CONZIP- tramadol hydrochloride capsule, extended release
Vertical Pharmaceuticals, LLC
HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
These highlights do not include all the information needed to use CONZIP® safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for CONZIP®.
CONZIP® (tramadol hydrochloride) extended-release capsules for oral use, CIV
Initial U.S. Approval: 1995
WARNING: ADDICTION, ABUSE, AND MISUSE; RISK EVALUATION AND MITIGATION STRATEGY (REMS); LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION; ACCIDENTAL INGESTION; ULTRA-RAPID METABOLISM OF TRAMADOL AND OTHER RISK FACTORS FOR LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION IN CHILDREN; NEONATAL OPIOID WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME; INTERACTIONS WITH DRUGS AFFECTING CYTOCHROME P450 ISOENZYMES; and RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH BENZODIAZEPINES AND OTHER CNS DEPRESSANTS
See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning.
RECENT MAJOR CHANGES
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
CONZIP is an opioid agonist indicated for the management of pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate. (1)
Limitations of Use
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Extended-release capsules: 100 mg, 200 mg and 300 mg (3)
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 10% and twice placebo) are nausea, constipation, dry mouth, somnolence, dizziness, and vomiting. (6)
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Vertical Pharmaceuticals, LLC at (877) 958-3784 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION and Medication Guide.
FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS*
WARNING: ADDICTION, ABUSE, AND MISUSE; RISK EVALUATION AND MITIGATION STRATEGY (REMS); LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION; ACCIDENTAL INGESTION; ULTRA-RAPID METABOLISM OF TRAMADOL AND OTHER RISK FACTORS FOR LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION IN CHILDREN; NEONATAL OPIOID WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME; INTERACTIONS WITH DRUGS AFFECTING CYTOCHROME P450 ISOENZYMES; and RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH BENZODIAZEPINES OR OTHER CNS DEPRESSANTS
5.4 Ultra-Rapid Metabolism of Tramadol and Other Risk Factors for Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Children
5.12 Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease or in Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients
5.14 Risks of Use in Patients with Increased Intracranial Pressure, Brain Tumors, Head Injury, or Impaired Consciousness
Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse
CONZIP exposes patients and other users to the risks of opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Assess each patient's risk prior to prescribing CONZIP and monitor all patients regularly for the development of these behaviors and conditions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS):
To ensure that the benefits of opioid analgesics outweigh the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required a REMS for these products [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Under the requirements of the REMS, drug companies with approved opioid analgesic products must make REMS-compliant education programs available to healthcare providers. Healthcare providers are strongly encouraged to:
Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression
Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of CONZIP. Monitor for respiratory depression, especially during initiation of CONZIP or following a dose increase. Instruct patients to swallow CONZIP capsules intact, and not to split, break, chew, crush, or dissolve the contents of the capsules to avoid exposure to a potentially fatal dose of tramadol [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Accidental ingestion of/exposure to even one dose of CONZIP especially by children, can result in a fatal overdose of tramadol [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Ultra-Rapid Metabolism Of Tramadol And Other Risk Factors For Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression In Children
Life-threatening respiratory depression and death have occurred in children who received tramadol. Some of the reported cases occurred following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy, and in at least one case, the child had evidence of being an ultra-rapid metabolizer of tramadol due to a CYP2D6 polymorphism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. CONZIP is contraindicated in children younger than 12 years of age and in children younger than 18 years of age following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy [see Contraindications (4)]. Avoid the use of CONZIP in adolescents 12 to 18 years of age who have other risk factors that may increase their sensitivity to the respiratory depressant effects of tramadol [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
Prolonged use of CONZIP during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
Interactions with Drugs Affecting Cytochrome P450 Isoenzymes
The effects of concomitant use or discontinuation of cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers, 3A4 inhibitors, or 2D6 inhibitors with tramadol are complex. Use of cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers, 3A4 inhibitors, or 2D6 inhibitors with CONZIP requires careful consideration of the effects on the parent drug, tramadol, and the active metabolite, M1 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6), Drug Interactions (7)].
Risks From Concomitant Use With Benzodiazepines Or Other CNS Depressants
Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7), Drug Interactions (7)].
CONZIP is indicated for the management of pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long term opioid treatment and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate.
Limitation of Use
CONZIP should be prescribed only by healthcare professionals who are knowledgeable in the use of potent opioids for the management of chronic pain.
Patients Currently on Tramadol Immediate-Release (IR) Products
Calculate the 24-hour tramadol IR dose and initiate a total daily dose of CONZIP rounded down to the next lowest 100 mg increment. The dose may subsequently be individualized according to patient need.
Due to limitations in flexibility of dose selection with CONZIP, some patients maintained on tramadol IR products may not be able to convert to CONZIP.
Individually titrate CONZIP by 100 mg every five days to a dose that provides adequate analgesia and minimizes adverse reactions. The maximum daily dose of CONZIP is 300 mg per day.
Continually reevaluate patients receiving CONZIP to assess the maintenance of pain control and the relative incidence of adverse reactions, as well as monitoring for the development of addiction, abuse, or misuse [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Frequent communication is important among the prescriber, other members of the healthcare team, the patient, and the caregiver/family during periods of changing analgesic requirements, including initial titration. During chronic therapy, periodically reassess the continued need for the use of opioid analgesics.
Patients who experience breakthrough pain may require a dosage adjustment of CONZIP, or may need rescue medication with an appropriate dose of an immediate-release analgesic. If the level of pain increases after dosage stabilization, attempt to identify the source of increased pain before increasing the CONZIP dosage.
If unacceptable opioid-related adverse reactions are observed, consider reducing the dosage. Adjust the dosage to obtain an appropriate balance between management of pain and opioid-related adverse reactions.
Do not abruptly discontinue CONZIP in patients who may be physically dependent on opioids. Rapid discontinuation of opioid analgesics in patients who are physically dependent on opioids has resulted in serious withdrawal symptoms, uncontrolled pain, and suicide. Rapid discontinuation has also been associated with attempts to find other sources of opioid analgesics, which may be confused with drug-seeking for abuse. Patients may also attempt to treat their pain or withdrawal symptoms with illicit opioids, such as heroin, and other substances.
When a decision has been made to decrease the dose or discontinue therapy in an opioid-dependent patient taking CONZIP, there are a variety of factors that should be considered, including the dose of CONZIP the patient has been taking, the duration of treatment, the type of pain being treated, and the physical and psychological attributes of the patient. It is important to ensure ongoing care of the patient and to agree on an appropriate tapering schedule and follow-up plan so that patient and provider goals and expectations are clear and realistic. When opioid analgesics are being discontinued due to a suspected substance use disorder, evaluate and treat the patient, or refer for evaluation and treatment of the substance use disorder. Treatment should include evidence-based approaches, such as medication assisted treatment of opioid use disorder. Complex patients with comorbid pain and substance use disorders may benefit from referral to a specialist.
