AMOXICILLIN- amoxicillin powder, for suspension
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of amoxicillin for oral suspension, USP and other antibacterial drugs, amoxicillin for oral suspension, USP should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Amoxicillin for oral suspension, USP is indicated in the treatment of infections due to susceptible (ONLY β-lactamase–negative) isolates of the designated bacteria in the conditions listed below:
1.1 Infections of the Ear, Nose, and Throat
due to Streptococcus species (α- and β-hemolytic isolates only), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus spp., or Haemophilus influenzae.
1.2 Infections of the Genitourinary Tract
due to Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, or Enterococcus faecalis.
1.3 Infections of the Skin and Skin Structure
due to Streptococcus spp. (α- and β-hemolytic isolates only), Staphylococcus spp., or E. coli.
1.4 Infections of the Lower Respiratory Tract
due to Streptococcus spp. (α- and β-hemolytic isolates only), S. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus spp., or H. influenzae.
1.5 Gonorrhea, Acute Uncomplicated (ano-genital and urethral infections)
due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Because of high rates of amoxicillin resistance, amoxicillin for oral suspension, USP is not recommended for empiric treatment of gonorrhea. Amoxicillin for oral suspension, USP use should be limited to situations where N. gonorrhoeae isolates are known to be susceptible to amoxicillin.
1.6 Triple Therapy for Helicobacter pylori with Clarithromycin and Lansoprazole
Amoxicillin for oral suspension, USP, in combination with clarithromycin plus lansoprazole as triple therapy, is indicated for the treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease (active or 1-year history of a duodenal ulcer) to eradicate H. pylori. Eradication of H. pylori has been shown to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence.
1.7 Dual Therapy for H. pylori with Lansoprazole
Amoxicillin for oral suspension, USP, in combination with lansoprazole delayed-release capsules as dual therapy, is indicated for the treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease (active or 1-year history of a duodenal ulcer) who are either allergic or intolerant to clarithromycin or in whom resistance to clarithromycin is known or suspected. (See the clarithromycin package insert, MICROBIOLOGY.) Eradication of H. pylori has been shown to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence.
2.1 Dosing for Adult and Pediatric Patients > 3 Months of Age
Except for gonorrhea, treatment should be continued for a minimum of 48 to 72 hours beyond the time that the patient becomes asymptomatic or evidence of bacterial eradication has been obtained. It is recommended that there be at least 10 days’ treatment for any infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes to prevent the occurrence of acute rheumatic fever. In some infections, therapy may be required for several weeks. It may be necessary to continue clinical and/or bacteriological follow-up for several months after cessation of therapy.
Table 1. Dosing Recommendations for Adult and Pediatric Patients > 3 Months of Age
Usual Adult Dose
Usual Dose for Children > 3 Monthsb
a Dosing for infections caused by bacteria that are intermediate in their susceptibility to amoxicillin should follow the recommendations for severe infections.
b The children’s dosage is intended for individuals whose weight is less than 40 kg. Children weighing 40 kg or more should be dosed according to the adult recommendations.
500 mg every 12 hours
250 mg every 8 hours
25 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours
20 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours
875 mg every 12 hours
500 mg every 8 hours
45 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours
40 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours
Lower Respiratory Tract
Mild/Moderate or Severe
875 mg every 12 hours
500 mg every 8 hours
45 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours
40 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours
Acute, uncomplicated ano-genital and urethral infections in males and females
3 grams as single oral dose
Prepubertal children: 50 mg/kg amoxicillin for oral suspension, combined with 25 mg/kg probenecid as a single dose.
Note: Since probenecid is contraindicated in children under 2 years, do not use this regimen in children under 2 years of age.
2.2 Dosing in Neonates and Infants Aged12 Weeks ( 3 Months)
Treatment should be continued for a minimum of 48 to 72 hours beyond the time that the patient becomes asymptomatic or evidence of bacterial eradication has been obtained. It is recommended that there be at least 10 days’ treatment for any infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes to prevent the occurrence of acute rheumatic fever. Due to incompletely developed renal function affecting elimination of amoxicillin in this age group, the recommended upper dose of amoxicillin for oral suspension is 30 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours. There are currently no dosing recommendations for pediatric patients with impaired renal function.
