CITALOPRAM- citalopram tablet, film coated
HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
These highlights do not include all the information needed to use CITALOPRAM TABLETS safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for CITALOPRAM TABLETS. CITALOPRAM tablets, for oral use Initial U.S. Approval: 1998
See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Citalopram tablets is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults (1).
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Tablets: 10 mg; 20 mg, scored; and 40 mg, scored (3)
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Most common adverse reaction (incidence ≥ 5% and twice placebo) is ejaculation disorder (primarily ejaculation delay) (6.1).
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS,
contact Apotex at 1-800-706-5575 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
See 17 for Medication Guide.
FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS*
WARNING: SUICIDAL THOUGHTS AND BEHAVIORS
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 Recommended Dosage
2.2 Screen for Bipolar Disorder Prior to Starting Citalopram Tablets
2.3 Recommended Dosage for Specific Populations
2.4 Dosage Modifications with Concomitant Use of CYP2C19 Inhibitors
2.5 Switching Patients to or from a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor Antidepressant
2.6 Discontinuing Treatment with Citalopram Tablets
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior in Adolescents and Young Adults
5.2 QT-Prolongation and Torsade de Pointes
5.3 Serotonin Syndrome
5.4 Increased Risk of Bleeding
5.5 Activation of Mania or Hypomania
5.6 Discontinuation Syndrome
5.8 Angle-closure Glaucoma
5.10 Sexual Dysfunction
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
8.4 Pediatric Use
8.5 Geriatric Use
8.6 Hepatic Impairment
9 DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE
9.1 Controlled Substance
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
Antidepressants increased the risk compared to placebo of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Anyone considering the use of citalopram or any other antidepressant in a child, adolescent, or young adult must balance this risk with the clinical need. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. Depression and certain other psychiatric disorders are themselves associated with increases in the risk of suicide. Patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapy should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior. Families and caregivers should be advised of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber. Citalopram is not approved for use in pediatric patients. (See WARNINGS: Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk, PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients, and PRECAUTIONS: Pediatric Use.)
Citalopram tablets are indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults [see Clinical Studies (14)].
Administer citalopram tablets once daily, with or without food, at an initial dosage of 20 mg once daily, with an increase to a maximum dosage of 40 mg once daily at an interval of no less than one week.
Dosages above 40 mg once daily are not recommended due to the risk of QT prolongation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Prior to initiating treatment with citalopram tablets or another antidepressant, screen patients for a personal or family history of bipolar disorder, mania, or hypomania [See Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
The maximum recommended dosage of citalopram tablets for patients who are greater than 60 years of age, patients with hepatic impairment, and for CYP2C19 poor metabolizers is 20 mg once daily [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
The maximum recommended dosage of citalopram tablets when used concomitantly with a CYP2C19 inhibitor is 20 mg once daily [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Drug Interactions (7)].
At least 14 days must elapse between discontinuation of a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) antidepressant and initiation of therapy with citalopram tablets. Conversely, at least 14 days must elapse after stopping citalopram tablets before starting an MAOI antidepressant [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Adverse reactions may occur upon discontinuation of citalopram tablets [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. Gradually reduce the dosage rather than stopping citalopram tablets abruptly whenever possible.
Citalopram tablets are available as:
Citalopram tablets are contraindicated in patients:
In pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and other antidepressant classes) that included approximately 77,000 adult patients, and 4,500 pediatric patients, the incidence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in antidepressant-treated patients age 24 years and younger was greater than in placebo-treated patients. There was considerable variation in risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among drugs, but there was an increased risk identified in young patients for most drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors across the different indications, with the highest incidence in patients with MDD. The drug-placebo differences in the number of cases of suicidal thoughts and behaviors per 1000 patients treated are provided in Table 1.
Table 1: Risk Differences of the Number of Patients with Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in the Pooled Placebo-Controlled Trials of Antidepressants in Pediatric and Adult Patients
|Age Range*||Drug-Placebo Difference in Number of Patients with Suicidal Thoughts or Behaviors per 1000 Patients Treated|
|Increases Compared to Placebo|
|< 18 years old||14 additional patients|
|18 to 24 years old||5 additional patients|
|Decreases Compared to Placebo|
|25 to 64 years old||1 fewer patient|
|≥ 65 years old||6 fewer patients|
*Citalopram tablets are not approved for use in pediatric patients.
It is unknown whether the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in children, adolescents, and young adults extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond four months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with MDD that antidepressants delay the recurrence of depression and that depression itself is a risk factor for suicidal thoughts and behaviors.
Monitor all antidepressant-treated patients for clinical worsening and emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, especially during the initial few months of drug therapy and at times of dosage changes. Counsel family members or caregivers of patients to monitor for changes in behavior and to alert the healthcare provider. Consider changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing citalopram tablets, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidal thoughts or behaviors.
Citalopram tablets cause dose-dependent QTc prolongation an ECG abnormality that has been associated with Torsade de Pointes (TdP), ventricular tachycardia, and sudden death, all of which have been observed in postmarketing reports for citalopram [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Because of the risk of QTc prolongation at higher citalopram tablets doses, it is recommended that citalopram tablets not be given at doses above 40 mg once daily [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
Citalopram tablets should be avoided in patients with congenital long QT syndrome, bradycardia, hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, recent acute myocardial infarction, or uncompensated heart failure unless the benefits outweigh the risks for a particular patient. Citalopram tablets should also be avoided in patients who are taking other drugs that prolong the QTc interval [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Such drugs include Class 1A (e.g., quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (e.g., amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic medications, antipsychotic medications (e.g., chlorpromazine, thioridazine), antibiotics (e.g., gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin), or any other class of medications known to prolong the QTc interval (e.g., pentamidine, levomethadyl acetate, methadone).
The citalopram dose should be limited in certain populations. The maximum dose should be limited to 20 mg once daily in patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers or those patients receiving concomitant cimetidine or another CYP2C19 inhibitor, since higher citalopram exposures would be expected. The maximum dose should also be limited to 20 mg once daily in patients with hepatic impairment and in patients who are greater than 60 years of age because of expected higher exposures [see Dosage and Administration (2.3, 2.4), Drug Interactions (7), Use in Specific Populations (8.5), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Electrolyte and/or ECG monitoring is recommended in certain circumstances. Patients being considered for treatment with citalopram tablets who are at risk for significant electrolyte disturbances should have baseline serum potassium and magnesium measurements with periodic monitoring. Hypokalemia (and/or hypomagnesemia) may increase the risk of QTc prolongation and arrhythmia and should be corrected prior to initiation of treatment and periodically monitored. ECG monitoring is recommended in patients for whom citalopram tablets use is not recommended unless the benefits clearly outweigh the risks for a particular patient (see above). These include those patients with the cardiac conditions noted above, and those taking other drugs that may prolong the QTc interval.