There are no standard opioid tapering schedules that are suitable for all patients. Good clinical practice dictates a patient-specific plan to taper the dose of the opioid gradually. For patients on CONZIP who are physically opioid-dependent, initiate the taper by a small enough increment (e.g., no greater than 10% to 25% of the total daily dose) to avoid withdrawal symptoms, and proceed with dose-lowering at an interval of every 2 to 4 weeks. Patients who have been taking opioids for briefer periods of time may tolerate a more rapid taper.
It may be necessary to provide the patient with lower dosage strengths to accomplish a successful taper. Reassess the patient frequently to manage pain and withdrawal symptoms, should they emerge. Common withdrawal symptoms include restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, perspiration, chills, myalgia, and mydriasis. Other signs and symptoms also may develop, including irritability, anxiety, backache, joint pain, weakness, abdominal cramps, insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, or increased blood pressure, respiratory rate, or heart rate. If withdrawal symptoms arise, it may be necessary to pause the taper for a period of time or raise the dose of the opioid analgesic to the previous dose, and then proceed with a slower taper. In addition, monitor patients for any changes in mood, emergence of suicidal thoughts, or use of other substances.
When managing patients taking opioid analgesics, particularly those who have been treated for a long duration and/or with high doses for chronic pain, ensure that a multimodal approach to pain management, including mental health support (if needed), is in place prior to initiating an opioid analgesic taper. A multimodal approach to pain management may optimize the treatment of chronic pain, as well as assist with the successful tapering of the opioid analgesic [see Warnings and Precautions (5.17), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
Extended-release capsules are available as:
100 mg Capsules: White capsule imprinted with blue ink "G 252" on cap and "100" between lines on the body
200 mg Capsules: White capsule imprinted with violet ink "G 253" on cap and "200" between lines on the body
300 mg Capsules: White capsule imprinted with red ink "G 254" on cap and "300" between lines on the body
CONZIP is contraindicated for:
CONZIP is also contraindicated in patients with:
CONZIP contains tramadol, a Schedule IV controlled substance. As an opioid, CONZIP exposes users to the risks of addiction, abuse and misuse. Because extended-release products such as CONZIP deliver the opioid over an extended period of time, there is a greater risk for overdose and death due to the larger amount of tramadol present [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9)].
Although the risk of addiction in any individual is unknown, it can occur in patients appropriately prescribed CONZIP. Addiction can occur at recommended dosages and if the drug is misused or abused.
Abuse or misuse of CONZIP by splitting, breaking, chewing, crushing, snorting, or injecting the dissolved product will result in the uncontrolled delivery of tramadol and can result in overdose and death [see Overdosage (10)].
Opioids are sought by drug abusers and people with addiction disorders and are subject to criminal diversion. Consider these risks when prescribing or dispensing CONZIP. Strategies to reduce these risks include prescribing the drug in the smallest appropriate quantity and advising the patient on the proper disposal of unused drug [see Patient Counseling Information (17)]. Contact local state professional licensing board or state controlled substances authority for information on how to prevent and detect abuse or diversion of this product.
To ensure that the benefits of opioid analgesics outweigh the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for these products. Under the requirements of the REMS, drug companies with approved opioid analgesic products must make REMS-compliant education programs available to healthcare providers. Healthcare providers are strongly encouraged to do all of the following:
To obtain further information on the opioid analgesic REMS and for a list of accredited REMS CME/CE, call 1-800-503-0784, or log on to www.opioidanalgesicrems.com. The FDA Blueprint can be found at www.fda.gov/OpioidAnalgesicREMSBlueprint.
Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression has been reported with the use of opioids, even when used as recommended. Respiratory depression, if not immediately recognized and treated, may lead to respiratory arrest and death. Management of respiratory depression may include close observation, supportive measures, and use of opioid antagonists, depending on the patient's clinical status [see Overdosage (10)]. Carbon dioxide (CO2) retention from opioid-induced respiratory depression can exacerbate the sedating effects of opioids.
While serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression can occur at any time during the use of CONZIP, the risk is greatest during the initiation of therapy or following a dosage increase. Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression, especially within the first 24-72 hours of initiating therapy with and following dosage increases of CONZIP.
To reduce the risk of respiratory depression, proper dosing and titration of CONZIP are essential [see Dosage and Administration (2)]. Overestimating the CONZIP dosage when converting patients from another opioid product can result in a fatal overdose with the first dose.
Accidental ingestion of even one dose of CONZIP, especially by children, can result in respiratory depression and death due to an overdose of tramadol.
Opioids can cause sleep-related breathing disorders including central sleep apnea (CSA) and sleep-related hypoxemia. Opioid use increases the risk of CSA in a dose-dependent fashion. In patients who present with CSA, consider decreasing the opioid dosage using best practices for opioid taper [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].
Life-threatening respiratory depression and death have occurred in children who received tramadol. Tramadol and codeine are subject to variability in metabolism based upon CYP2D6 genotype (described below), which can lead to increased exposure to an active metabolite. Based upon postmarketing reports with tramadol or with codeine, children younger than 12 years of age may be more susceptible to the respiratory depressant effects of tramadol. Furthermore, children with obstructive sleep apnea who are treated with opioids for post-tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy pain may be particularly sensitive to their respiratory depressant effect. Because of the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression and death:
Tramadol is subject to the same polymorphic metabolism as codeine, with ultra-rapid metabolizers of CYP2D6 substrates being potentially exposed to life-threatening levels of O-desmethyltramadol (M1). At least one death was reported in a nursing infant who was exposed to high levels of morphine in breast milk because the mother was an ultra-rapid metabolizer of codeine. A baby nursing from an ultra-rapid metabolizer mother taking CONZIP could potentially be exposed to high levels of M1, and experience life-threatening respiratory depression. For this reason, breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with CONZIP [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].
CYP2D6 Genetic Variability: Ultra-rapid metabolizer
Some individuals may be ultra-rapid metabolizers because of a specific CYP2D6 genotype (gene duplications denoted as *1/*1×N or *1/*2×N). The prevalence of this CYP2D6 phenotype varies widely and has been estimated at 1 to 10% for Whites (European, North American), 3 to 4% for Blacks (African Americans), 1 to 2% for East Asians (Chinese, Japanese, Korean), and may be greater than 10% in certain racial/ethnic groups (i.e., Oceanian, Northern African, Middle Eastern, Ashkenazi Jews, Puerto Rican).
