of Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets for RLS
    *
    if needed
    Titration Step
    Duration
    Dose (mg) to be taken once daily, 2 hours to           3 hours before bedtime
    1
    4 days to 7 days
    0.125
    2*
    4 days to 7 days
    0.25
    3*
    4 days to 7 days
    0.5

    Dosing in Patients with Renal Impairment

    The duration between titration steps should be increased to 14 days in RLS patients with moderate and severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance 20 mL/min to 60 mL/min) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    Discontinuation of Treatment

    In clinical trials of patients being treated for RLS with doses up to 0.75 mg once daily, pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets were discontinued without a taper. In a 26 week placebo-controlled clinical trial, patients reported a worsening of RLS symptom severity as compared to their untreated baseline when pramipexole dihydrochloride treatment was suddenly withdrawn [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].

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  • 3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

    • 0.125 mg: pink color, capsule-shaped, flat, beveled-edged, uncoated tablets debossed with 'P1'on one side and plain on other side.
    • 0.25 mg: pale blue color, round, flat, beveled-edged, uncoated tablets debossed with 'P2'on one side and break line on other side.
    • 0.5 mg: lavender, capsule-shaped, flat, beveled-edged, uncoated tablets debossed with 'P' breakline '3' on one side and plain on other side.
    • 1 mg: light peach to peach, round, flat, beveled-edged, uncoated tablets debossed with 'P4'on one side and break line on other side.
    • 1.5 mg: yellow color, round, flat, beveled- edged, uncoated tablets debossed with 'P5'on one side and break line on other side.
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  • 4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

    None.

    Close
  • 5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

    5.1 Falling Asleep During Activities of Daily Living and Somnolence

    Patients treated with pramipexole have reported falling asleep while engaged in activities of daily living, including the operation of motor vehicles which sometimes resulted in accidents. Although many of these patients reported somnolence while on pramipexole tablets, some perceived that they had no warning signs (sleep attack) such as excessive drowsiness, and believed that they were alert immediately prior to the event. Some of these events had been reported as late as one year after the initiation of treatment.

    Somnolence is a common occurrence in patients receiving pramipexole at doses above 1.5 mg/day (0.5 mg three times a day) for Parkinson's disease. In controlled clinical trials in RLS, patients treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets at doses of 0.25 mg to 0.75 mg once a day, the incidence of somnolence was 6% compared to an incidence of 3% for placebo-treated patients [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. It has been reported that falling asleep while engaged in activities of daily living usually occurs in a setting of pre-existing somnolence, although patients may not give such a history. For this reason, prescribers should reassess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness, especially since some of the events occur well after the start of treatment. Prescribers should also be aware that patients may not acknowledge drowsiness or sleepiness until directly questioned about drowsiness or sleepiness during specific activities.

    Before initiating treatment with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets, advise patients of the potential to develop drowsiness and specifically ask about factors that may increase the risk for somnolence with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets such as the use of concomitant sedating medications or alcohol, the presence of sleep disorders, and concomitant medications that increase pramipexole plasma levels (e.g., cimetidine) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. If a patient develops significant daytime sleepiness or episodes of falling asleep during activities that require active participation (e.g., conversations, eating, etc.), pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets should ordinarily be discontinued. If a decision is made to continue pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets, advise patients not to drive and to avoid other potentially dangerous activities that might result in harm if the patients become somnolent. While dose reduction reduces the degree of somnolence, there is insufficient information to establish that dose reduction will eliminate episodes of falling asleep while engaged in activities of daily living.

    5.2 Symptomatic Orthostatic Hypotension

    Dopamine agonists, in clinical studies and clinical experience, appear to impair the systemic regulation of blood pressure, with resulting orthostatic hypotension, especially during dose escalation. Parkinson's disease patients, in addition, appear to have an impaired capacity to respond to an orthostatic challenge. For these reasons, both Parkinson's disease patients and RLS patients being treated with dopaminergic agonists ordinarily require careful monitoring for signs and symptoms of orthostatic hypotension, especially during dose escalation, and should be informed of this risk.

    In clinical trials of pramipexole, however, and despite clear orthostatic effects in normal volunteers, the reported incidence of clinically significant orthostatic hypotension was not greater among those assigned to pramipexole tablets than among those assigned to placebo. This result, especially with the higher doses used in Parkinson's disease, is clearly unexpected in light of the previous experience with the risks of dopamine agonist therapy.

    While this finding could reflect a unique property of pramipexole, it might also be explained by the conditions of the study and the nature of the population enrolled in the clinical trials. Patients were very carefully titrated, and patients with active cardiovascular disease or significant orthostatic hypotension at baseline were excluded. Also, clinical trials in patients with RLS did not incorporate orthostatic challenges with intensive blood pressure monitoring done in close temporal proximity to dosing.

    5.3 Impulse Control/Compulsive Behaviors

    Case reports and the results of a cross-sectional study suggest that patients can experience intense urges to gamble, increased sexual urges, intense urges to spend money uncontrollably, binge eating, and/or other intense urges and the inability to control these urges while taking one or more of the medications, including pramipexole dihydrochloride, that increase central dopaminergic tone and that are generally used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. In some cases, although not all, these urges were reported to have stopped when the dose was reduced or the medication was discontinued. Because patients may not recognize these behaviors as abnormal it is important for prescribers to specifically ask patients or their caregivers about the development of new or increased gambling urges, sexual urges, uncontrolled spending or other urges while being treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride. Physicians should consider dose reduction or stopping the medication if a patient develops such urges while taking pramipexole dihydrochloride.

    5.4 Hallucinations and Psychotic-like Behavior

    In the three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in early Parkinson's disease, hallucinations were observed in 9% (35 of 388) of patients receiving pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets, compared with 2.6% (6 of 235) of patients receiving placebo. In the four double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in advanced Parkinson's disease, where patients received pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets and concomitant levodopa, hallucinations were observed in 16.5% (43 of 260) of patients receiving pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets compared with 3.8% (10 of 264) of patients receiving placebo. Hallucinations were of sufficient severity to cause discontinuation of treatment in 3.1% of the early Parkinson's disease patients and 2.7% of the advanced Parkinson's disease patients compared with about 0.4% of placebo patients in both populations.

    Age appears to increase the risk of hallucinations attributable to pramipexole. In the early Parkinson's disease patients, the risk of hallucinations was 1.9 times greater than placebo in patients younger than 65 years and 6.8 times greater than placebo in patients older than 65 years. In the advanced Parkinson's disease patients, the risk of hallucinations was 3.5 times greater than placebo in patients younger than 65 years and 5.2 times greater than placebo in patients older than 65 years.

    Postmarketing reports with medication used to treat Parkinson's disease, including pramipexole dihydrochloride, indicate that patients may experience new or worsening mental status and behavioral changes, which may be severe, including psychotic-like behavior during treatment with pramipexole dihydrochloride or after starting or increasing the dose of pramipexole dihydrochloride. Other drugs prescribed to improve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease can have similar effects on thinking and behavior. This abnormal thinking and behavior can consist of one or more of a variety of manifestations including paranoid ideation, delusions, hallucinations, confusion, psychotic-like behavior, disorientation, aggressive behavior, agitation, and delirium.

    Patients with a major psychotic disorder should ordinarily not be treated with dopamine agonists, including pramipexole dihydrochloride, because of the risk of exacerbating the psychosis. In addition, certain medications used to treat psychosis may exacerbate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and may decrease the effectiveness of pramipexole dihydrochloride [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].

    In the RLS clinical trials, one pramipexole-treated patient (of 889) reported hallucinations; this patient discontinued treatment and the symptoms resolved.

    5.5 Dyskinesia

    Pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets may cause or exacerbate preexisting dyskinesia.

    5.6 Postural Deformity

    Postural deformities, including antecollis, camptocormia (Bent Spine Syndrome), and pleurothotonus (Pisa Syndrome), have been reported in patients after starting or increasing the dose of pramipexole. Postural deformity may occur several months after starting treatment or increasing the dose. Reducing the dose or discontinuing pramipexole has been reported to improve postural deformity in some patients, and should be considered if postural deformity occurs.

    5.7 Renal Impairment

    Since pramipexole is eliminated through the kidneys, caution should be exercised when prescribing pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets to patients with renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Use in Specific Populations (8.6), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    5.8 Rhabdomyolysis

    A single case of rhabdomyolysis occurred in a 49 year old male with advanced Parkinson's disease treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets. The patient was hospitalized with an elevated CPK (10,631 IU/L). The symptoms resolved with discontinuation of the medication.

    Advise patients to contact a physician if they experience any unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, as these may be symptoms of rhabdomyolysis.