Discontinue citalopram tablets in patients who are found to have persistent QTc measurements >500 ms. If patients taking citalopram tablets experience symptoms that could indicate the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias, e.g., dizziness, palpitations, or syncope, the prescriber should initiate further evaluation, including cardiac monitoring.
SSRIs, including citalopram tablets, can precipitate serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition. The risk is increased with concomitant use of other serotonergic drugs (including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, amphetamines, and St. John’s Wort) and with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin, i.e., MAOIs [see Contraindications (4), Drug Interactions (7)]. Serotonin syndrome can also occur when these drugs are used alone. Symptoms of serotonin syndrome were noted in 0.1% of MDD patients treated with citalopram tablets in premarketing clinical trials.
Serotonin syndrome signs and symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, and gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea).
The concomitant use of citalopram tablets with MAOIs is contraindicated. In addition, do not initiate citalopram tablets in a patient being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. No reports involved the administration of methylene blue by other routes (such as oral tablets or local tissue injection). If it is necessary to initiate treatment with an MAOI such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue in a patient taking citalopram tablets, discontinue citalopram tablets before initiating treatment with the MAOI [see Contraindications (4), Drug Interactions (7)].
Monitor all patients taking citalopram tablets for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue treatment with citalopram tablets and any concomitant serotonergic agents immediately if the above symptoms occur and initiate supportive symptomatic treatment. If concomitant use of citalopram tablets with other serotonergic drugs is clinically warranted, inform patients of the increased risk for serotonin syndrome and monitor for symptoms.
Drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake inhibition, including citalopram tablets, increase the risk of bleeding events. Concomitant use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), other antiplatelet drugs, warfarin, and other anticoagulants may add to this risk. Case reports and epidemiological studies (case-control and cohort design) have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding events related to drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake have ranged from ecchymosis, hematoma, epistaxis, and petechiae to life-threatening hemorrhages.
Inform patients about the increased risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of citalopram tablets and antiplatelet agents or anticoagulants. For patients taking warfarin, carefully monitor the international normalized ratio [see Drug Interactions (7)].
In patients with bipolar disorder, treating a depressive episode with citalopram tablets or another antidepressant may precipitate a mixed/manic episode. In controlled clinical trials, patients with bipolar disorder were excluded; however, symptoms of mania or hypomania were reported in 0.1% of undiagnosed patients treated with citalopram tablets. Prior to initiating treatment with citalopram tablets, screen patients for any personal or family history of bipolar disorder, mania, or hypomania [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
Adverse reactions after discontinuation of serotonergic antidepressants, particularly after abrupt discontinuation, include: nausea, sweating, dysphoric mood, irritability, agitation, dizziness, sensory disturbances (e.g., paresthesia, such as electric shock sensations), tremor, anxiety, confusion, headache, lethargy, emotional lability, insomnia, hypomania, tinnitus, and seizures. A gradual reduction in dosage rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible [see Dosage and Administration (2.6)].
Citalopram tablets have not been systematically evaluated in patients with seizure disorders. Patients with a history of seizures were excluded from clinical studies. In clinical trials of citalopram tablets, seizures occurred in 0.3% of patients treated with citalopram tablets (a rate of one patient per 98 years of exposure) and 0.5% of patients treated with placebo (a rate of one patient per 50 years of exposure). Citalopram tablets should be prescribed with caution in patients with a seizure disorder.
The pupillary dilation that occurs following use of many antidepressant drugs, including citalopram tablets, may trigger an angle closure attack in a patient with anatomically narrow angles who does not have a patent iridectomy. Avoid use of antidepressants, including citalopram tablets, in patients with untreated anatomically narrow angles.
Hyponatremia may occur as a result of treatment with SSRIs, including citalopram tablets. Cases of serum sodium lower than 110 mmol/L have been reported. Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, difficulty concentrating, memory impairment, confusion, weakness, and unsteadiness, which may lead to falls. Signs and symptoms associated with more severe and/or acute cases have included hallucination, syncope, seizure, coma, respiratory arrest, and death. In many cases, this hyponatremia appears to be the result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).
In patients with symptomatic hyponatremia, discontinue citalopram tablets and institute appropriate medical intervention. Elderly patients, patients taking diuretics, and those who are volume-depleted may be at greater risk of developing hyponatremia with SSRIs [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
Use of SSRIs, including citalopram tablets, may cause symptoms of sexual dysfunction [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. In male patients, SSRI use may result in ejaculatory delay or failure, decreased libido, and erectile dysfunction. In female patients, SSRI use may result in decreased libido and delayed or absent orgasm.
It is important for prescribers to inquire about sexual function prior to initiation of citalopram tablets and to inquire specifically about changes in sexual function during treatment, because sexual function may not be spontaneously reported. When evaluating changes in sexual function, obtaining a detailed history (including timing of symptom onset) is important because sexual symptoms may have other causes, including the underlying psychiatric disorder. Discuss potential management strategies to support patients in making informed decisions about treatment.
The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
The safety for citalopram tablets included citalopram exposures in patients and/or healthy subjects from 3 different groups of studies: 429 healthy subjects in clinical pharmacology/pharmacokinetic studies; 4,422 exposures from patients in controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials, corresponding to approximately 1,370 patient-exposure years. There were, in addition, over 19,000 exposures from mostly open-label, European postmarketing studies. The conditions and duration of treatment with citalopram tablets varied greatly and included (in overlapping categories) open-label and double-blind studies, inpatient and outpatient studies, fixed-dose and dose-titration studies, and short-term and long-term exposure.
Adverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment Among 1,063 patients with MDD who received citalopram tablets at doses ranging from 10 mg to 80 mg once daily in placebo- controlled trials of up to 6 weeks duration, 16% discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, as compared to 8% of 446 patients receiving placebo. The adverse reactions associated with discontinuation (i.e., associated with discontinuation in at least 1% of citalopram tablets -treated patients at a rate at least twice that of placebo) are shown in Table 2.
Table 2: Adverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Citalopram Tablets Treatment in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled MDD Trials
|Body System/Adverse Reaction||Citalopram Tablets||Placebo|
|(N=1,063) %||(N=446) %|
|Central and Peripheral Nervous System Disorders|
* A patient can report more than one reason for discontinuation and be counted more than once in this table.