These individuals convert tramadol into its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), more rapidly and completely than other people. This rapid conversion results in higher than expected serum M1 levels. Even at labeled dosage regimens, individuals who are ultra-rapid metabolizers may have life-threatening or fatal respiratory depression or experience signs of overdose (such as extreme sleepiness, confusion, or shallow breathing) [see Overdosage (10)]. Therefore, individuals who are ultra-rapid metabolizers should not use CONZIP.
Prolonged use of CONZIP during pregnancy can result in withdrawal in the neonate. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, unlike opioid withdrawal syndrome in adults, may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. Observe newborns for signs of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and manage accordingly. Advise pregnant women using opioids for a prolonged period of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1), Patient Counseling Information (17)].
The effects of concomitant use or discontinuation of cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers, 3A4 inhibitors, or 2D6 inhibitors on levels of tramadol and M1 from CONZIP are complex. Use of cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers, 3A4 inhibitors, or 2D6 inhibitors with CONZIP requires careful consideration of the effects on the parent drug, tramadol which is a weak serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and mu-opioid agonist, and the active metabolite, M1, which is more potent than tramadol in mu-opioid receptor binding [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Risks of Concomitant Use or Discontinuation of Cytochrome P450 2D6 Inhibitors
The concomitant use of CONZIP with all cytochrome P450 2D6 inhibitors (e.g., amiodarone, quinidine) may result in an increase in tramadol plasma levels and a decrease in the levels of the active metabolite, M1. A decrease in M1 exposure in patients who have developed physical dependence to tramadol, may result in signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal and reduced efficacy. The effect of increased tramadol levels may be an increased risk for serious adverse events including seizures and serotonin syndrome.
Discontinuation of a concomitantly used cytochrome P450 2D6 inhibitor may result in a decrease in tramadol plasma levels and an increase in active metabolite M1 levels, which could increase or prolong adverse reactions related to opioid toxicity and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression.
Follow patients receiving CONZIP and any CYP2D6 inhibitor for the risk of serious adverse events including seizures and serotonin syndrome, signs and symptoms that may reflect opioid toxicity, and opioid withdrawal when CONZIP is used in conjunction with inhibitors of CYP2D6 [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Cytochrome P450 3A4 Interaction
The concomitant use of CONZIP with cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors, such as macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin), azole-antifungal agents (e.g., ketoconazole), and protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir) or discontinuation of a cytochrome P450 3A4 inducer such as rifampin, carbamazepine, and phenytoin, may result in an increase in tramadol plasma concentrations, which could increase or prolong adverse reactions, increase the risk for serious adverse events including seizures and serotonin syndrome, and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression.
The concomitant use of CONZIP with all cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers or discontinuation of a cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor may result in lower tramadol levels. This may be associated with a decrease in efficacy, and in some patients, may result in signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal.
Follow patients receiving CONZIP and any CYP3A4 inhibitor or inducer for the risk for serious adverse events including seizures and serotonin syndrome, signs and symptoms that may reflect opioid toxicity and opioid withdrawal when CONZIP is used in conjunction with inhibitors and inducers of CYP3A4 [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death may result from the concomitant use of CONZIP with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (e.g., non-benzodiazepine sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol). Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioid analgesics alone. Because of similar pharmacological properties, it is reasonable to expect similar risk with the concomitant use of other CNS depressant drugs with opioid analgesics [see Drug Interactions (7)].
If the decision is made to prescribe a benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant concomitantly with an opioid analgesic, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use. In patients already receiving an opioid analgesic, prescribe a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant than indicated in the absence of an opioid, and titrate based on clinical response. If an opioid analgesic is initiated in a patient already taking a benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant, prescribe a lower initial dose of the opioid analgesic, and titrate based on clinical response. Follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when CONZIP is used with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (including alcohol and illicit drugs). Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the effects of concomitant use of the benzodiazepine or other CNS depressants have been determined. Screen patients for risk of substance use disorders, including opioid abuse and misuse, and warn them of the risk for overdose and death associated with the use of additional CNS depressants including alcohol and illicit drugs [see Drug Interactions (7), Patient Counseling Information (17)].
Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported with the use of tramadol, including CONZIP, particularly during concomitant use with serotonergic drugs. Serotonergic drugs include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), triptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol), certain muscle relaxants (i.e., cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone), and drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (including MAO inhibitors, both those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue) [see Drug Interactions (7)]. This may occur within the recommended dosage range.
Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, hyperthermia), neuromuscular aberrations (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination, rigidity), and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). The onset of symptoms generally occurs within several hours to a few days of concomitant use, but may occur later than that. Discontinue CONZIP if serotonin syndrome is suspected.
Seizures have been reported in patients receiving tramadol within the recommended dosage range. Spontaneous post-marketing reports indicate that seizure risk is increased with doses of tramadol above the recommended range.
Concomitant use of tramadol increases the seizure risk in patients taking: [see Drug Interactions (7)]
Risk of seizures may also increase in patients with epilepsy, those with a history of seizures, or in patients with a recognized risk for seizure (such as head trauma, metabolic disorders, alcohol and drug withdrawal, CNS infections).
In tramadol overdose, naloxone administration may increase the risk of seizure.
Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use. Presentation of adrenal insufficiency may include non-specific symptoms and signs including nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. If adrenal insufficiency is suspected, confirm the diagnosis with diagnostic testing as soon as possible. If adrenal insufficiency is diagnosed, treat with physiologic replacement doses of corticosteroids. Wean the patient off of the opioid to allow adrenal function to recover and continue corticosteroid treatment until adrenal function recovers. Other opioids may be tried as some cases reported use of a different opioid without recurrence of adrenal insufficiency. The information available does not identify any particular opioids as being more likely to be associated with adrenal insufficiency.
The use of CONZIP in patients with acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment is contraindicated.
Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease: CONZIP treated patients with significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cor pulmonale, and those with a substantially decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre-existing respiratory depression are at increased risk of decreased respiratory drive including apnea, even at recommended dosages of CONZIP [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients: Life-threatening respiratory depression is more likely to occur in elderly, cachectic, or debilitated patients because they may have altered pharmacokinetics or altered clearance compared to younger, healthier patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Monitor such patients closely, particularly when initiating and titrating CONZIP and when CONZIP is given concomitantly with other drugs that depress respiration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3, 5.6)]. Alternatively, consider the use of non-opioid analgesics in these patients.
CONZIP may cause severe hypotension including orthostatic hypotension and syncope in ambulatory patients. There is increased risk in patients whose ability to maintain blood pressure has already been compromised by a reduced blood volume or concurrent administration of certain CNS depressant drugs (e.g., phenothiazines or general anesthetics) [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Monitor these patients for signs of hypotension after initiating or titrating the dosage of CONZIP. In patients with circulatory shock, CONZIP may cause vasodilation that can further reduce cardiac output and blood pressure. Avoid the use of CONZIP in patients with circulatory shock.