    5.9 Retinal Pathology

    Human Data

    A two-year open-label, randomized, parallel-group safety study of retinal deterioration and vision compared pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets and immediate-release ropinirole. Two hundred thirty four Parkinson's disease patients (115 on pramipexole, mean dose 3 mg/day and 119 on ropinirole, mean dose 9.5 mg/day) were evaluated using a panel of clinical ophthalmological assessments. Of 234 patients who were evaluable, 196 had been treated for two years and 29 were judged to have developed clinical abnormalities that were considered meaningful (19 patients in each treatment arm had received treatment for less than two years). There was no statistical difference in retinal deterioration between the treatment arms; however, the study was only capable of detecting a very large difference between treatments. In addition, because the study did not include an untreated comparison group (placebo treated), it is unknown whether the findings reported in patients treated with either drug are greater than the background rate in an aging population.

    Animal Data

    Pathologic changes (degeneration and loss of photoreceptor cells) were observed in the retina of albino rats in the 2 year carcinogenicity study. While retinal degeneration was not diagnosed in pigmented rats treated for 2 years, a thinning in the outer nuclear layer of the retina was slightly greater in rats given drug compared with controls. Evaluation of the retinas of albino mice, monkeys, and minipigs did not reveal similar changes. The potential significance of this effect in humans has not been established, but cannot be disregarded because disruption of a mechanism that is universally present in vertebrates (i.e., disk shedding) may be involved [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].

    5.10 Events Reported with Dopaminergic Therapy

    Although the events enumerated below may not have been reported in association with the use of pramipexole in its development program, they are associated with the use of other dopaminergic drugs. The expected incidence of these events, however, is so low that even if pramipexole caused these events at rates similar to those attributable to other dopaminergic therapies, it would be unlikely that even a single case would have occurred in a cohort of the size exposed to pramipexole in studies to date.

    Hyperpyrexia and Confusion

    Although not reported with pramipexole in the clinical development program, a symptom complex resembling the neuroleptic malignant syndrome (characterized by elevated temperature, muscular rigidity, altered consciousness, and autonomic instability), with no other obvious etiology, has been reported in association with rapid dose reduction, withdrawal of, or changes in dopaminergic therapy. If possible, avoid sudden discontinuation or rapid dose reduction in patients taking pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets. If the decision is made to discontinue pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets, the dose should be tapered to reduce the risk of hyperpyrexia and confusion [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].

    Fibrotic Complications

    Cases of retroperitoneal fibrosis, pulmonary infiltrates, pleural effusion, pleural thickening, pericarditis, and cardiac valvulopathy have been reported in patients treated with ergot-derived dopaminergic agents. While these complications may resolve when the drug is discontinued, complete resolution does not always occur.

    Although these adverse events are believed to be related to the ergoline structure of these compounds, whether other, nonergot-derived dopamine agonists can cause them is unknown.

    Cases of possible fibrotic complications, including peritoneal fibrosis, pleural fibrosis, and pulmonary fibrosis have been reported in the post marketing experience with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets. While the evidence is not sufficient to establish a causal relationship between pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets and these fibrotic complications, a contribution of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets cannot be completely ruled out.

    Rebound and Augmentation in RLS

    Reports in the literature indicate treatment of RLS with dopaminergic medications can result in rebound: a worsening of symptoms following treatment cessation with greater intensity than described before starting treatment. In a 26 week placebo controlled clinical trial in patients with RLS, a worsening of symptoms scores (IRLS) beyond their untreated baseline levels was reported more frequently by patients suddenly withdrawn from pramipexole dihydrochloride (up to 0.75 mg once daily) compared to the group assigned to placebo (10% vs. 2%, respectively). The worsening of RLS symptoms was considered generally mild.

    Augmentation has also been described during therapy for RLS. Augmentation refers to the earlier onset of symptoms in the evening (or even the afternoon), increase in symptoms, and spread of symptoms to involve other extremities. In a 26 week placebo controlled clinical trial in patients with RLS, augmentation was reported with greater frequency by patients treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride (up to 0.75 mg once daily) compared to patients who received placebo (12% vs. 9%, respectively). The incidence of augmentation increased with increasing duration of exposure to pramipexole dihydrochloride and to placebo.

    The frequency and severity of augmentation and/or rebound after longer-term use of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets and the appropriate management of these events have not been adequately evaluated in controlled clinical trials.

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  • 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

    The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

    •   Falling Asleep During Activities of Daily Living and somnolence [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
    •   Symptomatic Orthostatic Hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].
    •   Impulse Control/Compulsive Behaviors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ]
    •   Hallucinations and Psychotic-like Behavior [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ].
    •   Dyskinesia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ].
    •   Postural Deformity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ]
    •   Rhabdomyolysis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ].
    •   Retinal Pathology [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) ].
    •   Events Reported with Dopaminergic Therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10) ].

    6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

    Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.

    Parkinson's Disease

    During the premarketing development of pramipexole, patients with either early or advanced Parkinson's disease were enrolled in clinical trials. Apart from the severity and duration of their disease, the two populations differed in their use of concomitant levodopa therapy. Patients with early disease did not receive concomitant levodopa therapy during treatment with pramipexole; those with advanced Parkinson's disease all received concomitant levodopa treatment. Because these two populations may have differential risks for various adverse reactions, this section will, in general, present adverse-reaction data for these two populations separately.

    Because the controlled trials performed during premarketing development all used a titration design, with a resultant confounding of time and dose, it was impossible to adequately evaluate the effects of dose on the incidence of adverse reactions.

    Early Parkinson's Disease

    In the three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of patients with early Parkinson's disease, the most common adverse reactions (> 5%) that were numerically more frequent in the group treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets were nausea, dizziness, somnolence, insomnia, constipation, asthenia, and hallucinations.

    Approximately 12% of 388 patients with early Parkinson's disease and treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets who participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled trials discontinued treatment due to adverse reactions compared with 11% of 235 patients who received placebo. The adverse reactions most commonly causing discontinuation of treatment were related to the nervous system (hallucinations [3.1% on pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets vs. 0.4% on placebo]; dizziness [2.1% on pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets vs. 1% on placebo]; somnolence [1.6% on pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets vs. 0% on placebo]; headache and confusion [1.3% and 1%, respectively, on pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets vs. 0% on placebo]); and gastrointestinal system (nausea [2.1% on pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets vs. 0.4% on placebo]).

    Adverse-reaction Incidence in Controlled Clinical Studies in Early Parkinson's Disease

    Table 4 lists adverse reactions that occurred in the doubleblind, placebo-controlled studies in early Parkinson's disease that were reported by  ≥ 1% of patients treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets and were numerically more frequent than in the placebo group. In these studies, patients did not receive concomitant levodopa.

    Table 4Adverse-Reactions in Pooled Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials with Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets in Early Parkinson's Disease
    Body System/Adverse Reaction 
    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride  
    (N=388
    %
    Placebo 
    (N=235
    %
    Nervous System


    Dizziness 
    25
    24
    Somnolence 
    22
    9
    Insomnia 
    17
    12
    Hallucinations 
    9
    3
    Confusion 
    4
    1
    Amnesia 
    4
    2
    Hypesthesia 
    3
    1
    Dystonia 
    2
    1
    Akathisia 
    2
    0
    Thinking abnormalities 
    2
    0
    Decreased libido 
    1
    0
    Myoclonus 
    1
    0
    Digestive System


    Nausea 
    28
    18
    Constipation 
    14
    6
    Anorexia 
    4
    2
    Dysphagia 
    2
    0
    Body as Whole


    Asthenia 
    14
    12
    General edema 
    5
    3
    Malaise 
    2
    1
    Reaction unevaluable 
    2
    1
    Fever 
    1
    0
    Metabolic Nutritional System 


    Peripheral edema 
    5
    4
    Decreased weight 
    2
    0
    Special Senses 


    Vision abnormalities 
    3
    0
    Urogenital System


    Impotence 
    2
    1

    In a fixed-dose study in early Parkinson's disease, occurrence of the following reactions increased in frequency as the dose increased over the range from 1.5 mg/day to 6 mg/day: postural hypotension, nausea, constipation, somnolence, and amnesia. The frequency of these reactions was generally 2-fold greater than placebo for pramipexole doses greater than 3 mg/day. The incidence of somnolence with pramipexole at a dose of 1.5 mg/day was comparable to that reported for placebo.

    Advanced Parkinson's Disease

    In the four double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease, the most common adverse reactions (> 5%) that were numerically more frequent in the group treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets and concomitant levodopa were postural (orthostatic) hypotension, dyskinesia, extrapyramidal syndrome, insomnia, dizziness, hallucinations, accidental injury, dream abnormalities, confusion, constipation, asthenia, somnolence, dystonia, gait abnormality, hypertonia, dry mouth, amnesia, and urinary frequency.

    Approximately 12% of 260 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease who received pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets and concomitant levodopa in the double-blind, placebo-controlled trials discontinued treatment due to adverse reactions compared with 16% of 264 patients who received placebo and concomitant levodopa. The reactions most commonly causing discontinuation of treatment were related to the nervous system (hallucinations [2.7% on pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets vs. 0.4% on placebo]; dyskinesia [1.9% on pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets vs. 0.8% on placebo]; and cardiovascular system (postural [orthostatic] hypotension [2.3% on pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets vs. 1.1% on placebo]).