2.3 Dosing for H. pylori Infection
Triple Therapy: The recommended adult oral dose is 1 gram amoxicillin for oral suspension, 500 mg clarithromycin, and 30 mg lansoprazole, all given twice daily (every 12 hours) for 14 days.
Dual Therapy: The recommended adult oral dose is 1 gram amoxicillin for oral suspension and 30 mg lansoprazole, each given three times daily (every 8 hours) for 14 days.
Please refer to clarithromycin and lansoprazole full prescribing information.
2.4 Dosing in Renal Impairment
Patients with impaired renal function do not generally require a reduction in dose unless the impairment is severe.
Severely impaired patients with a glomerular filtration rate of < 30 mL/min. should not receive a 875 mg dose.
Patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 10 to 30 mL/min should receive 500 mg or 250 mg every 12 hours, depending on the severity of the infection.
Patients with a glomerular filtration rate less than 10 mL/min should receive 500 mg or 250 mg every 24 hours, depending on severity of the infection.
Hemodialysis patients should receive 500 mg or 250 mg every 24 hours, depending on severity of the infection. They should receive an additional dose both during and at the end of dialysis.
2.5 Directions for Mixing Oral Suspension
Tap bottle until all powder flows freely. Add approximately 1/3 of the total amount of water for reconstitution (see Table 2) and shake vigorously to wet powder. Add remainder of the water and again shake vigorously.
Table 2. Amount of Water for Mixing Oral Suspension
Amount of Water
Oral Suspension 200 mg/5 mL
Oral Suspension 400 mg/5 mL
After reconstitution, the required amount of suspension should be placed directly on the child’s tongue for swallowing. Alternate means of administration are to add the required amount of suspension to formula, milk, fruit juice, water, ginger ale, or cold drinks. These preparations should then be taken immediately.
NOTE: SHAKE ORAL SUSPENSION WELL BEFORE USING. Keep bottle tightly closed. Any unused portion of the reconstituted suspension must be discarded after 14 days. Refrigeration is preferable, but not required.
Powder for Oral Suspension: 200 mg/5 mL, and 400 mg/5 mL. Each 5 mL of reconstituted bubble-gum-flavored pink suspension contains 200 mg, and 400 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate. Close
Amoxicillinfor oral suspension is contraindicated in patients who have experienced a serious hypersensitivity reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis or Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to amoxicillin for oral suspension or to other β-lactam antibiotics (e.g., penicillins and cephalosporins).
5.1 Anaphylactic Reactions
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy including amoxicillin. Although anaphylaxis is more frequent following parenteral therapy, it has occurred in patients on oral penicillins. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. There have been reports of individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity who have experienced severe reactions when treated with cephalosporins. Before initiating therapy with amoxicillin, careful inquiry should be made regarding previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens.
5.2 Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including amoxicillin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin-producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over 2 months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
5.3 Potential for Microbial Overgrowth or Bacterial Resistance
The possibility of superinfections with fungal or bacterial pathogens should be considered during therapy. If superinfections occur, amoxicillin should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted. Prescribing amoxicillin either in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient, and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
5.4 Uses in Patients With Mononucleosis
A high percentage of patients with mononucleosis who receive amoxicillin develop an erythematous skin rash. Thus amoxicillin should not be administered to patients with mononucleosis.
The oral suspension of amoxicillin do not contain phenylalanine and can be used by phenylketonurics.
The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:
Anaphylactic reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
CDAD [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The most common adverse reactions (> 1%) observed in clinical trials of amoxicillin for oral suspension were diarrhea, rash, vomiting, and nausea.
Triple Therapy: The most frequently reported adverse events for patients who received triple therapy (amoxicillin/clarithromycin/lansoprazole) were diarrhea (7%), headache (6%), and taste perversion (5%).
Dual Therapy: The most frequently reported adverse events for patients who received double therapy amoxicillin/lansoprazole were diarrhea (8%) and headache (7%). For more information on adverse reactions with clarithromycin or lansoprazole, refer to the Adverse Reactions section of their package inserts.
6.2 Postmarketing or Other Experience
In addition to adverse events reported from clinical trials, the following events have been identified during postmarketing use of penicillins. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to amoxicillin.
Infections and Infestations: Mucocutaneous candidiasis.
Gastrointestinal: Black hairy tongue, and hemorrhagic/pseudomembranous colitis. Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Hypersensitivity Reactions: Anaphylaxis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Serum sickness–like reactions, erythematous maculopapular rashes, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, hypersensitivity vasculitis, and urticaria have been reported.