In patients who may be susceptible to the intracranial effects of CO2 retention (e.g., those with evidence of increased intracranial pressure or brain tumors), CONZIP may reduce respiratory drive, and the resultant CO2 retention can further increase intracranial pressure. Monitor such patients for signs of sedation and respiratory depression, particularly when initiating therapy with CONZIP.
Opioids may also obscure the clinical course in a patient with a head injury. Avoid the use of CONZIP in patients with impaired consciousness or coma.
CONZIP is contraindicated in patients with known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus.
The tramadol in CONZIP may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Opioids may cause increases in serum amylase. Monitor patients with biliary tract disease, including acute pancreatitis, for worsening symptoms.
Serious and rarely fatal hypersensitive reactions have been reported in patients receiving therapy with tramadol. When these events do occur, it is often following the first dose. Other reported hypersensitivity reactions include pruritus, hives, bronchospasm, angioedema, toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions to tramadol and other opioids may be at increased risk and therefore should not receive CONZIP. If anaphylaxis or other hypersensitivity occurs, stop administration of CONZIP immediately, discontinue CONZIP permanently, and do not rechallenge with any formulation of tramadol. Advise patients to seek immediate medical attention if they experience any symptoms of a hypersensitivity reaction [see Contraindications (4), Patient Counseling Information (17)].
Do not abruptly discontinue CONZIP in a patient physically dependent on opioids. When discontinuing CONZIP in a physically dependent patient, gradually taper the dosage. Rapid tapering of tramadol in a patient physically dependent on opioids may lead to a withdrawal syndrome and return of pain [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
Additionally, avoid the use of mixed agonist/antagonist (e.g, pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol) or partial agonist (e.g., buprenorphine) analgesics in patients who are receiving a full opioid agonist analgesic, including CONZIP. In these patients, mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect and/or may precipitate withdrawal symptoms [see Drug Interactions (7)].
CONZIP may impair the mental or physical abilities needed to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating machinery. Warn patients not to drive or operate dangerous machinery unless they are tolerant to the effects of CONZIP and know how they will react to the medication [see Patient Counseling Information (17)].
The following serious or otherwise important adverse reactions are described in greater detail, in other sections:
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
CONZIP capsules were administered to a total of 1987 patients in clinical trials. These included four double-blind and one long-term, open-label study in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. A total of 812 patients were 65 years or older. Adverse reactions with doses from 100 mg to 300 mg in the four pooled, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in patients with chronic non-malignant pain are presented in the following table (see Table 1).
|Preferred Term||100 mg|
|Headache||99 (23.1)||96 (22.1)||200 (19.0)||128 (19.8)|
|Nausea||69 (16.1)||93 (21.4)||265 (25.1)||37 (5.7)|
|Somnolence||50 (11.7)||60 (13.8)||170 (16.1)||26 (4.0)|
|Dizziness||41 (9.6)||54 (12.4)||143 (13.6)||31 (4.8)|
|Constipation||40 (9.3)||59 (13.6)||225 (21.3)||27 (4.2)|
|Vomiting||28 (6.5)||45 (10.4)||98 (9.3)||12 (1.9)|
|Arthralgia||23 (5.4)||20 (4.6)||53 (5.0)||33 (5.1)|
|Dry Mouth||20 (4.7)||36 (8.3)||138 (13.1)||22 (3.4)|
|Sweating||18 (4.2)||23 (5.3)||71 (6.7)||4 (0.6)|
|Asthenia||15 (3.5)||26 (6.0)||91 (8.6)||17 (2.6)|
|Pruritus||13 (3.0)||25 (5.8)||77 (7.3)||12 (1.9)|
|Anorexia||9 (2.1)||23 (5.3)||60 (5.7)||1 (0.2)|
|Insomnia||9 (2.1)||9 (2.1)||53 (5.0)||11 (1.7)|
The following adverse reactions were reported from all chronic pain studies (N=1917). The lists below include adverse reactions not otherwise noted in Table 1.
Adverse reactions with incidence rates of 1.0% to <5.0%
Cardiac disorders: hypertension
Gastrointestinal disorders: dyspepsia, flatulence
General disorders: abdominal pain, accidental injury, chills, fever, flu syndrome, neck pain, pelvic pain
Investigations: hyperglycemia, urine abnormality
Metabolism and nutrition disorders: peripheral edema, weight loss
Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders: myalgia
Nervous system disorders: paresthesia, tremor, withdrawal syndrome
Psychiatric disorders: agitation, anxiety, apathy, confusion, depersonalization, depression, euphoria, nervousness
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: bronchitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, sinusitis
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: rash
Urogenital disorders: prostatic disorder, urinary tract infection
Vascular disorders: vasodilatation
Adverse reactions with incidence rates of 0.5% to <1.0% at any dose and serious adverse reactions reported in at least two patients.
Cardiac disorders: EKG abnormal, hypotension, tachycardia
Gastrointestinal disorders: gastroenteritis
General disorders: neck rigidity, viral infection
Hematologic/Lymphatic disorders; anemia, ecchymoses
Metabolism and nutrition disorders: blood urea nitrogen increased, GGT increased, gout, SGPT increased
Musculoskeletal disorders: arthritis, arthrosis, joint disorder, leg cramps
Nervous system disorders: emotional lability, hyperkinesia, hypertonia, thinking abnormal, twitching, vertigo
Respiratory disorders: pneumonia
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: hair disorder, skin disorder, urticaria
Special Senses: eye disorder, lacrimation disorder
Urogenital disorders: cystitis, dysuria, sexual function abnormality, urinary retention
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of tramadol. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Serotonin syndrome: Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported during concomitant use of opioids with serotonergic drugs.
Adrenal insufficiency: Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use.
Androgen deficiency: Cases of androgen deficiency have occurred with chronic use of opioids [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
QT prolongation/torsade de pointes: Cases of QT prolongation and/or torsade de pointes have been reported with tramadol use. Many of these cases were reported in patients taking another drug labeled for QT prolongation, in patients with a risk factor for QT prolongation (e.g., hypokalemia), or in overdose setting.