Table 3enumerates the incidence of adverse reactions that occurred among 1,063 patients with MDD who received citalopram tablets at doses ranging from 10 mg to 80 mg once daily in placebo-controlled trials of up to 6 weeks duration.
The most common adverse reaction that occurred in citalopram tablets -treated patients with an incidence of 5% or greater and at least twice the incidence in placebo patients was ejaculation disorder (primarily ejaculatory delay) in male patients (see Table 3).
Table 3: Adverse Reactions (≥2% and Greater than Placebo) Among Citalopram Tablets -Treated Patients*
|Body System/Adverse Reaction||Citalopram Tablets||Placebo|
|(N=1,063) %||(N=446) %|
|Autonomic Nervous System Disorders|
|Central & Peripheral Nervous System Disorders|
|Respiratory System Disorders|
|Upper Respiratory Tract Infection||5||4|
|Musculoskeletal System Disorders|
*Adverse reactions reported by at least 2% of patients treated with citalopram tablets are reported, except for the following adverse reactions which had an incidence on placebo ≥ citalopram tablets: headache, asthenia, dizziness, constipation, palpitation, vision abnormal, sleep disorder, nervousness, pharyngitis, micturition disorder, back pain.
1Denominator used was for females only (N=638 citalopram tablets; N=252 placebo).
2Primarily ejaculatory delay.
3Denominator used was for males only (N=425 citalopram tablets; N=194 placebo).
Dose Dependent Adverse Reactions
The potential relationship between the dosage of citalopram tablets and the incidence of adverse reactions was examined in a fixed-dose study in patients with MDD receiving placebo or citalopram tablets 10 mg, 20 mg 40 mg, or 60 mg (1.5 times the maximum recommended dosage). A positive dose response (p<0.05) was revealed for the following adverse reactions: fatigue, impotence, insomnia, increased sweating, somnolence, and yawning.
Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction with SSRIs
Although changes in sexual desire, sexual performance, and sexual satisfaction often occur as manifestations of a psychiatric disorder, they may also be a consequence of SSRI treatment. However, reliable estimates of the incidence and severity of untoward experiences involving sexual desire, performance, and satisfaction are difficult to obtain, in part because patients and healthcare providers may be reluctant to discuss them. Accordingly, estimates of the incidence of untoward sexual experience and performance cited in labeling may underestimate their actual incidence.
Table 4 displays the incidence of sexual adverse reactions reported by at least 2% of male patients taking citalopram tablets in a pool of placebo-controlled clinical trials in patients with depression.
Table 4: Adverse Reactions (≥2%) Related to Sexual Dysfunction in Citalopram Tablets -Treated Male Patients in Pooled Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials of MDD
|n (males)||425 (%)||194 (%)|
|Abnormal ejaculation (mostly ejaculatory delay)||6.1||1|
In female depressed patients receiving citalopram tablets, the reported incidence of decreased libido and anorgasmia was 1.3% (n=638 females) and 1.1% (n=252 females), respectively.
Patients treated with citalopram tablets in controlled trials experienced a weight loss of about 0.5 kg compared to no change for placebo patients.
In a thorough QT study, citalopram tablets were found to be associated with a dose-dependent increase in the QTc interval.
Electrocardiograms from citalopram tablets (N=802) and placebo (N=241) groups were compared with respect to outliers defined as subjects with QTc changes over 60 msec from baseline or absolute values over 500 msec post-dose, and subjects with heart rate increases to over 100 bpm or decreases to less than 50 bpm with a 25% change from baseline (tachycardic or bradycardic outliers, respectively). In the citalopram tablets group 1.9% of the patients had a change from baseline in QTcF >60 msec compared to 1.2% of the patients in the placebo group. None of the patients in the placebo group had a post-dose QTcF >500 msec compared to 0.5% of the patients in the citalopram tablets group. The incidence of tachycardic outliers was 0.5% in the citalopram tablets group and 0.4% in the placebo group. The incidence of bradycardic outliers was 0.9% in the citalopram tablets group and 0.4% in the placebo group.
Other Adverse Reactions Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of Citalopram Tablets
The following list of adverse reactions does not include reactions that are: 1) included in Table 3or elsewhere in labeling, 2) for which a drug cause was remote, 3) which were so general as to be uninformative, and those occurring in only one patient.
Adverse reactions are categorized by body system and listed in order of decreasing frequency according to the following definitions: frequent adverse reactions are those occurring on one or more occasions in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse reactions are those occurring in less than 1/100 patients to 1/1000 patients; rare adverse reactions are those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients.
Cardiovascular - Frequent: tachycardia, postural hypotension, hypotension. Infrequent: hypertension, bradycardia, edema (extremities), angina pectoris, extrasystoles, cardiac failure, flushing, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, myocardial ischemia. Rare: transient ischemic attack, phlebitis, atrial fibrillation, cardiac arrest, bundle branch block.
Central and Peripheral Nervous System Disorders - Frequent: paresthesia, migraine. Infrequent: hyperkinesia, vertigo, hypertonia, extrapyramidal disorder, leg cramps, involuntary muscle contractions, hypokinesia, neuralgia, dystonia, abnormal gait, hypoesthesia, ataxia. Rare: abnormal coordination, hyperesthesia, ptosis, stupor.
Endocrine Disorders - Rare: hypothyroidism, goiter, gynecomastia.
Gastrointestinal Disorders - Frequent: saliva increased, flatulence. Infrequent: gastritis, gastroenteritis, stomatitis, eructation, hemorrhoids, dysphagia, teeth grinding, gingivitis, esophagitis. Rare: colitis, gastric ulcer, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, duodenal ulcer, gastroesophageal reflux, glossitis, jaundice, diverticulitis, rectal hemorrhage, hiccups.
General - Infrequent: hot flushes, rigors, alcohol intolerance, syncope, influenza-like symptoms. Rare: hay fever.
Hemic and Lymphatic Disorders - Infrequent: purpura, anemia, epistaxis, leukocytosis, leucopenia, lymphadenopathy. Rare: pulmonary embolism, granulocytopenia, lymphocytosis, lymphopenia, hypochromic anemia, coagulation disorder, gingival bleeding.
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders - Frequent: decreased weight, increased weight. Infrequent: increased hepatic enzymes, thirst, dry eyes, increased alkaline phosphatase, abnormal glucose tolerance. Rare: bilirubinemia, hypokalemia, obesity, hypoglycemia, hepatitis, dehydration.
Musculoskeletal System Disorders - Infrequent: arthritis, muscle weakness, skeletal pain. Rare: bursitis, osteoporosis.