    Adverse-reaction Incidence in Controlled Clinical Studies in Advanced Parkinson's Disease

    Table 5 lists adverse reactions that occurred in the double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in advanced Parkinson's disease that were reported by ≥ 1% of patients treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets and were numerically more frequent than in the placebo group. In these studies, pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets or placebo was administered to patients who were also receiving concomitant levodopa.

    Table 5Adverse-Reactions in Pooled Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials withpramipexole dihydrochloride in Advanced Parkinson's Disease
    Body SystemAdverse Reaction 
     
    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride 
    (N=260)
    %
    Placebo
    (N=264
    %
    Nervous System 


    Dyskinesia 
    47
    31
    Extrapyramidal syndrome 
    28
    26
    Insomnia 
    27
    22
    Dizziness 
    26
    25
    Hallucinations 
    17
    4
    Dream abnormalities 
    11
    10
    Confusion 
    10
    7
    Somnolence 
    9
    6
    Dystonia 
    8
    7
    Gait abnormalities 
    7
    5
    Hypertonia 
    7
    6
    Amnesia 
    6
    4
    Akathisia 
    3
    2
    Thinking abnormalities 
    3
    2
    Paranoid reaction 
    2
    0
    Delusions 
    1
    0
    Sleep disorders 
    1
    0
    Cardiovascular System 


    Postural hypotension 
    53
    48
    Body as Whole 


    Accidental injury 
    17
    15
    Asthenia 
    10
    8
    General edema 
    4
    3
    Chest pain 
    3
    2
    Malaise 
    3
    2
    Digestive System 


    Constipation 
    10
    9
    Dry mouth 
    7
    3
    Urogenital System 


    Urinary frequency
    6
    3
    Urinary tract infection 
    4
    3
    Urinary incontinence 
    2
    1
    Respiratory System 


    Dyspnea
    4
    3
    Rhinitis
    3
    1
    Pneumonia
    2
    0
    Special Senses


    Accommodation abnormalities
    4
    2
    Vision abnormalities
    3
    1
    Diplopia
    1
    0
    Musculoskeletal System


    Arthritis
    3
    1
    Twitching
    2
    0
    Bursitis
    2
    0
    Myasthenia
    1
    0
    Metabolic Nutritional System


    Peripheral edema
    2
    1
    Increased creatine PK
    1
    0
    Skin Appendages


    Skin disorders
    2
    1

    Restless Legs Syndrome

    Pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets for treatment of RLS have been evaluated for safety in 889 patients, including 427 treated for over six months and 75 for over one year.

    The overall safety assessment focuses on the results of three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, in which 575 patients with RLS were treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets for up to 12 weeks. The most common adverse reactions with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets in the treatment of RLS (observed in >5% of pramipexole dihydrochloride-treated patients and at a rate at least twice that observed in placebo-treated patients) were nausea and somnolence. Occurrences of nausea and somnolence in clinical trials were generally mild and transient.

    Approximately 7% of 575 patients treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets during the double-blind periods of three placebo-controlled trials discontinued treatment due to adverse reactions compared to 5% of 223 patients who received placebo. The adverse reaction most commonly causing discontinuation of treatment was nausea (1%).

    Table 6 lists reactions that occurred in three double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in RLS patients that were reported by ≥2% of patients treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets and were numerically more frequent than in the placebo group.

    Table 6 Adverse-Reactions in Pooled Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials with Pramipexole Dihydrochloride in Restless Legs Syndrome
    Body System/Adverse Reaction
    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride
    0.125 mg/day to 0.75 mg/day
    Placebo
    (N=575)
    (N=223)
    %
    %
    Gastrointestinal disorders
    Nausea
    16
    5
    Constipation
    4
    1
    Diarrhea
    3
    1
    Dry mouth
    3
    1
    Nervous system disorders
    Headache
    16
    15
    Somnolence
    6
    3
    General disorders and administration site conditions
    Fatigue
    9
    7
    Infections and infestations
    Influenza
    3
    1

    Table 7 summarizes data for adverse reactions that appeared to be dose related in the 12-week fixed dose study.

    Table 7 Dose-Related Adverse Reactions in a 12-Week Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Fixed Dose Study in Restless Legs Syndrome (Occurring in ≥5% of all Patients in the Treatment Phase)
    Body System/Adverse Reaction
    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride
    0.25 mg
    (N=88)
    %
    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride
    0.5 mg
    (N=80)
    %
    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride
    0.75 mg
    (N=90)
    %
    Placebo
    (N=86)
    %
    Gastrointestinal disorders
    Nausea
    11
    19
    27
    5
    Diarrhea
    3
    1
    7
    0
    Dyspepsia
    3
    1
    4
    7
    Psychiatric disorders
    Insomnia
    9
    9
    13
    9
    Abnormal dreams
    2
    1
    8
    2
    General disorders and administration site conditions
    Fatigue
    3
    5
    7
    5
    Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
    Pain in extremity
    3
    3
    7
    1
    Infections and infestations
    Influenza
    1
    4
    7
    1
    Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders
    Nasal congestion
    0
    3
    6
    1

    Adverse Reactions: Relationship to Age, Gender, and Race

    Among the adverse reactions in patients treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets, hallucination appeared to exhibit a positive relationship to age in patients with Parkinson's disease. Although no gender-related differences were observed in Parkinson's disease patients, nausea and fatigue, both generally transient, were more frequently reported by female than male RLS patients. Less than 4% of patients enrolled were non-Caucasian: therefore, an evaluation of adverse reactions related to race is not possible.

    Laboratory Tests

    During the development of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets, no systematic abnormalities on routine laboratory testing were noted.

    6.2 Post Marketing Experience

    In addition to the adverse events reported during clinical trials, the following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets, primarily in Parkinson's disease patients. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Decisions to include these reactions in labeling are typically based on one or more of the following factors: (1) seriousness of the reaction, (2) frequency of reporting, or (3) strength of causal connection to pramipexole tablets.

    Cardiac Disorders: cardiac failure

    Gastrointestinal Disorders: vomiting

    Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), weight increase

    Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: postural deformity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]

    Nervous System Disorders: syncope

    Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: skin reactions (including erythema, rash, pruritus, urticaria)

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  • 7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

    7.1 Dopamine Antagonists

    Since pramipexole is a dopamine agonist, it is possible that dopamine antagonists, such as the neuroleptics (phenothiazines, butyrophenones, thioxanthenes) or metoclopramide, may diminish the effectiveness of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets.

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  • 8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

    8.1 Pregnancy

    Risk Summary

    There are no adequate data on the developmental risk associated with the use of pramipexole in pregnant women. No adverse developmental effects were observed in animal studies in which pramipexole was administered to rabbits during pregnancy. Effects on embryofetal development could not be adequately assessed in pregnant rats; however, postnatal growth was inhibited at clinically relevant exposures [see Data]. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and of miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.

    Data

    Animal Data

    Oral administration of pramipexole (0.1, 0.5, or 1.5 mg/kg/day) to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis resulted in a high incidence of total resorption of embryos at the highest dose tested. This increase in embryolethality is thought to result from the prolactin-lowering effect of pramipexole; prolactin is necessary for implantation and maintenance of early pregnancy in rats but not in rabbits or humans. Because of pregnancy disruption and early embryonic loss in this study, the teratogenic potential of pramipexole could not be adequately assessed in rats. The highest no-effect dose for embryolethality in rats was associated with maternal plasma drug exposures (AUC) approximately equal to those in humans receiving the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 4.5 mg/day. There were no adverse effects on embryo-fetal development following oral administration of pramipexole (0.1, 1, or 10 mg/kg/day) to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis (plasma AUC up to approximately 70 times that in humans at the MRHD). Postnatal growth was inhibited in the offspring of rats treated with pramipexole (0.1, 0.5, or 1.5 mg/kg/day) during the latter part of pregnancy and throughout lactation. The noeffect dose for adverse effects on offspring growth (0.1 mg/kg/day) was associated with maternal plasma drug exposures lower than that in humans at the MRHD.

    8.2 Lactation

    Risk Summary

    There are no data on the presence of pramipexole in human milk, the effects of pramipexole on the breastfed infant, or the effects of pramipexole on milk production.

    However, inhibition of lactation is expected because pramipexole inhibits secretion of prolactin in humans. Pramipexole or metabolites, or both, are present in rat milk [see Data].

    The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for pramipexole and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from pramipexole or from the underlying maternal condition.

    Data

    In a study of radio-labeled pramipexole, pramipexole or metabolites, or both, were present in rat milk at concentrations three to six times higher than those in maternal plasma.

    8.4 Pediatric Use

    Safety and effectiveness of pramipexole dihydrochloride in pediatric patients has not been established.

    8.5 Geriatric Use

    Pramipexole total oral clearance is approximately 30% lower in subjects older than 65 years compared with younger subjects, because of a decline in pramipexole renal clearance due to an age-related reduction in renal function. This resulted in an increase in elimination half-life from approximately 8.5 hours to 12 hours.