Table 2 includes clinically significant drug interactions with CONZIP.
|Inhibitors of CYP2D6|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of CONZIP and CYP2D6 inhibitors may result in an increase in the plasma concentration of tramadol and a decrease in the plasma concentration of M1, particularly when an inhibitor is added after a stable dose of CONZIP is achieved. Since M1 is a more potent mu-opioid agonist, decreased M1 exposure could result in decreased therapeutic effects, and may result in signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal in patients who had developed physical dependence to tramadol. Increased tramadol exposure can result in increased or prolonged therapeutic effects and increased risk for serious adverse events including seizures and serotonin syndrome.|
|After stopping a CYP2D6 inhibitor, as the effects of the inhibitor decline, the tramadol plasma concentration will decrease and the M1 plasma concentration will increase which could increase or prolong therapeutic effects but also increase adverse reactions related to opioid toxicity, and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].|
|Intervention:||If concomitant use of a CYP2D6 inhibitor is necessary, follow patients closely for adverse reactions including opioid withdrawal, seizures, and serotonin syndrome.|
|If a CYP2D6 inhibitor is discontinued, consider lowering CONZIP dosage until stable drug effects are achieved. Follow patients closely for adverse events including respiratory depression and sedation.|
|Examples||Quinidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine and bupropion|
|Inhibitors of CYP3A4|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of CONZIP and CYP3A4 inhibitors can increase the plasma concentration of tramadol and may result in a greater amount of metabolism via CYP2D6 and greater levels of M1. Follow patients closely for increased risk of serious adverse events including seizures and serotonin syndrome, and adverse reactions related to opioid toxicity including potentially fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added after a stable dose of CONZIP is achieved.|
|After stopping a CYP3A4 inhibitor, as the effects of the inhibitor decline, the tramadol plasma concentration will decrease [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], resulting in decreased opioid efficacy and possibly signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal in patients who had developed physical dependence to tramadol.|
|Intervention:||If concomitant use is necessary, consider dosage reduction of CONZIP until stable drug effects are achieved. Follow patients closely for seizures and serotonin syndrome, and signs of respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals.|
|If a CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued, consider increasing the CONZIP dosage until stable drug effects are achieved and follow patients for signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal.|
|Examples||Macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin), azole-antifungal agents (e.g. ketoconazole), protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir)|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of CONZIP and CYP3A4 inducers can decrease the plasma concentration of tramadol, [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], resulting in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence to tramadol, [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].|
|After stopping a CYP3A4 inducer, as the effects of the inducer decline, the tramadol plasma concentration will increase [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], which could increase or prolong both the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions, and may cause seizures and serotonin syndrome, and potentially fatal respiratory depression.|
|Intervention:||If concomitant use is necessary, consider increasing the CONZIP dosage until stable drug effects are achieved. Follow patients for signs of opioid withdrawal.|
|If a CYP3A4 inducer is discontinued, consider CONZIP dosage reduction and monitor for seizures and serotonin syndrome, and signs of sedation and respiratory depression.|
|Patients taking carbamazepine, a CYP3A4 inducer, may have a significantly reduced analgesic effect of tramadol. Because carbamazepine increases tramadol metabolism and because of the seizure risk associated with tramadol, concomitant administration of CONZIP and carbamazepine is not recommended.|
|Examples:||Rifampin, carbamazepine, phenytoin|
|Benzodiazepines and Other Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants|
|Clinical Impact:||Due to additive pharmacologic effect, the concomitant use of benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death.|
|Intervention:||Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is warranted, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.3, 5.7)].|
|Examples:||Benzodiazepines and other sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol.|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.|
|Intervention:||If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue CONZIP if serotonin syndrome is suspected.|
|Examples:||Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), triptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that affect the serotonin neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol), certain muscle relaxants (i.e., cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue).|
|Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)|
|Clinical Impact:||MAOI interactions with opioids may manifest as serotonin syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)] or opioid toxicity (e.g., respiratory depression, coma) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].|
|Intervention:||Do not use CONZIP in patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping such treatment.|
|Examples:||phenelzine, tranylcypromine, linezolid|
|Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics|
|Clinical Impact:||May reduce the analgesic effect of CONZIP and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms.|
|Intervention:||Avoid concomitant use.|
|Examples:||butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine, buprenorphine|
|Clinical Impact:||Tramadol may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of skeletal muscle relaxants and produce an increased degree of respiratory depression.|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients for signs of respiratory depression that may be greater than otherwise expected and decrease the dosage of CONZIP and/or the muscle relaxant as necessary. Due to the risk of respiratory depression with concomitant use of skeletal muscle relaxants and opioids, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.3, 5.7)].|
|Clinical Impact:||Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone.|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients for signs of diminished diuresis and/or effects on blood pressure and increase the dosage of the diuretic as needed.|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when CONZIP is used concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs.|
|Clinical Impact:||Post-marketing surveillance of tramadol has revealed rare reports of digoxin toxicity.|
|Intervention:||Follow patients for signs of digoxin toxicity and adjust dosage of digoxin as needed.|
|Clinical Impact:||Post-marketing surveillance of tramadol has revealed rare reports of alteration of warfarin effect, including elevation of prothrombin times.|
|Intervention:||Monitor the prothrombin time of patients on warfarin for signs of an interaction and adjust the dosage of warfarin as needed.|
Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy may cause neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. Available data with CONZIP in pregnant women are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage.
In animal reproduction studies, tramadol administration during organogenesis decreased fetal weights and reduced ossification in mice, rats, and rabbits at 1.4, 0.6, and 3.6 times the maximum recommended human daily dosage (MRHD). Tramadol decreased pup body weight and increased pup mortality at 1.2 and 1.9 times the MRHD [see Data]. Based on animal data, advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy for medical or nonmedical purposes can result in physical dependence in the neonate and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome shortly after birth. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome presents as irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea, and failure to gain weight. The onset, duration, and severity of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination of the drug by the newborn. Observe newborns for symptoms of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and manage accordingly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
Neonatal seizures, neonatal withdrawal syndrome, fetal death and still birth have been reported with tramadol during post-approval use of tramadol immediate-release products.
Labor or Delivery
Opioids cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression and psycho-physiologic effects in neonates. An opioid antagonist, such as naloxone, must be available for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression in the neonate. CONZIP is not recommended for use in pregnant women during or immediately prior to labor, when use of shorter-acting analgesics or other analgesic techniques are more appropriate. Opioid analgesics, including CONZIP can prolong labor through actions which temporarily reduce the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions. However, this effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilation, which tends to shorten labor. Monitor neonates exposed to opioid analgesics during labor for signs of excess sedation and respiratory depression.
Tramadol has been shown to cross the placenta. The mean ratio of serum tramadol in the umbilical veins compared to maternal veins was 0.83 for 40 women given tramadol during labor.
The effect of CONZIP, if any, on the later growth, development, and functional maturation of the child is unknown.
Tramadol has been shown to be embryotoxic and fetotoxic in mice, (120 mg/kg), rats (25 mg/kg) and rabbits (75 mg/kg) at maternally toxic dosages, but was not teratogenic at these dose levels. These doses on a mg/m2 basis are 1.9, 0.8, and 4.9 times the maximum recommended human daily dosage (MRHD) for mouse, rat and rabbit, respectively.