Psychiatric Disorders - Frequent: impaired concentration, amnesia, apathy, depression, increased appetite, aggravated depression, suicide attempt, confusion. Infrequent: increased libido, aggressive reaction, paroniria, drug dependence, depersonalization, hallucination, euphoria, psychotic depression, delusion, paranoid reaction, emotional lability, panic reaction, psychosis. Rare: catatonic reaction, melancholia.
Reproductive Disorders/Female* - Frequent: amenorrhea. Infrequent: galactorrhea, breast pain, breast enlargement, vaginal hemorrhage. (*% based on female subjects only: 2955)
Respiratory System Disorders - Frequent: coughing. Infrequent: bronchitis, dyspnea, pneumonia. Rare: asthma, laryngitis, bronchospasm, pneumonitis, sputum increased.
Skin and Appendages Disorders - Frequent: rash, pruritus. Infrequent: photosensitivity reaction, urticaria, acne, skin discoloration, eczema, alopecia, dermatitis, skin dry, psoriasis. Rare: hypertrichosis, decreased sweating, melanosis, keratitis, cellulitis, pruritus ani.
Special Senses - Frequent: abnormal accommodation, taste perversion. Infrequent: tinnitus, conjunctivitis, eye pain. Rare: mydriasis, photophobia, diplopia, abnormal lacrimation, cataract, taste loss.
Urinary System Disorders - Frequent: polyuria. Infrequent: micturition frequency, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, dysuria. Rare: facial edema, hematuria, oliguria, pyelonephritis, renal calculus, renal pain.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of citalopram, the racemate, or escitalopram, the S-enantiomer of citalopram. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, prothrombin decreased
Cardiac Disorders: torsade de pointes, ventricular arrhythmia, QT prolonged
Endocrine Disorders: hyperprolactinemia
Eye Disorders: angle-closure glaucoma
Gastrointestinal Disorders: gastrointestinal hemorrhage, pancreatitis General Disorders and Administrative Site Conditions: withdrawal syndrome Hepatobiliary Disorders: hepatic necrosis
Immune System Disorders: anaphylaxis, allergic reaction
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: rhabdomyolysis
Nervous System Disorders: grand mal convulsion(s), myoclonus, choreoathetosis, dyskinesia, akathisia, nystagmus
Pregnancy, Puerperium and Perinatal Conditions: spontaneous abortion
Psychiatric Disorders: delirium
Renal and Urinary Disorders: acute renal failure
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: priapism
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Stevens Johnson Syndrome, epidermal necrolysis, angioedema, erythema multiforme, ecchymosis Vascular Disorders: thrombosis
Table 5 presents clinically important drug interactions with citalopram tablets.
Table 5: Clinically Important Drug Interactions with Citalopram Tablets
|Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)|
|Clinical Impact||Concomitant use of SSRIs, including citalopram tablets, and MAOIs increases the risk of serotonin syndrome.|
|Intervention||Citalopram tablets are contraindicated in patients taking MAOIs, including MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of citalopram tablets with pimozide increases plasma concentrations of pimozide, a drug with a narrow therapeutic index, and may increase the risk of QT prolongation and/or ventricular arrhythmias compared to use of citalopram tablets alone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].|
|Intervention:||Citalopram tablets are contraindicated in patients taking pimozide [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].|
|Drugs that Prolong the QTc Interval|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of citalopram tablets with drugs that prolong QT can cause additional QT prolongation compared to the use of citalopram tablets alone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].|
|Intervention:||Avoid concomitant use of citalopram tablets with drugs that prolong the QT interval (citalopram tablets are contraindicated in patients taking pimozide) [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of citalopram tablets with CYP2C19 inhibitors increases the risk of QT prolongation and/or ventricular arrhythmias compared to the use of citalopram tablets alone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].|
|Intervention:||The maximum recommended dosage of citalopram tablets is 20 mg daily when used concomitantly with a CYP2C19 inhibitor [see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of citalopram tablets and other serotonergic drugs increases the risk of serotonin syndrome.|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome, particularly during citalopram tablets initiation and dosage increases. If serotonin syndrome occurs, consider discontinuation of citalopram tablets and/or concomitant serotonergic drugs [see Warning and Precautions (5.3)].|
|Drugs That InterfereWith Hemostasis (antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants)|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of citalopram tablets and an antiplatelet or anticoagulant may potentiate the risk of bleeding.|
|Intervention:||Inform patients of the increased risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of citalopram tablets and antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants. For patients taking warfarin, carefully monitor the international normalized ratio [see Warning and Precautions (5.4)].|
The following have been reported with citalopram tablet overdosage:
Prolonged cardiac monitoring is recommended in citalopram tablets overdosage ingestions due to the arrhythmia risk. Gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal should be considered in patients who present early after a citalopram tablets overdose.
Consider contacting a Poison Center (1‐800‐221‐2222) or a medical toxicologist for additional overdosage management recommendations.
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to antidepressants during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the National Pregnancy Registry for Antidepressants at 1-844-405-6185 or visiting online at https://womensmentalhealth.org/research/pregnancyregistry/antidepressants.
Available data from published epidemiologic studies and postmarketing reports with citalopram use in pregnancy have not established an increased risk of major birth defects or miscarriage. Published studies demonstrated that citalopram levels in both cord blood and amniotic fluid are similar to those observed in maternal serum. There are risks of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) (see Data) and/or poor neonatal adaptation with exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including citalopram tablets, during pregnancy. There also are risks associated with untreated depression in pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations).
In animal reproduction studies, citalopram caused adverse embryo/fetal effects at doses that caused maternal toxicity (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in the clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk
Women who discontinue antidepressants during pregnancy are more likely to experience a relapse of major depression than women who continue antidepressants. This finding is from a prospective longitudinal study of 201 pregnant women with a history of major depressive disorder who were euthymic and taking antidepressants at the beginning of pregnancy. Consider the risk of untreated depression when discontinuing or changing treatment with antidepressant medication during pregnancy and postpartum.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Neonates exposed to citalopram tablets and other SSRIs late in third trimester have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding. Such complications can arise immediately upon delivery. Reported clinical findings have included respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, tremor, jitteriness, irritability, and constant crying. These findings are consistent with either a direct toxic effect of SSRIs or possibly, a drug discontinuation syndrome. It should be noted that, in some cases, the clinical picture is consistent with serotonin syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Exposure during late pregnancy to SSRIs may have an increased risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). PPHN occurs in 1 to 2 per 1,000 live births in the general population and is associated with substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality.