    In clinical studies with Parkinson's disease patients, 38.7% of patients were older than 65 years. There were no apparent differences in efficacy or safety between older and younger patients, except that the relative risk of hallucination associated with the use of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets was increased in the elderly.

    In clinical studies with RLS patients, 22% of patients were at least 65 years old. There were no apparent differences in efficacy or safety between older and younger patients.

    8.6 Renal Impairment

    The elimination of pramipexole is dependent on renal function. Pramipexole clearance is extremely low in dialysis patients, as a negligible amount of pramipexole is removed by dialysis. Caution should be exercised when administering pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets to patients with renal disease [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.7), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

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  • 10 OVERDOSAGE

    There is no clinical experience with significant overdosage. One patient took 11 mg/day of pramipexole for 2 days in a clinical trial for an investigational use. Blood pressure remained stable although pulse rate increased to between 100 and 120 beats/minute. No other adverse reactions were reported related to the increased dose.

    There is no known antidote for overdosage of a dopamine agonist. If signs of central nervous system stimulation are present, a phenothiazine or other butyrophenone neuroleptic agent may be indicated; the efficacy of such drugs in reversing the effects of overdosage has not been assessed. Management of overdose may require general supportive measures along with gastric lavage, intravenous fluids, and electrocardiogram monitoring.

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  • 11 DESCRIPTION

    Pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets contain pramipexole, a nonergot dopamine agonist. The chemical name of pramipexole dihydrochloride is (S)-2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-6-(propylamino)benzothiazole dihydrochloride monohydrate. Its molecular formula is C10 H17 N3 S 2HCl H2O, and its molecular weight is 302.26. The structural formula is:

    Pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets

    Pramipexole dihydrochloride (monohydrate), USP  is a white to almost white crystalline powder and it is freely soluble in water, soluble in methanol, slightly soluble in alcohol and practically insoluble in methylene chloride.  Melting occurs in the range of 296o to 301oC, with decomposition.

    Each pramipexole dihydrochloride tablet intended for oral administration contains 0.125 mg, 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 1.5 mg of pramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, mannitol, magnesium stearate, pregelatinized starch and povidone. Additionally each 0.125 mg tablet contains D&C red no. 27 aluminum lake, each 0.25 mg tablet contains FD&C blue no. 1 aluminum lake, each 0.5 mg tablet contains FD&C blue no. 1 aluminum lake and D&C red no. 27 aluminum lake, each 1 mg tablet contains ferric oxide red and each 1.5 mg tablet contains ferric oxide yellow.

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  • 12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

    12.1 Mechanism of Action

    Pramipexole is a non-ergot dopamine agonist with high relative in vitro specificity and full intrinsic activity at the D2 subfamily of dopamine receptors, binding with higher affinity to D3 than to D2 or D4 receptor subtypes.

    Parkinson's Disease

    The precise mechanism of action of pramipexole as a treatment for Parkinson's disease is unknown, although it is believed to be related to its ability to stimulate dopamine receptors in the striatum. This conclusion is supported by electrophysiologic studies in animals that have demonstrated that pramipexole influences striatal neuronal firing rates via activation of dopamine receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra, the site of neurons that send projections to the striatum. The relevance of D3 receptor binding in Parkinson's disease is unknown.

    Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)

    The precise mechanism of action of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets as a treatment for RLS is unknown. Although the pathophysiology of RLS is largely unknown, neuropharmacological evidence suggests primary dopaminergic system involvement. Positron Emission Tomographic (PET) studies suggest that a mild striatal presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of RLS.

    12.2 Pharmacodynamics

    The effect of pramipexole on the QT interval of the ECG was investigated in a clinical study in 60 healthy male and female volunteers. All subjects initiated treatment with 0.375 mg extended release pramipexole tablets administered once daily, and were up-titrated every 3 days to 2.25 mg and 4.5 mg daily, a faster rate of titration than recommended in the label. No dose- or exposure-related effect on mean QT intervals was observed; however, the study did not have a valid assessment of assay sensitivity. The effect of pramipexole on QTc intervals at higher exposures achieved either due to drug interactions (e.g., with cimetidine), renal impairment, or at higher doses has not been systematically evaluated.

    Although mean values remained within normal reference ranges throughout the study, supine systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and pulse rate for subjects treated with pramipexole generally increased during the rapid up-titration phase, by 10 mmHg, 7 mmHg, and 10 bpm higher than placebo, respectively. Higher SBP, DBP, and pulse rates compared to placebo were maintained until the pramipexole doses were tapered; values on the last day of tapering were generally similar to baseline values. Such effects have not been observed in clinical studies with Parkinson's disease patients, who were titrated according to labeled recommendations.

    12.3 Pharmacokinetics

    Pramipexole displays linear pharmacokinetics over the clinical dosage range. Its terminal half-life is about 8 hours in young healthy volunteers and about 12 hours in elderly volunteers. Steady-state concentrations are achieved within 2 days of dosing.

    Absorption

    Pramipexole is rapidly absorbed, reaching peak concentrations in approximately 2 hours. The absolute bioavailability of pramipexole is greater than 90%, indicating that it is well absorbed and undergoes little presystemic metabolism. Food does not affect the extent of pramipexole absorption, although the time of maximum plasma concentration (Tmax) is increased by about 1 hour when the drug is taken with a meal.

    Distribution

    Pramipexole is extensively distributed, having a volume of distribution of about 500 L (coefficient of variation [CV]=20%). It is about 15% bound to plasma proteins. Pramipexole distributes into red blood cells as indicated by an erythrocyte-to-plasma ratio of approximately 2.

    Metabolism

    Pramipexole is metabolized only to a negligible extent (< 10%). No specific active metabolite has been identified in human plasma or urine.

    Elimination

    Urinary excretion is the major route of pramipexole elimination, with 90% of a pramipexole dose recovered in urine, almost all as unchanged drug. The renal clearance of pramipexole is approximately 400 mL/min (CV=25%), approximately three times higher than the glomerular filtration rate. Thus, pramipexole is secreted by the renal tubules, probably by the organic cation transport system.

    Pharmacokinetics in Specific Populations

    Because therapy with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets is initiated at a low dose and gradually titrated upward according to clinical tolerability to obtain the optimum therapeutic effect, adjustment of the initial dose based on gender, weight, race, or age is not necessary. However, renal insufficiency, which can cause a large decrease in the ability to eliminate pramipexole, may necessitate dosage adjustment [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)] .

    Gender

    Pramipexole clearance is about 30% lower in women than in men, but this difference can be accounted for by differences in body weight. There is no difference in half-life between males and females.

    Age

    Pramipexole clearance decreases with age as the half-life and clearance are about 40% longer and 30% lower, respectively, in elderly (aged 65 years or older) compared with young healthy volunteers (aged less than 40 years). This difference is most likely due to the reduction in renal function with age, since pramipexole clearance is correlated with renal function, as measured by creatinine clearance.

    Race

    No racial differences in metabolism and elimination have been identified.

    Parkinson's Disease Patients

    A cross-study comparison of data suggests that the clearance of pramipexole may be reduced by about 30% in Parkinson's disease patients compared with healthy elderly volunteers. The reason for this difference appears to be reduced renal function in Parkinson's disease patients, which may be related to their poorer general health. The pharmacokinetics of pramipexole were comparable between early and advanced Parkinson's disease patients.

    Restless Legs Syndrome Patients

    A cross-study comparison of data suggests that the pharmacokinetic profile of pramipexole administered once daily in RLS patients is similar to the pharmacokinetic profile of pramipexole in healthy volunteers.

    Hepatic Impairment

    The influence of hepatic insufficiency on pramipexole pharmacokinetics has not been evaluated. Because approximately 90% of the recovered dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug, hepatic impairment would not be expected to have a significant effect on pramipexole elimination.

    Renal Impairment

    Clearance of pramipexole was about 75% lower in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance approximately 20 mL/min) and about 60% lower in patients with moderate impairment (creatinine clearance approximately 40 mL/min) compared with healthy volunteers [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) and Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. In patients with varying degrees of renal impairment, pramipexole clearance correlates well with creatinine clearance. Therefore, creatinine clearance can be used as a predictor of the extent of decrease in pramipexole clearance.

    Drug Interactions Carbidopa/levodopa

    Carbidopa/levodopa did not influence the pharmacokinetics of pramipexole in healthy volunteers (N=10). Pramipexole did not alter the extent of absorption (AUC) or the elimination of carbidopa/levodopa, although it caused an increase in levodopa Cmax by about 40% and a decrease in Tmax from 2.5 to 0.5 hours.

    Selegiline

    In healthy volunteers (N=11), selegiline did not influence the pharmacokinetics of pramipexole.

    Amantadine

    Population pharmacokinetic analyses suggest that amantadine may slightly decrease the oral clearance of pramipexole.

    Cimetidine

    Cimetidine, a known inhibitor of renal tubular secretion of organic bases via the cationic transport system, caused a 50% increase in pramipexole AUC and a 40% increase in half-life (N=12).