No drug-related teratogenic effects were observed in progeny of mice (up to 140 mg/kg), rats (up to 80 mg/kg) or rabbits (up to 300 mg/kg) treated with tramadol by various routes. Embryo and fetal toxicity consisted primarily of decreased fetal weights, decreased skeletal ossification, and increased supernumerary ribs at maternally toxic dose levels. Transient delays in developmental or behavioral parameters were also seen in pups from rat dams allowed to deliver. Embryo and fetal lethality were reported only in one rabbit study at 300 mg/kg, a dose that would cause extreme maternal toxicity in the rabbit. The dosages listed for mouse, rat, and rabbit are 2.3, 2.6, and 19 times the MRHD, respectively.
Tramadol was evaluated in pre- and post-natal studies in rats. Progeny of dams receiving oral (gavage) dose levels of 50 mg/kg (1.6 times the MRHD) or greater had decreased weights, and pup survival was decreased early in lactation at 80 mg/kg (2.6 times the MRHD).
CONZIP is not recommended for obstetrical preoperative medication or for post-delivery analgesia in nursing mothers because its safety in infants and newborns has not been studied.
Tramadol and its metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), are present in human milk. There is no information on the effects of the drug on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production. The M1 metabolite is more potent than tramadol in mu-opioid receptor binding [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)]. Published studies have reported tramadol and M1 in colostrum with administration of tramadol to nursing mothers in the early post-partum period. Women who are ultra-rapid metabolizers of tramadol may have higher than expected serum levels of M1, potentially leading to higher levels of M1 in breast milk that can be dangerous in their breastfed infants. In women with normal tramadol metabolism, the amount of tramadol secreted into human milk is low and dose-dependent. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including excess sedation and respiratory depression in a breastfed infant, advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with CONZIP.
If infants are exposed to CONZIP through breast milk, they should be monitored for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfed infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped, or when breast-feeding is stopped.
The safety and effectiveness of CONZIP in pediatric patients have not been established.
Life-threatening respiratory depression and death have occurred in children who received tramadol [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. In some of the reported cases, these events followed tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy, and one of the children had evidence of being an ultra-rapid metabolizer of tramadol (i.e., multiple copies of the gene for cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2D6). Children with sleep apnea may be particularly sensitive to the respiratory depressant effects of tramadol. Because of the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression and death:
Eight hundred and twelve elderly (65 years of age or older) subjects were exposed to CONZIP in clinical trials. Of those subjects, two hundred and forty were 75 years of age and older. In general, higher incidence rates of adverse events were observed for patients older than 65 years of age compared with patients 65 years and younger, particularly for the following adverse events: nausea, constipation, somnolence, dizziness, dry mouth, vomiting, asthenia, pruritus, anorexia, sweating, fatigue, weakness, postural hypotension and dyspepsia. For this reason, CONZIP should be used with great caution in patients older than 75 years of age [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
Respiratory depression is the chief risk for elderly patients treated with opioids, and has occurred after large initial doses were administered to patients who were not opioid-tolerant or when opioids were co-administered with other agents that depress respiration. Titrate the dosage of CONZIP slowly in geriatric patients and monitor closely for signs of central nervous system and respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Tramadol is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Metabolism of tramadol and M1 is reduced in patients with advanced cirrhosis of the liver. CONZIP has not been studied in patients with hepatic impairment. The limited availability of dose strengths of CONZIP does not permit the dosing flexibility required for safe use in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C). Therefore, CONZIP should not be used in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
CONZIP has not been studied in patients with renal impairment. Impaired renal function results in a decreased rate and extent of excretion of tramadol and its active metabolite, M1. The limited availability of dose strengths of CONZIP does not permit the dosing flexibility required for safe use in patients with severe renal impairment (Child-Pugh Class C). Therefore, CONZIP should not be used in patients with severe renal impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
CONZIP contains tramadol, a substance with a high potential for abuse similar to other opioids, and can be abused and is subject to misuse, addiction, and criminal diversion [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
The high drug content in extended-release formulations adds to the risk of adverse outcomes from abuse and misuse.
All patients treated with opioids require careful monitoring for signs of abuse and addiction, because use of opioid analgesic products carries the risk of addiction even under appropriate medical use.
Prescription drug abuse is the intentional non-therapeutic use of a prescription drug, even once, for its rewarding psychological or physiological effects.
Drug addiction is a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use and includes: a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance, and sometimes a physical withdrawal.
"Drug-seeking" behavior is very common in persons with substance use disorders. Drug-seeking tactics include emergency calls or visits near the end of office hours, refusal to undergo appropriate examination, testing, or referral, repeated "loss" of prescriptions, tampering with prescriptions, and reluctance to provide prior medical records or contact information for other treating healthcare providers. "Doctor shopping" (visiting multiple prescribers to obtain additional prescriptions) is common among drug abusers and people suffering from untreated addiction. Preoccupation with achieving adequate pain relief can be appropriate behavior in a patient with poor pain control.
Abuse and addiction are separate and distinct from physical dependence and tolerance. Healthcare providers should be aware that addiction may not be accompanied by concurrent tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence in all addicts. In addition, abuse of opioids can occur in the absence of true addiction.
CONZIP, like other opioids, can be diverted for non-medical use into illicit channels of distribution. Careful record-keeping of prescribing information, including quantity, frequency, and renewal requests, as required by state and federal law, is strongly advised.
Proper assessment of the patient, proper prescribing practices, periodic re-evaluation of therapy, and proper dispensing and storage are appropriate measures that help to limit abuse of opioid drugs.
Risks Specific to Abuse of CONZIP
CONZIP is for oral use only. The abuse of CONZIP poses a risk of overdose and death. The risk is increased with concurrent use of CONZIP with alcohol and other central nervous system depressants. With intravenous abuse, the inactive ingredients in CONZIP can result in local tissue necrosis, infection, pulmonary granulomas, embolism and death, and increased risk of endocarditis and valvular heart injury. Parenteral drug abuse is commonly associated with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis and HIV.
Both tolerance and physical dependence can develop during chronic opioid therapy. Tolerance is the need for increasing doses of opioids to maintain a defined effect such as analgesia (in the absence of disease progression or other external factors). Tolerance may occur to both the desired and undesired effects of drugs, and may develop at different rates for different effects.
Physical dependence is a physiological state in which the body adapts to the drug after a period of regular exposure, resulting in withdrawal symptoms after abrupt discontinuation or a significant dosage reduction of a drug. Withdrawal also may be precipitated through the administration of drugs with opioid antagonist activity (e.g., naloxone, nalmefene), mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics (e.g., pentazocine, butorphanol, nalbuphine), or partial agonists (e.g., buprenorphine). Physical dependence may not occur to a clinically significant degree until after several days to weeks of continued opioid usage.