Citalopram was administered orally to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis at doses of 32, 56, and 112 mg/kg/day, which are approximately 8, 14, and 27 times the Maximum Recommended Human Dose (MRHD) of 40 mg, based on mg/m2 body surface area. Citalopram caused maternal toxicity of CNS clinical signs and decreased weight gain at 112 mg/kg/day, which is 27 times the MRHD. At this maternally toxic dose, citalopram decreased embryo/fetal growth and survival and increased fetal abnormalities (including cardiovascular and skeletal defects). The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for maternal and embryofetal toxicity is 56 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 14 times the MRHD.
Citalopram was administered orally to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis at doses up to 16 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 8 times the MRHD of 40 mg, based on mg/m2 body surface area. No maternal or embryofetal toxicity was observed. The NOAEL for maternal and embryofetal toxicity is 16 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 8 times the MRHD.
Citalopram was administered orally to pregnant rats during late gestation and lactation periods at doses of 4.8, 12.8, and 32 mg/kg/day, which are approximately 1, 3, and 8 times the MRHD of 40 mg, based on mg/m2 body surface area. Citalopram increased offspring mortality during the first 4 days of birth and decreased offspring growth at 32 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 8 times the MRHD. The NOAEL for developmental toxicity is 12.8 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 3 times the MRHD. In a separate study, similar effects on offspring mortality and growth were seen when dams were treated throughout gestation and early lactation at doses ≥ 24 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 6 times the MRHD. A NOAEL was not determined in that study.
Data from the published literature report the presence of citalopram in human milk at relative infant doses ranging between 0.7 to 9.4% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 0.78 to 4.3. There are reports of breastfed infants exposed to citalopram experiencing irritability, restlessness, excessive somnolence, decreased feeding, and weight loss (see Clinical Considerations). There is no information about effects of citalopram on milk production.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for citalopram tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from citalopram tablets or from the underlying maternal condition.
Monitor breastfeeding infants for adverse reactions, such as irritability, restlessness, excessive somnolence, decreased feeding, and weight loss.
The safety and effectiveness of citalopram tablets have not been established in pediatric patients. Two placebo-controlled trials in 407 pediatric patients with MDD have been conducted with citalopram tablets, and the data were not sufficient to support use in pediatric patients. Antidepressants increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in pediatric patients [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Decreased appetite and weight loss have been observed in association with the use of SSRIs in pediatric patients.
Of 4422 patients in clinical studies of citalopram tablets, 1357 were 60 and over, 1034 were 65 and over, and 457 were 75 and over. In two pharmacokinetic studies, citalopram AUC was increased by 23% and 30%, respectively, in subjects ≥ 60 years of age as compared to younger subjects, and its half-life was increased by 30% and 50%, respectively [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Therefore, the maximum recommended dosage in patients 60 years of age and older is lower than younger patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.3),Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
SSRIs, including citalopram tablets, have been associated with cases of clinically significant hyponatremia in elderly patients, who may be at greater risk for this adverse reaction [see Warnings and Precautions(5.9)].
Animal studies suggest that the abuse liability of citalopram tablets is low. Citalopram tablets have not been systematically studied in humans for its potential for abuse, tolerance, or physical dependence. The premarketing clinical experience with citalopram tablets did not reveal any drug-seeking behavior. However, these observations were not systematic and it is not possible to predict, on the basis of this limited experience, the extent to which a CNS-active drug will be misused, diverted, and/or abused once marketed. Consequently, health care providers should carefully evaluate citalopram tablets patients for history of drug abuse and follow such patients closely, observing them for signs of misuse or abuse (e.g., development of tolerance, incrementations of dose, drug-seeking behavior).
The following have been reported with citalopram tablet overdosage:
Prolonged cardiac monitoring is recommended in citalopram tablets overdosage ingestions due to the arrhythmia risk. Gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal should be considered in patients who present early after a citalopram tablets overdose. Consider contacting a Poison Center (1‐800‐221‐2222) or a medical toxicologist for additional overdosage management recommendations.
Citalopram is an orally administered selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with a chemical structure unrelated to that of other SSRIs or of tricyclic, tetracyclic, or other available antidepressant agents. Citalopram hydrobromide is a racemic bicyclic phthalane derivative designated (±)-1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3- dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile, hydrobromide with the following structural formula:
The molecular formula is C20H22BrFN2O and its molecular weight is 405.35.
Citalopram hydrobromide occurs as a fine, white to off-white powder. Citalopram hydrobromide is sparingly soluble in water and soluble in ethanol.
Citalopram is available as tablets
Citalopram 10 mg tablets, USP are oval shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets containing citalopram in strengths equivalent to 10 mg citalopram base. Citalopram 20 mg and 40 mg tablets, USP are oval shaped, biconvex, film-coated, scored tablets containing citalopram in strengths equivalent to 20 mg or 40 mg citalopram base. The tablets also contain the following inactive ingredients: croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, and microcrystalline cellulose. The film coating contains: ferric oxide red (10 mg and 20 mg), ferric oxide yellow (10 mg), hydroxyethyl cellulose, polyethylene glycol and titanium dioxide.
The mechanism of action of citalopram is unclear but is presumed to be related to potentiation of serotonergic activity in the central nervous system (CNS) resulting from its inhibition of CNS neuronal reuptake of serotonin (5-HT).
In vitro and in vivo studies in animals suggest that citalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with minimal effects on norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) neuronal reuptake.
Citalopram has no or very low affinity for 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, dopamine D1 and D2, α1-, α2-, and β-adrenergic, histamine H1, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), muscarinic cholinergic, and benzodiazepine receptors.
Individually corrected QTc (QTcNi) interval was evaluated in a randomized, placebo and active (moxifloxacin 400 mg) controlled cross-over, escalating multiple-dose study in 119 healthy subjects. The maximum mean (upper bound of the 95% one-sided confidence interval) difference from placebo were 8.5 (10.8) and 18.5 (21.0) msec for 20 mg and 60 mg (1.5 times the maximum recommended dosage) citalopram, respectively. Based on the established exposure-response relationship, the predicted QTcNi change from placebo (upper bound of the 95% one-sided confidence interval) under the Cmax for the dose of 40 mg is 12.6 (14.3) msec [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
The single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of citalopram are linear and dose-proportional in a dose range of 10 to 40 mg/day. Biotransformation of citalopram is mainly hepatic, with a mean terminal half-life of about 35 hours. With once daily dosing, steady state plasma concentrations are achieved within approximately one week. At steady state, the extent of accumulation of citalopram in plasma, based on the half-life, is expected to be 2.5 times the plasma concentrations observed after a single dose.
Following a single oral dose (40 mg tablet) of citalopram, peak blood levels occur at about 4 hours. The absolute bioavailability of citalopram was about 80% relative to an intravenous dose, and absorption is not affected by food.