Liver: A moderate rise in AST and/or ALT has been noted, but the significance of this finding is unknown. Hepatic dysfunction including cholestatic jaundice, hepatic cholestasis and acute cytolytic hepatitis have been reported.
Renal: Crystalluria has been reported [see Overdosage (10)].
Hemic and Lymphatic Systems: Anemia, including hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, eosinophilia, leukopenia, and agranulocytosis have been reported. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena.
Central Nervous System: Reversible hyperactivity, agitation, anxiety, insomnia, confusion, convulsions, behavioral changes, and/or dizziness have been reported.
Miscellaneous: Tooth discoloration (brown, yellow, or gray staining) has been reported. Most reports occurred in pediatric patients. Discoloration was reduced or eliminated with brushing or dental cleaning in most cases.
Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of amoxicillin. Concurrent use of amoxicillin and probenecid may result in increased and prolonged blood levels of amoxicillin.
7.2 Oral Anticoagulants
Abnormal prolongation of prothrombin time (increased international normalized ratio [INR]) has been reported in patients receiving amoxicillin and oral anticoagulants. Appropriate monitoring should be undertaken when anticoagulants are prescribed concurrently. Adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary to maintain the desired level of anticoagulation.
The concurrent administration of allopurinol and amoxicillin increases the incidence of rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared to patients receiving amoxicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of amoxicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricemia present in these patients.
7.4 Oral Contraceptives
Amoxicillin may affect the gut flora, leading to lower estrogen reabsorption and reduced efficacy of combined oral estrogen/progesterone contraceptives.
7.5 Other Antibacterials
Chloramphenicol, macrolides, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines may interfere with the bactericidal effects of penicillin. This has been demonstrated in vitro; however, the clinical significance of this interaction is not well documented.
7.6 Drug/Laboratory Interactions
High urine concentrations of ampicillin may result in false-positive reactions when testing for the presence of glucose in urine using CLINITEST ®, Benedict’s Solution, or Fehling’s Solution. Since this effect may also occur with amoxicillin, it is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions (such as CLINISTIX ®) be used.
Following administration of ampicillin or amoxicillin to pregnant women, a transient decrease in plasma concentration of total conjugated estriol, estriol-glucuronide, conjugated estrone, and estradiol has been noted.
Oral ampicillin is poorly absorbed during labor. It is not known whether use of amoxicillin in humans during labor or delivery has immediate or delayed adverse effects on the fetus, prolongs the duration of labor, or increases the likelihood of the necessity for an obstetrical intervention.8.3 Nursing Mothers
In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically, and institute supportive measures as required. A prospective study of 51 pediatric patients at a poison-control center suggested that overdosages of less than 250 mg/kg of amoxicillin are not associated with significant clinical symptoms. Interstitial nephritis resulting in oliguric renal failure has been reported in a small number of patients after overdosage with amoxicillin 1.
Crystalluria, in some cases leading to renal failure, has also been reported after amoxicillin overdosage in adult and pediatric patients. In case of overdosage, adequate fluid intake and diuresis should be maintained to reduce the risk of amoxicillin crystalluria.
Renal impairment appears to be reversible with cessation of drug administration. High blood levels may occur more readily in patients with impaired renal function because of decreased renal clearance of amoxicillin. Amoxicillin may be removed from circulation by hemodialysis. Close
Formulationof amoxicillin for oral suspension, USP contains amoxicillin, a semisynthetic antibiotic, an analog of ampicillin, with a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Chemically, it is (2S,5R,6R)-6-[(R)-(-)-2-amino-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid trihydrate. It may be represented structurally as:
The amoxicillin molecular formula is C 16H 19N 3O 5S•3H 2O, and the molecular weight is 419.45.
Each 5 mL of reconstituted suspension contains amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to 200 mg or 400 mg anhydrous amoxicillin. Each 5 mL of the 200 mg and 400 mg reconstituted suspension contains 0.16 mEq (3.61 mg) of sodium; Inactive ingredients: sucrose, sodium citrate, sodium benzoate, edetate disodium, FD&C Red No. 3, xanthan gum, bubble-gum flavor, and colloidal silicon dioxide. Close
Mean amoxicillin pharmacokinetic parameters from an open, two-part, single-dose crossover bioequivalence study in 27 adults comparing 875 mg of amoxicillin with 875 mg of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium showed that the 875 mg tablet of amoxicillin produces an AUC0-∞ of 35.4 ± 8.1 mcg•hr/mL and a Cmax of 13.8 ± 4.1 mcg/mL. Dosing was at the start of a light meal following an overnight fast.