Do not abruptly discontinue CONZIP in a patient physically dependent on opioids. Rapid tapering of CONZIP in a patient physically dependent on opioids may lead to serious withdrawal symptoms, uncontrolled pain, and suicide. Rapid discontinuation has also been associated with attempts to find other sources of opioid analgesics, which may be confused with drug-seeking for abuse.
When discontinuing CONZIP, gradually taper the dosage using a patient-specific plan that considers the following: the dose of CONZIP the patient has been taking, the duration of treatment, and the physical and psychological attributes of the patient. To improve the likelihood of a successful taper and minimize withdrawal symptoms, it is important that the opioid tapering schedule is agreed upon by the patient. In patients taking opioids for a long duration at high doses, ensure that a multimodal approach to pain management, including mental health support (if needed), is in place prior to initiating an opioid analgesic taper [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Warnings and Precautions (5.17)].
Infants born to mothers physically dependent on opioids will also be physically dependent and may exhibit respiratory difficulties and withdrawal signs [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Acute overdosage with CONZIP can be manifested by respiratory depression, somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, constricted pupils, and, in some cases, pulmonary edema, bradycardia, QT prolongation, hypotension, partial or complete airway obstruction, atypical snoring, and death. Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen with hypoxia in overdose situations. [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)
Treatment of Overdose
In case of overdosage, priorities are the reestablishment of a patent and protected airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation, if needed. Employ other supportive measures (including oxygen and vasopressors) in the management of circulatory shock and pulmonary edema as indicated. Cardiac arrest or arrhythmias will require advanced life-support techniques.
Opioid antagonists, such as naloxone, are specific antidotes to respiratory depression resulting from opioid overdose. For clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to opioid overdose, administer an opioid antagonist.
While naloxone will reverse some, but not all, symptoms caused by overdosage with tramadol, the risk of seizures is also increased with naloxone administration. In animals, convulsions following the administration of toxic doses of CONZIP could be suppressed with barbiturates or benzodiazepines but were increased with naloxone. Naloxone administration did not change the lethality of an overdose in mice. Hemodialysis is not expected to be helpful in an overdose because it removes less than 7% of the administered dose in a 4-hour dialysis period.
Because the duration of opioid reversal is expected to be less than the duration of action of tramadol in CONZIP, carefully monitor the patient until spontaneous respiration is reliably reestablished. CONZIP will continue to release tramadol and add to the tramadol load for 24 to 48 hours or longer following ingestion, necessitating prolonged monitoring. If the response to an opioid antagonist is suboptimal or only brief in nature, administer additional antagonist as directed by the product's prescribing information.
In an individual physically dependent on opioids, administration of the recommended usual dosage of the antagonist will precipitate an acute withdrawal syndrome. The severity of the withdrawal symptoms experienced will depend on the degree of physical dependence and the dose of the antagonist administered. If a decision is made to treat serious respiratory depression in the physically dependent patient, administration of the antagonist should be begun with care and by titration with smaller than usual doses of the antagonist.
CONZIP (tramadol hydrochloride) is an opioid agonist in an extended-release oral formulation. The chemical name for tramadol hydrochloride USP is (±)cis-2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl) cyclohexanol hydrochloride. Its structural formula is:
C16 H25 NO2 ∙ HCl
The molecular weight of tramadol hydrochloride USP is 299.8. It is a white, bitter, crystalline and odorless powder that is readily soluble in water and ethanol and has a pKa of 9.41. The n-octanol/water log partition coefficient (logP) is 1.35 at pH 7.
CONZIP capsules contain a total dose of tramadol hydrochloride 100, 200, and 300 mg in a combination of immediate-release and extended-release components.
|100 mg||25 mg||75 mg|
|200 mg||50 mg||150 mg|
|300 mg||50 mg||250 mg|
CONZIP capsules are white in color. Inactive ingredients include gelatin, titanium dioxide, shellac, FD & C Blue #2 aluminum lake (E132), D & C Red #7 calcium lake (E180), D & C Yellow #10 aluminum lake, lactose monohydrate 200 mesh, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone K30, corn starch, sodium starch glycolate, magnesium stearate, sucrose stearate, hypromellose, talc, polysorbate 80, Eudragit NE 30D, and simethicone emulsion.
CONZIP contains tramadol, an opioid agonist, and an inhibitor of reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin. Although its mode of action is not completely understood, from animal tests, at least two complementary mechanisms appear applicable: binding of parent and M1 metabolite to mu-opioid receptors and weak inhibition of reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin.
Opioid activity of tramadol is due to both low affinity binding of the parent compound and higher affinity binding of the O-demethylated metabolite M1 to mu-opioid receptors. In animal models, M1 is up to 6 times more potent than tramadol in producing analgesia and 200 times more potent in mu-opioid binding. Tramadol-induced analgesia is only partially antagonized by the opioid antagonist naloxone in several animal tests. The relative contribution of both tramadol and M1 to human analgesia is dependent upon the plasma concentrations of each compound.
Tramadol has been shown to inhibit reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin in vitro, as have some other opioid analgesics. These mechanisms may contribute independently to the overall analgesic profile of tramadol. The relationship between exposure of tramadol and M1 and efficacy has not been evaluated in clinical studies.
Apart from analgesia, tramadol administration may produce a constellation of symptoms (including dizziness, somnolence, nausea, constipation, sweating and pruritus) similar to that of other opioids. In contrast to morphine, tramadol has not been shown to cause histamine release. At therapeutic doses, tramadol has no effect on heart rate, left ventricular function or cardiac index. Orthostatic hypotension has been observed.
Effects on the Central Nervous System
Tramadol produces respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratory centers. The respiratory depression involves a reduction in the responsiveness of the brain stem respiratory centers to both increases in carbon dioxide tension and electrical stimulation.
Tramadol causes miosis, even in total darkness. Pinpoint pupils are a sign of opioid overdose but are not pathognomonic (e.g., pontine lesions of hemorrhagic or ischemic origins may produce similar findings). Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen due to hypoxia in overdose situations.
Effects on the Gastrointestinal Tract and Other Smooth Muscle
Tramadol causes a reduction in motility associated with an increase in smooth muscle tone in the antrum of the stomach and duodenum. Digestion of food in the small intestine is delayed and propulsive contractions are decreased. Propulsive peristaltic waves in the colon are decreased, while tone is increased to the point of spasm, resulting in constipation. Other opioid-induced effects may include a reduction in biliary and pancreatic secretions, spasm of sphincter of Oddi, and transient elevations in serum amylase.
Effects on the Cardiovascular System
Tramadol produces peripheral vasodilation, which may result in orthostatic hypotension or syncope. Manifestations of histamine release and/or peripheral vasodilation may include pruritus, flushing, red eyes, sweating, and/or orthostatic hypotension.