The volume of distribution of citalopram is about 12 L/kg and the binding of citalopram (CT), demethylcitalopram (DCT) and didemethylcitalopram (DDCT) to human plasma proteins is about 80%.
Citalopram is metabolized to demethylcitalopram (DCT), didemethylcitalopram (DDCT), citalopram-N-oxide, and a deaminated propionic acid derivative. In humans, unchanged citalopram is the predominant compound in plasma. At steady state, the concentrations of citalopram's metabolites, DCT and DDCT, in plasma are approximately one-half and one-tenth, respectively, that of the parent drug.
In vitro studies show that citalopram is at least 8 times more potent than its metabolites in the inhibition of serotonin reuptake, suggesting that the metabolites evaluated do not likely contribute significantly to the antidepressant actions of citalopram. In vitro studies using human liver microsomes indicated that CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 are the primary isozymes involved in the N-demethylation of citalopram.
Following intravenous administrations of citalopram, the fraction of drug recovered in the urine as citalopram and DCT was about 10% and 5%, respectively. The systemic clearance of citalopram was 330 mL/min, with approximately 20% of that due to renal clearance.
Citalopram pharmacokinetics in subjects ≥ 60 years of age were compared to younger subjects in two normal volunteer studies. In a single-dose study, citalopram AUC and half-life were increased in the subjects ≥ 60 years old by 30% and 50%, respectively, whereas in a multiple-dose study they were increased by 23% and 30%, respectively [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
Male and Female Patients
In three pharmacokinetic studies (total N=32), citalopram AUC in women was one and a half to two times that in men. This difference was not observed in five other pharmacokinetic studies (total N=114). In clinical studies, no differences in steady state serum citalopram levels were seen between men (N=237) and women (N=388). There were no gender differences in the pharmacokinetics of DCT and DDCT.
Patients with Hepatic Impairment
Citalopram oral clearance was reduced by 37% and half-life was doubled in patients with reduced hepatic function compared to normal subjects [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].
Patients with Renal Impairment
In patients with mild to moderate renal impairment, oral clearance of citalopram was reduced by 17% compared to normal subjects. No adjustment of dosage for such patients is recommended. No information is available about the pharmacokinetics of citalopram in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 20 mL/min).
CYP2C19 poor metabolizers
In CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, citalopram steady state Cmax and AUC was increased by 68% and 107%, respectively [see Dosage and Administration (2.3),Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
CYP2D6 poor metabolizers
Citalopram steady state levels were not significantly different in poor metabolizers and extensive metabolizers of CYP2D6.
Drug Interaction Studies
In vitro enzyme inhibition data did not reveal an inhibitory effect of citalopram on CYP3A4, -2C9, or -2E1, but did suggest that it is a weak inhibitor of CYP1A2, -2D6, and -2C19. Citalopram would be expected to have little inhibitory effect on in vivo metabolism mediated by these enzymes. However, in vivo data to address this question are limited.
CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 Inhibitors
Since CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 are the primary enzymes involved in the metabolism of citalopram, it is expected that potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, and macrolide antibiotics) and inhibitors of CYP2C19 (e.g., omeprazole, cimetidine) might decrease the clearance of citalopram. However, coadministration of citalopram and the potent CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of citalopram. 20 mg/day is the maximum recommended citalopram dose in patients taking concomitant cimetidine or another CYP2C19 inhibitor, because of the risk of QT prolongation [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
In subjects who had received 21 days of 40 mg/day citalopram tablets, combined administration of 400 mg twice a day cimetidine for 8 days resulted in an increase in citalopram AUC and Cmax of 43% and 39%, respectively [see Dosage and Administration (4),Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Drug Interactions (7)].
Coadministration of a drug that inhibits CYP2D6 with citalopram is unlikely to have clinically significant effects on citalopram metabolism, based on the study results in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.
In subjects who had received 21 days of 40 mg/day citalopram tablets, combined administration of citalopram tablets and digoxin (single dose of 1 mg) did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of either citalopram or digoxin.
Coadministration of citalopram tablets (40 mg/day for 10 days) and lithium (30 mmol/day for 5 days) had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of citalopram or lithium.
In a controlled study, a single dose of pimozide 2 mg co-administered with citalopram 40 mg given once daily for 11 days was associated with a mean increase in QTc values of approximately 10 msec compared to pimozide given alone. Citalopram did not alter the mean AUC or Cmax of pimozide. The mechanism of this pharmacodynamic interaction is not known [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Combined administration of citalopram tablets (40 mg/day for 21 days) and the CYP1A2 substrate theophylline (single dose of 300 mg) did not affect the pharmacokinetics of theophylline. The effect of theophylline on the pharmacokinetics of citalopram was not evaluated.
Administration of 40 mg/day citalopram tablets for 21 days did not affect the pharmacokinetics of warfarin, a CYP3A4 substrate. Prothrombin time was increased by 5%, the clinical significance of which is unknown.
Combined administration of citalopram tablets (40 mg/day for 14 days) and carbamazepine (titrated to 400 mg/day for 35 days) did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine, a CYP3A4 substrate. Although trough citalopram plasma levels were unaffected, given the enzyme-inducing properties of carbamazepine, the possibility that carbamazepine might increase the clearance of citalopram should be considered if the two drugs are coadministered.
Combined administration of citalopram tablets (titrated to 40 mg/day for 28 days) and the CYP3A4 substrate triazolam (single dose of 0.25 mg) did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of either citalopram or triazolam.
Combined administration of citalopram tablets (40 mg) and ketoconazole (200 mg) decreased the Cmax and AUC of ketoconazole by 21% and 10%, respectively, and did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of citalopram.
Administration of 40 mg/day citalopram tablets for 22 days resulted in a two-fold increase in the plasma levels of the beta-adrenergic blocker metoprolol. Increased metoprolol plasma levels have been associated with decreased cardioselectivity. Coadministration of citalopram tablets and metoprolol had no clinically significant effects on blood pressure or heart rate.
Imipramine and Other Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs)
In vitro studies suggest that citalopram is a relatively weak inhibitor of CYP2D6. Coadministration of citalopram tablets (40 mg/day for 10 days) with the TCA imipramine (single dose of 100 mg), a substrate for CYP2D6, did not significantly affect the plasma concentrations of imipramine or citalopram. However, the concentration of the imipramine metabolite desipramine was increased by approximately 50%. The clinical significance of the desipramine change is unknown.