    Probenecid

    Probenecid, a known inhibitor of renal tubular secretion of organic acids via the anionic transporter, did not noticeably influence pramipexole pharmacokinetics (N=12).

    Other drugs eliminated via renal secretion

    Population pharmacokinetic analysis suggests that coadministration of drugs that are secreted by the cationic transport system (e.g., cimetidine, ranitidine, diltiazem, triamterene, verapamil, quinidine, and quinine) decreases the oral clearance of pramipexole by about 20%, while those secreted by the anionic transport system (e.g., cephalosporins, penicillins, indomethacin, hydrochlorothiazide, and chlorpropamide) are likely to have little effect on the oral clearance of pramipexole. Other known organic cation transport substrates and/or inhibitors (e.g., cisplatin and procainamide) may also decrease the clearance of pramipexole.

    CYP interactions

    Inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes would not be expected to affect pramipexole elimination because pramipexole is not appreciably metabolized by these enzymes in vivo or in vitro. Pramipexole does not inhibit CYP enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4. Inhibition of CYP2D6 was observed with an apparent Ki of 30 μM, indicating that pramipexole will not inhibit CYP enzymes at plasma concentrations observed following the clinical dose of 4.5 mg/day (1.5 mg TID).

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  • 13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

    13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

    Two year carcinogenicity studies with pramipexole have been conducted in mice and rats. Pramipexole was administered in the diet to mice at doses up to 10 mg/kg/day (or approximately 10 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) for Parkinson's disease of 4.5 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis). Pramipexole was administered in the diet to rats at doses up to 8 mg/kg/day. These doses were associated with plasma AUCs up to approximately 12 times that in humans at the MRHD. No significant increases in tumors occurred in either species.

    Pramipexole was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a battery of in vitro (bacterial reverse mutation, V79/HGPRT gene mutation, chromosomal aberration in CHO cells) and in vivo (mouse micronucleus) assays.

    In rat fertility studies, pramipexole at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day (5 times the MRHD on a mg/m2basis), prolonged estrus cycles and inhibited implantation. These effects were associated with reductions in serum levels of prolactin, a hormone necessary for implantation and maintenance of early pregnancy in rats.

    13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology

    Retinal Pathology in Rats

    Pathologic changes (degeneration and loss of photoreceptor cells) were observed in the retina of albino rats in the 2 year carcinogenicity study with pramipexole. These findings were first observed during week 76 and were dose-dependent in animals receiving 2 or 8 mg/kg/day (plasma AUCs equal to 2.5 and 12.5 times that in humans at the MRHD). In a similar study of pigmented rats with 2 years exposure to pramipexole at 2 or 8 mg/kg/day, retinal degeneration was not observed. Animals given drug had thinning in the outer nuclear layer of the retina that was only slightly greater (by morphometric analysis) than that seen in control rats.

    Investigative studies demonstrated that pramipexole reduced the rate of disk shedding from the photoreceptor rod cells of the retina in albino rats, which was associated with enhanced sensitivity to the damaging effects of light. In a comparative study, degeneration and loss of photoreceptor cells occurred in albino rats after 13 weeks of treatment with 25 mg/kg/day of pramipexole (54 times the MRHD on a mg/m2basis) and constant light (100 lux) but not in pigmented rats exposed to the same dose and higher light intensities (500 lux). Thus, the retina of albino rats is considered to be uniquely sensitive to the damaging effects of pramipexole and light. Similar changes in the retina did not occur in a 2 year carcinogenicity study in albino mice treated with 0.3, 2, or 10 mg/kg/day (0.3, 2.2 and 11 times the MRHD on a mg/m2basis). Evaluation of the retinas of monkeys given 0.1, 0.5, or 2 mg/kg/day of pramipexole (0.4, 2.2, and 8.6 times the MRHD on a mg/m2basis) for 12 months and minipigs given 0.3, 1, or 5 mg/kg/day of pramipexole for 13 weeks also detected no changes.

    The potential significance of this effect in humans has not been established, but cannot be disregarded because disruption of a mechanism that is universally present in vertebrates (i.e., disk shedding) may be involved.

    Fibro-osseous Proliferative Lesions in Mice

    An increased incidence of fibro-osseous proliferative lesions occurred in the femurs of female mice treated for 2 years with 0.3, 2, or 10 mg/kg/day (0.3, 2.2, and 11 times the MRHD on a mg/m2basis). Similar lesions were not observed in male mice or rats and monkeys of either sex that were treated chronically with pramipexole. The significance of this lesion to humans is not known.

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  • 14 CLINICAL STUDIES

    14.1 Parkinson’s Disease

    The effectiveness of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets in the treatment of Parkinson's disease was evaluated in a multinational drug development program consisting of seven randomized, controlled trials. Three were conducted in patients with early Parkinson's disease who were not receiving concomitant levodopa, and four were conducted in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease who were receiving concomitant levodopa. Among these seven studies, three studies provide the most persuasive evidence of pramipexole's effectiveness in the management of patients with Parkinson's disease who were and were not receiving concomitant levodopa. Two of these three trials enrolled patients with early Parkinson's disease (not receiving levodopa), and one enrolled patients with advanced Parkinson's disease who were receiving maximally tolerated doses of levodopa.

    In all studies, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), or one or more of its subparts, served as the primary outcome assessment measure. The UPDRS is a four-part multi-item rating scale intended to evaluate mentation (part I), Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (part II), motor performance (part III), and complications of therapy (part IV).

    Part II of the UPDRS contains 13 questions relating to ADL, which are scored from 0 (normal) to 4 (maximal severity) for a maximum (worst) score of 52. Part III of the UPDRS contains 27 questions (for 14 items) and is scored as described for part II. It is designed to assess the severity of the cardinal motor findings in patients with Parkinson's disease (e.g., tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability, etc.), scored for different body regions, and has a maximum (worst) score of 108.

    Studies in Patients with Early Parkinson's Disease

    Patients (N=599) in the two studies of early Parkinson's disease had a mean disease duration of 2 years, limited or no prior exposure to levodopa (generally none in the preceding 6 months), and were not experiencing the "on-off" phenomenon and dyskinesia characteristic of later stages of the disease.

    One of the two early Parkinson's disease studies (N=335) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial consisting of a 7 week dose-escalation period and a 6 month maintenance period. Patients could be on selegiline, anticholinergics, or both, but could not be on levodopa products or amantadine. Patients were randomized to pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets or placebo. Patients treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets had a starting daily dose of 0.375 mg and were titrated to a maximally tolerated dose, but no higher than 4.5 mg/day in three divided doses. At the end of the 6 month maintenance period, the mean improvement from baseline on the UPDRS part II (ADL) total score was 1.9 in the group receiving pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets and -0.4 in the placebo group, a difference that was statistically significant. The mean improvement from baseline on the UPDRS part III total score was 5 in the group receiving pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets and -0.8 in the placebo group, a difference that was also statistically significant. A statistically significant difference between groups in favor of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets was seen beginning at week 2 of the UPDRS part II (maximum dose 0.75 mg/day) and at week 3 of the UPDRS part III (maximum dose 1.5 mg/day).

    The second early Parkinson's disease study (N=264) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial consisting of a 6 week dose-escalation period and a 4 week maintenance period. Patients could be on selegiline, anticholinergics, amantadine, or any combination of these, but could not be on levodopa products. Patients were randomized to 1 of 4 fixed doses of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets (1.5 mg, 3 mg, 4.5 mg, or 6 mg per day) or placebo. At the end of the 4 week maintenance period, the mean improvement from baseline on the UPDRS part II total score was 1.8 in the patients treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets, regardless of assigned dose group, and 0.3 in placebo-treated patients. The mean improvement from baseline on the UPDRS part III total score was 4.2 in patients treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets and 0.6 in placebo-treated patients. No dose-response relationship was demonstrated. The between-treatment differences on both parts of the UPDRS were statistically significant in favor of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets for all doses.

    No differences in effectiveness based on age or gender were detected. There were too few non-Caucasian patients to evaluate the effect of race. Patients receiving selegiline or anticholinergics had responses similar to patients not receiving these drugs.

    Studies in Patients with Advanced Parkinson's Disease

    In the advanced Parkinson's disease study, the primary assessments were the UPDRS and daily diaries that quantified amounts of "on" and "off" time.

    Patients in the advanced Parkinson's disease study (N=360) had a mean disease duration of 9 years, had been exposed to levodopa for long periods of time (mean 8 years), used concomitant levodopa during the trial, and had "on-off" periods.