Orally administered doses of amoxicillin suspension, 125 mg/5 mL and 250 mg/5 mL, result in average peak blood levels 1 to 2 hours after administration in the range of 1.5 mcg/mL to 3 mcg/mL and 3.5 mcg/mL to 5 mcg/mL, respectively.
Oral administration of single doses of 400 mg chewable tablets and 400 mg/5 mL suspension of amoxicillin to 24 adult volunteers yielded comparable pharmacokinetic data:
Table 3: Mean Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Amoxicillin (400 mg chewable tablets and 400 mg/5 mL suspension) in Healthy Adults
* Administered at the start of a light meal.
† Mean values of 24 normal volunteers. Peak concentrations occurred approximately 1 hour after the dose.
|Dose*||AUC0-∞ (mcg•hr/mL)||Cmax (mcg/mL)†|
|Amoxicillin||Amoxicillin (±S.D.)||Amoxicillin (±S.D.)|
|400 mg (5 mL of suspension)||17.1 (3.1)||5.92 (1.62)|
|400 mg (1 chewable tablet)||17.9 (2.4)||5.18 (1.64)|
|Gram-Positive Bacteria||Gram-Negative Bacteria|
| Enterococcus faecalis |
Alpha and β-hemolytic streptococci.
| Escherichia coli
|Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (mcg/mL)||Disk Diffusion
(zone diameter in mm)
|* S. pneumoniae should be tested using a 1 mcg oxacillin disk. Isolates with oxacillin zone sizes of ≥ 20 mm are susceptible to amoxicillin. An amoxicillin MIC should be determined on isolates of S. pneumoniae with oxacillin zone sizes of ≤19 mm.
** A positive beta lactamase test indicates resistance to amoxicillin. Isolates that are resistant to penicillin by MIC testing are also expected to be resistant to amoxicillin.
|Enterococcus spp.||≤ 8||-||≥ 16||≥ 17||-||≤ 16|
|Staphylococcus spp.||≤ 0.25||≥ 0.5||≥ 29||≤ 28|
|Streptococci, viridians group (alpha-hemolytic streptococci)||≤ 0.25||0.5 to 4||≥ 8||-||-||-|
|β-hemolytic streptococci||≤ 0.25||-||-||≥ 24||-||-|
|Streptococcus pneumoniae(non-meningitis isolates)*||≤ 2||4||≥ 8||-||-||-|
|Enterobacteriaceae||≤ 8||16||≥ 32||≥ 17||14 to 16||≤ 13|
|Haemophilus influenzae||≤ 1||2||≥ 4||≥ 22||19 to 21||≤ 18|
|Bacteria||ATCC#||MICRange (mcg/mL)||DiskDiffusionZoneRange (mm)|
|# ATCC = American Type Culture Collection|
|Escherichia coli||25922||2 to 8||16 to 22|
|Enterococcus faecalis||29212||0.5 to 2|
|Haemophilus influenzae||49247||2 to 8||13 to 21|
|Staphylococcus aureus||29213||0.5 to 2|
|25923||27 to 35|
|Streptococcus pneumoniae||49619||0.06 to 0.25|
Patients should be advised that amoxicillin may be taken every 8 hours or every 12 hours, depending on the dose prescribed.
Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs, including amoxicillin, should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When amoxicillin is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may: (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment, and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by amoxicillin or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
Patients should be counseled that diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics, and it usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as 2 or more months after having taken their last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.
Patients should be aware that amoxicillin contains a penicillin class drug product that can cause allergic reactions in some individuals.
CLINITEST® is a registered trademark of Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics, and Ames Company, Inc.
CLINISTIX® is a registered trademark of Bayer Healthcare Llc, and Ames Company, Inc.
CLOtest® is a registered trademark of Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.
Aurobindo Pharma USA, Inc.
2400 Route 130 North
Dayton, NJ 08810
Aurobindo Pharma Limited
Hyderabad-500 072, India
amoxicillin powder, for suspension
|Labeler - DIRECT RX (079254320)|