Citalopram increased the incidence of small intestine carcinoma in rats treated for 24 months at doses of 8 and 24 mg/kg/day in the diet, which are approximately 2 and 6 times the Maximum Recommended Human Dose (MRHD) of 40 mg, respectively, based on mg/m2 body surface area. A no-effect level (NOEL) for this finding was not established.
Citalopram did not increase the incidence of tumors in mice treated for 18 months at doses up 240 mg/kg/day in the diet, which is approximately 30 times the MRDH of 40 mg based on mg/m2 body surface area.
Citalopram was mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) in 2 of 5 bacterial strains (Salmonella TA98 and TA1537) in the absence of metabolic activation. It was clastogenic in the in vitro Chinese hamster lung cell assay for chromosomal aberrations in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. Citalopram was not mutagenic in the in vitro mammalian forward gene mutation assay (HPRT) in mouse lymphoma cells or in in vitro/in vivo unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay in rat liver. It was not clastogenic in the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in human lymphocytes or in two in vivo mouse micronucleus assays.
Impairment of Fertility
Citalopram was administered orally to female and male rats at doses of 32, 48, and 72 mg/kg/day prior to and throughout mating and continuing to gestation. These doses are approximately 8, 12, and 17 times the MRHD of 40 mg based on mg/m2 body surface area. Mating and fertility were decreased at doses ≥ 32 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 8 times the MRHD. Gestation duration was increased at 48 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 12 times the MRHD.
Retinal Changes in Rats
Pathologic changes (degeneration/atrophy) were observed in the retinas of albino rats in the 2-year carcinogenicity study with citalopram. There was an increase in both incidence and severity of retinal pathology in both male and female rats receiving 80 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 19 times the MRHD of 40 mg based on mg/m2 body surface area. Similar findings were not present in rats treated for two years at the dose of 24 mg/kg/day, in mice treated for 18 months at doses up to 240 mg/kg/day, or in dogs treated for one year at doses up to 20 mg/kg/day, which are approximately 6, 29, and 17 times the MRHD, respectively, based on mg/m2 body surface area.
Additional studies to investigate the mechanism for this pathology have not been performed, and the potential significance of this effect in humans has not been established.
The efficacy of citalopram tablets as a treatment for major depressive disorder was established in two placebo-controlled studies (of 4 to 6 weeks duration) in adult outpatients (ages 18-66) meeting DSM-III or DSM-III-R criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) (Studies 1 and 2).
Study 1, a 6-week trial in which patients received fixed citalopram tablets doses of 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg, and 60 mg daily, showed that citalopram tablets 40 daily and 60 mg daily (1.5 times the maximum recommended daily dosage) was effective as measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) total score, the primary efficacy endpoint. The HAMD-17 is a 17-item, clinician-rated scale used to assess severity of depressive symptoms. Scores on the HAMD-17 range from 0 to 52, with higher scores indicating more severe depression. This study showed no clear effect of the 10 mg and 20 mg daily doses, and the 60 mg daily dose was not more effective than the 40 mg daily dose. Due to the risk of QTc prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias, the maximum recommended dosage of citalopram tablets is 40 mg once daily.
In study 2, a 4-week, placebo-controlled trial in patients with MDD, the initial dose was 20 mg daily, followed by titration to the maximum tolerated dose or a maximum dose of 80 mg daily (2 times the maximum recommended daily dosage). Patients treated with citalopram tablets showed statistically significantly greater improvement than placebo patients on the HAMD total score, the primary efficacy endpoint. In three additional placebo-controlled trials in patients with MDD, the difference in response to treatment between patients receiving citalopram tablets and patients receiving placebo was not statistically significant.
In two long-term studies, patients with MDD who had responded to citalopram tablets during an initial 6 or 8 weeks of acute treatment were randomized to continuation of citalopram tablets or placebo. In one study, patients received fixed doses of citalopram tablets 20 mg or 40 mg daily and in the second study, patients received flexible doses of citalopram tablets 20 mg daily to 60 mg daily (1.5 times the maximum recommended daily dosage). In both studies, patients receiving continued citalopram tablets treatment experienced statistically significantly lower relapse rates over the subsequent 6 months compared to those receiving placebo. In the fixed-dose study, the decreased rate of depression relapse was similar in patients receiving 20 mg or 40 mg daily of citalopram tablets. Due to the risk of QTc prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias, the maximum recommended dosage of citalopram tablets is 40 mg once daily.
Analyses of the relationship between treatment outcome and age, gender, and race did not suggest any differential responsiveness on the basis of these patient characteristics.
Citalopram tablets, USP 10 mg are beige-pink, oval shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets, engraved “APO” on one side and “CI 10” on the other side. They are supplied as follows:
Bottles of 30 NDC 60505-2518-4
Bottles of 100 NDC 60505-2518-1
Bottles of 1,000 NDC 60505-2518-8
100 Unit Dose NDC 60505-2518-3
Citalopram tablets, USP 20 mg are pink, oval shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets, engraved “APO” on one side and scored and engraved “CI 20” on the other side. They are supplied as follows:
Bottles of 30 NDC 60505-2519-4
Bottles of 100 NDC 60505-2519-1
Bottles of 1,000 NDC 60505-2519-8
100 Unit Dose NDC 60505-2519-3
Citalopram tablets, USP 40 mg are white, oval shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets, engraved “APO” on one side and scored and engraved “CI 40” on the other side. They are supplied as follows:
Bottles of 30 NDC 60505-2520-4
Bottles of 100 NDC 60505-2520-1
Bottles of 1,000 NDC 60505-2520-8
100 Unit Dose NDC 60505-2520-3
Storage and Handling
Citalopram tablets should be stored at 20ºC to 25ºC (68ºF to 77ºF); excursions permitted from 15ºC to 30ºC (59ºF to 86ºF). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors
Advise patients and caregivers to look for the emergence of suicidality, especially early during treatment and when the dosage is adjusted up or down and instruct them to report such symptoms to the healthcare provider [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
QT Prolongation and Torsade de Pointes
Advise patients to consult their health care provider immediately if they feel faint, lose consciousness, or have heart palpitations. Instruct patients to inform their health care provider that they are taking citalopram tablets before taking any new medications [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Drug Interactions (7)].
Caution patients about the risk of serotonin syndrome, particularly with the concomitant use of citalopram tablets with other serotonergic drugs including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, amphetamines, St. John’s Wort, and with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (in particular, MAOIs, both those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid). Instruct patients to contact their health care provider or report to the emergency room if they experience signs or symptoms of serotonin syndrome[see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Drug Interactions (7)].