    The advanced Parkinson's disease study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial consisting of a 7 week dose-escalation period and a 6 month maintenance period. Patients were all treated with concomitant levodopa products and could additionally be on concomitant selegiline, anticholinergics, amantadine, or any combination. Patients treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets had a starting dose of 0.375 mg/day and were titrated to a maximally tolerated dose, but no higher than 4.5 mg/day in three divided doses. At selected times during the 6 month maintenance period, patients were asked to record the amount of "off," "on," or "on with dyskinesia" time per day for several sequential days. At the end of the 6 month maintenance period, the mean improvement from baseline on the UPDRS part II total score was 2.7 in the group treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets and 0.5 in the placebo group, a difference that was statistically significant. The mean improvement from baseline on the UPDRS part III total score was 5.6 in the group treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets and 2.8 in the placebo group, a difference that was statistically significant. A statistically significant difference between groups in favor of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets was seen at week 3 of the UPDRS part II (maximum dose 1.5 mg/day) and at week 2 of the UPDRS part III (maximum dose 0.75 mg/day). Dosage reduction of levodopa was allowed during this study if dyskinesia (or hallucinations) developed; levodopa dosage reduction occurred in 76% of patients treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets versus 54% of placebo patients. On average, the levodopa dose was reduced 27%.

    The mean number of "off" hours per day during baseline was 6 hours for both treatment groups. Throughout the trial, patients treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets had a mean of 4 "off" hours per day, while placebo-treated patients continued to experience 6 "off" hours per day.

    No differences in effectiveness based on age or gender were detected. There were too few non-Caucasian patients to evaluate the effect of race.

    14.2 Restless Legs Syndrome

    The efficacy of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets in the treatment of RLS was evaluated in a multinational drug development program consisting of 4 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. This program included approximately 1,000 patients with moderate to severe RLS; patients with RLS secondary to other conditions (e.g., pregnancy, renal failure, and anemia) were excluded. All patients were administered pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets (0.125 mg, 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, or 0.75 mg) or placebo once daily 2 hours to 3 hours before going to bed. Across the 4 studies, the mean duration of RLS was 4.6 years (range of 0 to 56 years), mean age was approximately 55 years (range of 18 to 81 years), and approximately 66.6% were women.

    Key diagnostic criteria for RLS are: an urge to move the legs usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant leg sensations; symptoms begin or worsen during periods of rest or inactivity such as lying or sitting; symptoms are partially or totally relieved by movement such as walking or stretching at least as long as the activity continues; and symptoms are worse or occur only in the evening or night. Difficulty falling asleep may frequently be associated with symptoms of RLS.

    The two outcome measures used to assess the effect of treatment were the International RLS Rating Scale (IRLS Scale) and a Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) assessment. The IRLS Scale contains 10 items designed to assess the severity of sensory and motor symptoms, sleep disturbance, daytime somnolence, and impact on activities of daily living and mood associated with RLS. The range of scores is 0 to 40, with 0 being absence of RLS symptoms and 40 the most severe symptoms. The CGI-I is designed to assess clinical progress (global improvement) on a 7-point scale.

    In Study 1, fixed doses of pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets were compared to placebo in a study of 12 weeks duration. A total of 344 patients were randomized equally to the 4 treatment groups. Patients treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets (n=254) had a starting dose of 0.125 mg/day and were titrated to one of the three randomized doses (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 mg/day) in the first three weeks of the study. The mean improvement from baseline on the IRLS Scale total score and the percentage of CGI-I responders for each of the pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets treatment groups compared to placebo are summarized in Table 8. All treatment groups reached statistically significant superiority compared to placebo for both endpoints. There was no clear evidence of a dose-response across the 3 randomized dose groups.

    Table 8 Mean Changes from Baseline to Week 12 in IRLS Score and CGI-I (Study 1)

    *CGI-I responders = "much improved" and "very much improved"


    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride
    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride
    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride
    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride
    Placebo

    0.25 mg
    0.5 mg
    0.75 mg
    Total

    No. Patients
    88
    79
    87
    254
    85
    IRLS score
    -13.1
    -13.4
    -14.4
    -13.6
    -9.4
    CGI-I responders*
    74.7%

    67.9%

    72.9%

    72%

    51.2%

    Study 2 was a randomized-withdrawal study, designed to demonstrate the sustained efficacy of pramipexole for treatment of RLS after a period of six months. RLS patients who responded to pramipexole hydrochloride tablets treatment in a preceding 6-month open-label treatment phase (defined as having a CGI-I rating of "very much improved" or "much improved" compared to baseline and an IRLS score of 15 or below) were randomized to receive either continued active treatment (n=78) or placebo (n=69) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint of this study was time to treatment failure, defined as any worsening on the CGI-I score along with an IRLS Scale total score above 15.

    In patients who had responded to 6-month open label treatment with pramipexole hydrochloride tablets, the administration of placebo led to a rapid decline in their overall conditions and return of their RLS symptoms. At the end of the 12-week observation period, 85% of patients treated with placebo had failed treatment, compared to 21% treated with blinded pramipexole, a difference that was highly statistically significant. The majority of treatment failures occurred within 10 days of randomization. For the patients randomized, the distribution of doses was: 7 on 0.125 mg, 44 on 0.25 mg, 47 on 0.5 mg, and 49 on 0.75 mg.

    Study 3 was a 6-week study, comparing a flexible dose of pramipexole hydrochloride tablets to placebo. In this study, 345 patients were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to pramipexole hydrochloride tablets or placebo. The mean improvement from baseline on the IRLS Scale total score was -12 for pramipexole dihydrochloride-treated patients and -6 for placebo-treated patients. The percentage of CGI-I responders was 63% for pramipexole dihydrochloride-treated patients and 32% for placebo-treated patients. The between-group differences were statistically significant for both outcome measures. For the patients randomized to pramipexole hydrochloride tablets, the distribution of achieved doses was: 35 on 0.125 mg, 51 on 0.25 mg, 65 on 0.5 mg, and 69 on 0.75 mg.

    Study 4 was a 3-week study, comparing 4 fixed doses of pramipexole hydrochloride tablets, 0.125 mg, 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, and 0.75 mg, to placebo. Approximately 20 patients were randomized to each of the 5 dose groups. The mean improvement from baseline on the IRLS Scale total score and the percentage of CGI-I responders for each of the pramipexole hydrochloride tablets treatment groups compared to placebo are summarized in Table 9. In this study, the 0.125 mg dose group was not significantly different from placebo. On average, the 0.5 mg dose group performed better than the 0.25 mg dose group, but there was no difference between the 0.5 mg and 0.75 mg dose groups.

    Table 9 Mean Changes from Baseline to Week 3 in IRLS Score and CGI-I (Study 4)

    *CGI-I responders = "much improved" and "very much improved"


    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride
    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride
    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride
    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride
    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride
    Placebo

    0.125 mg
    0.25 mg
    0.5 mg
    0.75 mg
    Total

    No. Patients
    21
    22
    22
    21
    86
    21
    IRLS score
    -11.7
    -15.3
    -17.6
    -15.2
    -15
    -6.2
    CGI-I responders*
    61.9%
    68.2%

    86.4%

    85.7%

    75.6%

    42.9%

    No differences in effectiveness based on age or gender were detected. There were too few non-Caucasian patients to evaluate the effect of race.

    Close
  • 16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

    16.1 How Supplied

    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets, 0.125 mg are pink color, capsule-shaped, flat, beveled-edged, uncoated tablets debossed with 'P1'on one side and plain on other side and are supplied are as follows:

    NDC 68382-196-16 in bottle of 90 tablets

    NDC 68382-196-05 in bottle of 500 tablets

    NDC 68382-196-10 in bottle of 1000 tablets

    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets, 0.25 mg are pale blue color, round, flat, beveled-edged, uncoated tablets debossed with 'P2'on one side and break line on other side and are supplied as follows:

    NDC 68382-197-16 in bottle of 90 tablets

    NDC 68382-197-05 in bottle of 500 tablets

    NDC 68382-197-10 in bottle of 1000 tablets

    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets, 0.5 mg are lavender, capsule-shaped, flat, beveled-edged, uncoated tablets debossed with 'P' breakline '3' on one side and plain on other side and are supplied as follows:

    NDC 68382-198-16 in bottle of 90 tablets

    NDC 68382-198-05 in bottle of 500 tablets

    NDC 68382-198-10 in bottle of 1000 tablets

    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets, 1 mg are light peach to peach, round, flat, beveled-edged, uncoated tablets debossed with 'P4'on one side and break line on other side and are supplied as follows:

    NDC 68382-199-16 in bottle of 90 tablets

    NDC 68382-199-05 in bottle of 500 tablets

    NDC 68382-199-10 in bottle of 1000 tablets

    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets, 1.5 mg are yellow color, round, flat, beveled- edged, uncoated tablets debossed with 'P5'on one side and break line on other side and are supplied as follows:

    NDC 68382-200-16 in bottle of 90 tablets

    NDC 68382-200-05 in bottle of 500 tablets

    NDC 68382-200-10 in bottle of 1000 tablets

    16.2 Storage and Handling

    Storage:                     

    Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light.

    Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container.

    Store in a safe place out of the reach of children.

    Close
  • 17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

    Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Patient Information).

    Dosing Instructions

    Instruct patients to take pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets only as prescribed. If a dose is missed, advise patients not to double their next dose.

    Pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets can be taken with or without food. If patients develop nausea, advise that taking pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets with food may reduce the occurrence of nausea.

    Pramipexole is the active ingredient that is in both pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets and extended-release pramipexole tablets. Ensure that patients do not take both extended-release pramipexole and pramipexole dihydrochloride.

    Sedating Effects

    Alert patients to the potential sedating effects associated with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets, including somnolence and the possibility of falling asleep while engaged in activities of daily living. Since somnolence is a frequent adverse reaction with potentially serious consequences, patients should neither drive a car nor engage in other potentially dangerous activities until they have gained sufficient experience with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets to gauge whether or not it affects their mental and/or motor performance adversely. Advise patients that if increased somnolence or new episodes of falling asleep during activities of daily living (e.g., conversations or eating) are experienced at any time during treatment, they should not drive or participate in potentially dangerous activities until they have contacted their physician. Because of possible additive effects, advise caution when patients are taking other sedating medications or alcohol in combination with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets and when taking concomitant medications that increase plasma levels of pramipexole (e.g., cimetidine) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

    Impulse Control Symptoms Including Compulsive Behaviors

    Alert patients and their caregivers to the possibility that they may experience intense urges to spend money uncontrollably, intense urges to gamble, increased sexual urges, binge eating and/or other intense urges and the inability to control these urges while taking pramipexole dihydrochloride [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

    Hallucinations and Psychotic-like Behavior

    Inform patients that hallucinations and other psychotic-like behavior can occur and that the elderly are at a higher risk than younger patients with Parkinson's disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

    Postural (Orthostatic) Hypotension

    Advise patients that they may develop postural (orthostatic) hypotension, with or without symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, fainting or blackouts, and sometimes, sweating. Hypotension may occur more frequently during initial therapy. Accordingly, caution patients against rising rapidly after sitting or lying down, especially if they have been doing so for prolonged periods and especially at the initiation of treatment with pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

    Pregnancy

    Because the teratogenic potential of pramipexole has not been completely established in laboratory animals, and because experience in humans is limited, advise women to notify their physicians if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during therapy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

    Lactation

    Because of the possibility that pramipexole may be excreted in breast milk, advise women to notify their physicians if they intend to breast-feed or are breast-feeding an infant [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].

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  • SPL UNCLASSIFIED SECTION

    Manufactured by:

    Cadila Healthcare Ltd.

    Ahmedabad, India

     

    Distributed by:

    Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.

    Pennington, NJ 08534

    Rev.:05/18

    Close
  • MEDICATION GUIDE

    PATIENT INFORMATION

    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride (PRAM-i-PEX-ole dye-HYE-droe-KLOR-ide) Tablets

    Read this Patient Information before you start taking pramipexole dihydrochloride and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This information does not take the place of talking with your doctor about your medical condition or your treatment.

    What is pramipexole dihydrochloride?

    Pramipexole dihydrochloride is a prescription medicine used to treat:

    •   signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD)
    •   moderate to severe primary Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)

    It is not known if pramipexole dihydrochloride is safe and effective in children.

    What should I tell my doctor before taking pramipexole dihydrochloride?

    • Before taking pramipexole dihydrochloride, tell your doctor if you:
      • feel sleepy during the day from a sleep problem other than Restless Legs Syndrome
      • have low blood pressure, or if you feel dizzy or faint, especially when getting up from sitting or lying down
      • have trouble controlling your muscles (dyskinesia)
      • have kidney problems
      • drink alcohol. Alcohol can increase the chance that pramipexole dihydrochloride will make you feel sleepy or fall asleep when you should be awake.
      • have any other medical conditions
      • are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. It is not known if pramipexole dihydrochloride will harm your unborn baby.
      • are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if pramipexole dihydrochloride passes into your breast milk. You and your doctor should decide if you will take pramipexole dihydrochloride or breastfeed. You should not do both.

    Tell your doctor about all the medicines you take, including prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements.

    The combination of pramipexole dihydrochloride and other medicines may affect each other and may cause side effects. Pramipexole dihydrochloride may affect the way other medicines work, and other medicines may affect how pramipexole dihydrochloride works.

    Especially tell your doctor if you take:

    •   medicines called neuroleptics (phenothiazines, butyrophenones, thioxanthenes) or metoclopramide. Pramipexole dihydrochloride may not work as well if you take these medicines.
    •   extended-release pramipexole. Pramipexole is the active ingredient in both pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets and pramipexole dihydrochloride extended-release tablets. If you are taking pramipexole dihydrochloride extended-release tablets, you should not take pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets.
    •   any other medicines that make you sleepy or may increase the effects of pramipexole dihydrochloride, such as cimetidine (Tagamet).

    Ask your doctor for a list of these medicines if you are not sure.

    Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them and show it to your doctor and pharmacist when you get a new medicine.

    How should I take pramipexole dihydrochloride?

    • Take pramipexole dihydrochloride exactly as your doctor tells you to take it.
    • Your doctor will tell you how much pramipexole dihydrochloride to take and when to take it. Do not take more or less pramipexole dihydrochloride than your doctor tells you to.
    • Your doctor may change your dose if needed.
    • Pramipexole dihydrochloride can be taken with or without food. Taking pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets with food may lower your chances of getting nausea.
    • If you take more pramipexole dihydrochloride than your doctor recommends, call your doctor or go to the nearest hospital emergency room right away.
    • If you miss a dose, do not double your next dose . Skip the dose you missed and take your next regular dose.
    • If you have Parkinson's disease and your doctor tells you to stop taking pramipexole dihydrochloride, you should stop pramipexole dihydrochloride slowly as directed by your doctor. If you stop pramipexole dihydrochloride too quickly you may have withdrawal symptoms such as:
      • fever
      • confusion
      • severe muscle stiffness

    Do not stop taking pramipexole dihydrochloride without talking to your doctor.

    What should I avoid while taking pramipexole dihydrochloride?

    • Do not drink alcohol while taking pramipexole dihydrochloride. It can increase your chance of having serious side effects. See "What are the possible side effects of pramipexole dihydrochloride?"
    • Do not drive a car, operate a machine, or do other dangerous activities until you know how pramipexole dihydrochloride affects you. Sleepiness caused by pramipexole dihydrochloride can happen as late as 1 year after you start your treatment.

    What are the possible side effects of pramipexole dihydrochloride?

    Pramipexole dihydrochloride may cause serious side effects, including:

    • falling asleep during normal daily activities. Pramipexole dihydrochloride may cause you to fall asleep while you are doing daily activities such as driving, talking with other people, or eating.
      • Some people taking the medicine in pramipexole dihydrochloride have had car accidents because they fell asleep while driving.
      • Some patients did not feel sleepy before they fell asleep while driving. You could fall asleep without any warning.

    Tell your doctor right away if you fall asleep while you are doing activities such as talking, eating, driving, or if you feel sleepier than normal for you.

    • low blood pressure when you sit or stand up quickly . You may have:
      • dizziness
      • nausea
      • fainting
      • sweating

    Sit and stand up slowly after you have been sitting or lying down.

    •   unusual urges. Some people who take certain medicines to treat Parkinson's disease, including pramipexole dihydrochloride, have reported problems, such as gambling, compulsive eating, compulsive buying, and increased sex drive. If you or your family members notice that you are developing unusual urges or behaviors, talk to your doctor.
    •   hallucinations and other psychotic-like behavior (seeing visions, hearing sounds or feeling sensations that are not real, confusion, excessive suspicion, aggressive behavior, agitation, delusional beliefs and disorganized thinking). Your chance of having hallucinations and other psychotic-like behavior is higher if you are elderly (age 65 or older). If you have hallucinations or other psychoticlike changes, talk with your doctor right away.
    •   uncontrolled sudden movements (dyskinesia). If you have new dyskinesia or your existing dyskinesia gets worse tell your doctor.
    •   posture changes. Talk with your doctor if you have posture changes you cannot control. These may include your neck bending forward, bending forward at the waist, or tilting sideways when you sit, stand, or walk.

    The most common side effects in people taking pramipexole dihydrochloride for Restless Legs Syndrome are nausea and headache.

    The most common side effects in people taking pramipexole dihydrochloride for Parkinson's disease are:

    • nausea
    • dizziness
    • insomnia
    • constipation
    • muscle weakness
    • abnormal dreams
    • confusion
    • memory problems(amnesia)
    • urinating more often than normal

    These are not all the possible side effects of pramipexole dihydrochloride. Tell your doctor if you have any side effect that bothers you.

    Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

    How should I store pramipexole dihydrochloride?

    •   Store pramipexole dihydrochloride at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
    •   Keep pramipexole dihydrochloride out of the light.
    •   Keep pramipexole dihydrochloride and all medicines out of the reach of children.

    General Information about the safe and effective use of pramipexole dihydrochloride.

    Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Patient Information leaflet. Do not use pramipexole dihydrochloride for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give pramipexole dihydrochloride to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them.