Increased Risk of Bleeding
Inform patients about the concomitant use of citalopram tablets with aspirin, NSAIDs, other antiplatelet drugs, warfarin, or other anticoagulants because the combined use has been associated with an increased risk of bleeding. Advise patients to inform their health care providers if they are taking or planning to take any prescription or over-the counter medications that increase the risk of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Activation of Mania or Hypomania
Advise patients and their caregivers to observe for signs of activation of mania/hypomania and instruct them to report such symptoms to the healthcare provider [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
Advise patients not to abruptly discontinue citalopram tablets and to discuss any tapering regimen with their healthcare provider. Inform patients that adverse reactions can occur when citalopram tablets is discontinued [See Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
Advise patients that use of citalopram tablets may cause symptoms of sexual dysfunction in both male and female patients. Inform patients that they should discuss any changes in sexual function and potential management strategies with their healthcare provider [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].
Advise breastfeeding women to monitor infants for excess sedation, restlessness, agitation, poor feeding and poor weight gain and to seek medical care if they notice these signs [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].
APOTEX INC. CITALOPRAM TABLETS, USP
10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg
|Manufactured by||Manufactured for|
|Apotex Inc.||Apotex Corp.|
|Weston, Ontario||Weston, Florida|
|Canada M9L 1T9||33326|
Revised March 2022
CITALOPRAM TABLETS, USP
(si TAL o pram)
What is the most important information I should know about citalopram tablets?
Citalopram tablets may cause serious side effects, including:
How can I watch for and try to prevent suicidal thoughts and actions in myself or a family member?
Call your healthcare provider or get emergency medical help right away if you or your family member have any of the following symptoms, especially if they are new, worse, or worry you:
|• thoughts about suicide or dying||• attempts to commit suicide|
|• new or worse depression||• new or worse anxiety|
|• feeling very agitated or restless||• acting on dangerous impulses|
|• trouble sleeping (insomnia)||• panic attacks|
|• acting aggressive, being angry, or violent||• new or worse irritability|
|• an extreme increase in activity or talking (mania)||• other unusual changes in behavior or mood|
What are Citalopram Tablets?
Citalopram tablets are a prescription medicine used to treat a certain type of depression called Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in adults.
It is not known if citalopram tablets are safe and effective for use in children.
Who should not take citalopram tablets?
Do not take citalopram tablets if you:
Ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist if you are not sure if you take an MAOI, including MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue.
Do not start taking an MAOI for at least 14 days after you stop treatment with citalopram tablets.
Before taking citalopram tablets, tell your healthcare provider about all your medical conditions, including if you:
Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines that you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements.
Citalopram tablets and other medicines may affect each other causing possible serious side effects.
Citalopram tablets may affect the way other medicines work and other medicines may affect the way citalopram tablets works.
Especially tell your healthcare provider if you take:
Ask your healthcare provider if you are not sure if you are taking any of these medicines. Your healthcare provider can tell you if it is safe to take citalopram tablets with your other medicines.
Do not start or stop any other medicines during treatment with citalopram tablets without talking to your healthcare provider first. Stopping citalopram tablets suddenly may cause you to have serious side effects. See, “What are the possible side effects of citalopram tablets?”
Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them to show to your healthcare provider and pharmacist when you get a new medicine.
How should I take citalopram tablets?
What are the possible side effects of citalopram tablets?
Citalopram tablets may cause serious side effects, including:
|ο agitation||ο seeing or hearing things that are nt real (hallucinations)|
|ο confusion||ο coma|
|ο fast heart beat||ο blood pressure changes|
|ο dizziness||ο sweating|
|ο flushing||ο high body temperature (hyperthermia)|
|ο tremors, stiff muscles, or muscle twitching||ο loss of coordination|
|ο seizures||ο nausea, vomiting, diarrhea|
|ο greatly increased energy||ο severe trouble sleeping|
|ο racing thoughts||ο reckless behavior|
|ο unusually grand ideas||ο excessive happiness or irritability|
|ο talking more or faster than usual|
|ο nausea||ο sweating|
|ο changes in your mood||ο headache|
|ο irritability and agitation||ο tiredness|
|ο dizziness||ο problems sleeping|
|ο electric shock sensation (paresthesia)||ο hypomania|
|ο anxiety||ο ringing in your ears (tinnitus)|
|ο confusion||ο seizures|
|ο headache||ο difficulty concentrating|
|ο memory changes||ο confusion|
|ο weakness and unsteadiness|
|on your feet which can lead to falls|
In severe or more sudden cases, signs and symptoms include:
|ο hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that are not real||ο fainting|
|ο seizures||ο coma|
|ο stopping breathing||ο death|
Talk to your healthcare provider if you develop any changes in your sexual function or if you have any questions or concerns about sexual problems during treatment with DRIZALMA SPRINKLE. There may be treatments your healthcare provider can suggest.
The most common side effect of citalopram tablets is delayed ejaculation.
These are not all the possible side effects of citalopram tablets.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
How should I store citalopram tablets?
General information about the safe and effective use of citalopram tablets
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use citalopram tablets for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give citalopram tablets to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them. You may ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for information about citalopram tablets that is written for healthcare professionals.
What are the ingredients in citalopram tablets?
Active ingredient: citalopram hydrobromide
Inactive ingredients: croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, and microcrystalline cellulose. The film coating contains: ferric oxide red (10 mg and 20 mg), ferric oxide yellow (10 mg), hydroxyethyl cellulose, polyethylene glycol and titanium dioxide.
CITALOPRAM TABLETS, USP
10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg
|Canada M9L 1T9||33326|
For more information about citalopram tablets call 1-800-706-5575
This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for all antidepressants.
Revised: March 2022
APOTEX CORP. NDC 60505-2518-4
Citalopram Tablets, USP
30 bottle count
APOTEX CORP. NDC 60505-2519-4
Citalopram Tablets, USP
30 bottle count
citalopram tablet, film coated
citalopram hydrobromide tablet, film coated
citalopram hydrobromide tablet, film coated
|Labeler - Apotex Corp. (845263701)|
|Registrant - Apotex Inc. (209429182)|
|Apotex Inc.||255092496||manufacture(60505-2518, 60505-2519, 60505-2520) , analysis(60505-2518, 60505-2519, 60505-2520)|
|Apotex Research Private Limited||862584104||manufacture(60505-2519, 60505-2518, 60505-2520) , analysis(60505-2519, 60505-2518, 60505-2520)|
|Apotex Inc.||205576023||manufacture(60505-2520, 60505-2518, 60505-2519) , analysis(60505-2520, 60505-2518, 60505-2519)|
|Apotex Inc.||209429182||manufacture(60505-2518, 60505-2519, 60505-2520) , analysis(60505-2518, 60505-2519, 60505-2520)|