    This Patient Information leaflet summarizes the most important information about pramipexole dihydrochloride. If you would like more information, talk with your doctor. You can ask your pharmacist or doctor for information about pramipexole dihydrochloride that is written for healthcare professionals.

    Please address medical inquiries to, MedicalAffairs@zydususa.com or Tel.: 1-877-993-8779.

    What are the ingredients in pramipexole dihydrochloride tablets?

    Active Ingredient: pramipexole dihydrochloride (monohydrate), USP

    Inactive Ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, mannitol, magnesium stearate, pregelatinized starch and povidone. Additionally each 0.125 mg tablet contains D&C red no. 27 aluminum lake, each 0.25 mg tablet contains FD&C blue no. 1 aluminum lake, each 0.5 mg tablet contains FD&C blue no. 1 aluminum lake and D&C red no. 27 aluminum lake, each 1 mg tablet contains ferric oxide red and each 1.5 mg tablet contains ferric oxide yellow.

    This Patient Information has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

    The brands listed are trademarks of their respective owners and are not trademarks of Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. The makers of these brands are not affiliated with and do not endorse Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., or its products.

    This product's package insert may have been updated. For current package insert, please visit www.zydususa.com.

    Close
  • SPL UNCLASSIFIED SECTION

    Manufactured by:

    Cadila Healthcare Ltd.

    Ahmedabad, India

     

    Distributed by:

    Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.

    Pennington, NJ 08534

    Rev.:05/18

    Close
  • PACKAGE LABEL.PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL

    NDC 68382-196-16 in bottle of 90 tablets

    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets, 0.125 mg

    Rx only

    90 tablets

    ZYDUS

    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets, 0.125 mg

    NDC 68382-197-16 in bottle of 90 tablets

    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets, 0.25 mg

    Rx only

    90 tablets

    ZYDUS

    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets, 0.25 mg

    NDC 68382-198-16 in bottle of 90 tablets

    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets, 0.5 mg

    Rx only

    90 tablets

    ZYDUS

    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets , 0.5 mg

    NDC 68382-199-16 in bottle of 90 tablets

    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets, 1 mg

    Rx only

    90 tablets

    ZYDUS

    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets , 1 mg

    NDC 68382-200-16 in bottle of 90 tablets

    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets, 1.5 mg

    Rx only

    90 tablets

    ZYDUS

    Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Tablets , 1.5 mmg
    Close
  • INGREDIENTS AND APPEARANCE
    PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE 
    pramipexole dihydrochloride tablet
    Product Information
    Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG Item Code (Source) NDC:68382-196
    Route of Administration ORAL
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
    PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE (UNII: 3D867NP06J) (PRAMIPEXOLE - UNII:83619PEU5T) PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE 0.125 mg
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient Name Strength
    SILICON DIOXIDE (UNII: ETJ7Z6XBU4)  
    MANNITOL (UNII: 3OWL53L36A)  
    MAGNESIUM STEARATE (UNII: 70097M6I30)  
    STARCH, PREGELATINIZED CORN (UNII: O8232NY3SJ)  
    POVIDONE (UNII: FZ989GH94E)  
    D&C RED NO. 27 (UNII: 2LRS185U6K)  
    Product Characteristics
    Color PINK (PINK) Score no score
    Shape CAPSULE (CAPSULE) Size 7mm
    Flavor Imprint Code P1
    Contains     
    Packaging
    # Item Code Package Description Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    1 NDC:68382-196-16 90 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 07/10/2010
    2 NDC:68382-196-05 500 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 07/10/2010
    3 NDC:68382-196-10 1000 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 07/10/2010
    Marketing Information
    Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    ANDA ANDA078920 07/10/2010
    PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE 
    pramipexole dihydrochloride tablet
    Product Information
    Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG Item Code (Source) NDC:68382-197
    Route of Administration ORAL
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
    PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE (UNII: 3D867NP06J) (PRAMIPEXOLE - UNII:83619PEU5T) PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE 0.25 mg
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient Name Strength
    SILICON DIOXIDE (UNII: ETJ7Z6XBU4)  
    MANNITOL (UNII: 3OWL53L36A)  
    MAGNESIUM STEARATE (UNII: 70097M6I30)  
    STARCH, PREGELATINIZED CORN (UNII: O8232NY3SJ)  
    POVIDONE (UNII: FZ989GH94E)  
    FD&C BLUE NO. 1 (UNII: H3R47K3TBD)  
    Product Characteristics
    Color BLUE (BLUE) Score 2 pieces
    Shape ROUND (ROUND) Size 6mm
    Flavor Imprint Code P2
    Contains     
    Packaging
    # Item Code Package Description Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    1 NDC:68382-197-16 90 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 07/10/2010
    2 NDC:68382-197-05 500 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 07/10/2010
    3 NDC:68382-197-10 1000 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 07/10/2010
    Marketing Information
    Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    ANDA ANDA078920 07/10/2010
    PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE 
    pramipexole dihydrochloride tablet
    Product Information
    Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG Item Code (Source) NDC:68382-198
    Route of Administration ORAL
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
    PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE (UNII: 3D867NP06J) (PRAMIPEXOLE - UNII:83619PEU5T) PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE 0.5 mg
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient Name Strength
    SILICON DIOXIDE (UNII: ETJ7Z6XBU4)  
    MANNITOL (UNII: 3OWL53L36A)  
    MAGNESIUM STEARATE (UNII: 70097M6I30)  
    STARCH, PREGELATINIZED CORN (UNII: O8232NY3SJ)  
    POVIDONE (UNII: FZ989GH94E)  
    FD&C BLUE NO. 1 (UNII: H3R47K3TBD)  
    D&C RED NO. 27 (UNII: 2LRS185U6K)  
    Product Characteristics
    Color PURPLE (LAVENDER) Score 2 pieces
    Shape CAPSULE (CAPSULE) Size 8mm
    Flavor Imprint Code P;3
    Contains     
    Packaging
    # Item Code Package Description Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    1 NDC:68382-198-16 90 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 07/10/2010
    2 NDC:68382-198-05 500 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 07/10/2010
    3 NDC:68382-198-10 1000 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 07/10/2010
    Marketing Information
    Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    ANDA ANDA078920 07/10/2010
    PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE 
    pramipexole dihydrochloride tablet
    Product Information
    Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG Item Code (Source) NDC:68382-199
    Route of Administration ORAL
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
    PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE (UNII: 3D867NP06J) (PRAMIPEXOLE - UNII:83619PEU5T) PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE 1 mg
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient Name Strength
    SILICON DIOXIDE (UNII: ETJ7Z6XBU4)  
    MANNITOL (UNII: 3OWL53L36A)  
    MAGNESIUM STEARATE (UNII: 70097M6I30)  
    STARCH, PREGELATINIZED CORN (UNII: O8232NY3SJ)  
    POVIDONE (UNII: FZ989GH94E)  
    FERRIC OXIDE RED (UNII: 1K09F3G675)  
    Product Characteristics
    Color ORANGE (LIGHT PEACH TO PEACH) Score 2 pieces
    Shape ROUND (ROUND) Size 6mm
    Flavor Imprint Code P4
    Contains     
    Packaging
    # Item Code Package Description Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    1 NDC:68382-199-16 90 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 07/10/2010
    2 NDC:68382-199-05 500 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 07/10/2010
    3 NDC:68382-199-10 1000 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 07/10/2010
    Marketing Information
    Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    ANDA ANDA078920 07/10/2010
    PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE 
    pramipexole dihydrochloride tablet
    Product Information
    Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG Item Code (Source) NDC:68382-200
    Route of Administration ORAL
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
    PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE (UNII: 3D867NP06J) (PRAMIPEXOLE - UNII:83619PEU5T) PRAMIPEXOLE DIHYDROCHLORIDE 1.5 mg
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient Name Strength
    SILICON DIOXIDE (UNII: ETJ7Z6XBU4)  
    MANNITOL (UNII: 3OWL53L36A)  
    MAGNESIUM STEARATE (UNII: 70097M6I30)  
    STARCH, PREGELATINIZED CORN (UNII: O8232NY3SJ)  
    POVIDONE (UNII: FZ989GH94E)  
    FERRIC OXIDE YELLOW (UNII: EX438O2MRT)  
    Product Characteristics
    Color YELLOW (YELLOW) Score 2 pieces
    Shape ROUND (ROUND) Size 7mm
    Flavor Imprint Code P5
    Contains     
    Packaging
    # Item Code Package Description Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    1 NDC:68382-200-16 90 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 07/10/2010
    2 NDC:68382-200-05 500 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 07/10/2010
    3 NDC:68382-200-10 1000 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 07/10/2010
    Marketing Information
    Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    ANDA ANDA078920 07/10/2010
    Labeler - Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc. (156861945)
    Registrant - Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc. (156861945)
    Establishment
    Name Address ID/FEI Business Operations
    Cadila Healthcare Limited 918596198 ANALYSIS(68382-196, 68382-197, 68382-198, 68382-199, 68382-200) , MANUFACTURE(68382-196, 68382-197, 68382-198, 68382-199, 68382-200)
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