The effect of oral tramadol on the QTcF interval was evaluated in a double-blind, randomized, four-way crossover, placebo- and positive- (moxifloxacin) controlled study in 68 adult male and female healthy subjects. At a 600 mg/day dose (1.5-fold the maximum immediate-release daily dose), the study demonstrated no significant effect on the QTcF interval.
Effects on the Endocrine System
Opioids inhibit the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and luteinizing hormone (LH) in humans [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. They also stimulate prolactin, growth hormone (GH) secretion, and pancreatic secretion of insulin and glucagon.
Chronic use of opioids may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to androgen deficiency that may manifest as low libido, impotence, erectile dysfunction, amenorrhea, or infertility. The causal role of opioids in the clinical syndrome of hypogonadism is unknown because the various medical, physical, lifestyle, and psychological stressors that may influence gonadal hormone levels have not been adequately controlled for in studies conducted to date [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Effects on the Immune System
Opioids have been shown to have a variety of effects on components of the immune system in in vitro and animal models. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Overall, the effects of opioids appear to be modestly immunosuppressive.
The minimum effective analgesic concentration will vary widely among patients, especially among patients who have been previously treated with potent agonist opioids. The minimum effective analgesic concentration of tramadol for any individual patient may increase over time due to an increase in pain, the development of a new pain syndrome, and/or the development of analgesic tolerance [see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.4)].
Concentration–Adverse Reaction Relationships
There is a relationship between increasing tramadol plasma concentration and increasing frequency of dose-related opioid adverse reactions such as nausea, vomiting, CNS effects, and respiratory depression. In opioid-tolerant patients, the situation may be altered by the development of tolerance to opioid-related adverse reactions [see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.3, 2.4)].
The analgesic activity of tramadol is due to both parent drug and the M1 metabolite. CONZIP is administered as a racemate and both tramadol and M1 are detected in the circulation. The Cmax and AUC of CONZIP capsules have been observed to be dose-proportional over an oral dose range of 100 to 300 mg in healthy subjects.
After a single dose administration of CONZIP, Tmax occurs around 10-12 hours.
The mean Cmax and AUC of CONZIP capsules after a 300 mg single dose was 308 ng/mL and 6777 ng.hr/mL, respectively under fasting conditions. CONZIP is bioequivalent to a reference extended-release tramadol product following a single 300 mg dose under fasting conditions.
At steady-state, CONZIP at 200 mg has been observed to be bioequivalent to a reference extended-release tramadol product at 200 mg under fasting conditions (Table 3). Following administration of CONZIP 200 mg capsules, steady-state plasma concentrations of both tramadol and M1 are achieved within four days of once daily dosing.
|Mean (%CV) Steady-State Pharmacokinetic Parameter Values (N= 38)|
|Parameter||Tramadol hydrochloride Extended- Release Capsules|
|A Reference Extended-Release Tramadol Product|
|Tramadol hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules|
|A Reference Extended-Release Tramadol Product
|AUC0-24: Area Under the Curve in a 24-hour dosing interval|
|Cmax: Peak Concentration in a 24-hour dosing interval|
|Cmin: Trough Concentration in a 24-hour dosing interval|
|Tmax: Time to Peak Concentration|
|AUC0-24 (ng.hr/mL)||5678 (27%)||5563 (32%)||1319 (34%)||1302 (40%)|
|Cmax (ng/mL)||332 (25%)||350 (31%)||70 (34%)||74 (41%)|
|Cmin (ng/mL)||128 (39%)||125 (45%)||35 (34%)||33 (42%)|
|Tmax||5.9 (66%)||10 (30%)||11 (37%)||13 (29%)|
|% Fluctuation||88 (19%)||101 (30%)||64 (22%)||76 (30%)|
The volume of distribution of tramadol was 2.6 and 2.9 liters/kg in male and female subjects, respectively, following a 100 mg intravenous tramadol dose. The binding of tramadol to human plasma proteins is approximately 20% and binding also appears to be independent of concentration up to 10 mcg/mL. Saturation of plasma protein binding occurs only at concentrations outside the clinically relevant range.
Tramadol is eliminated primarily through metabolism by the liver and the metabolites are eliminated primarily by the kidneys. The mean plasma elimination half-lives of racemic tramadol and racemic M1 after administration of CONZIP capsules are approximately 10 and 11 hours, respectively.
Tramadol is extensively metabolized after oral administration. The major metabolic pathways appear to be N- (mediated by CYP3A4 and CYP2B6) and O- (mediated by CYP2D6) demethylation and glucuronidation or sulfation in the liver. One metabolite (O-desmethyltramadol, denoted M1) is pharmacologically active in animal models. Formation of M1 is dependent on CYP2D6 and as such is subject to inhibition and polymorphism, which may affect the therapeutic response [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Pharmacokinetics of tramadol was studied in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment after receiving multiple doses of an extended-release tramadol product at 100 mg. The exposure of (+)- and (-)-tramadol was similar in mild and moderate hepatic impairment patients in comparison to patients with normal hepatic function. However, exposure of (+)- and (-)-M1 decreased ~50% with increased severity of the hepatic impairment (from normal to mild and moderate). The pharmacokinetics of tramadol has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment. After the administration of tramadol immediate-release tablets to patients with advanced cirrhosis of the liver, tramadol area under the plasma concentration time curve was larger and the tramadol and M1 half-lives were longer than subjects with normal hepatic function. The limited availability of dose strengths of CONZIP does not permit the dosing flexibility required for safe use in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Therefore, CONZIP should not be used in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].
Impaired renal function results in a decreased rate and extent of excretion of tramadol and its active metabolite, M1. The pharmacokinetics of tramadol was studied in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment after receiving multiple doses of an extended-release tramadol product at 100 mg. There is no consistent trend observed for tramadol exposure related to renal function in patients with mild (CLcr: 50-80 mL/min) or moderate (CLcr: 30-50 mL/min) renal impairment in comparison to patients with normal renal function (CLcr > 80 mL/min). However, exposure of M1 increased 20-40% with increased severity of the renal impairment (from normal to mild and moderate). The pharmacokinetics of tramadol has not been studied in patients with severe renal impairment (CLcr < 30 mL/min). The limited availability of dose strengths of CONZIP does not permit the dosing flexibility required for safe use in patients with severe renal impairment. Therefore, CONZIP should not be used in patients with severe renal impairment. The total amount of tramadol and M1 removed during a 4-hour dialysis period is less than 7% of the administered dose [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].
Based on pooled multiple-dose pharmacokinetics studies for an extended-release tramadol product in 166 healthy subjects (111 males and 55 females), the dose-normalized AUC values for tramadol were somewhat higher in females than in males. There was a considerable degree of overlap in values between male and female groups. Dosage adjustment based on sex is not recommended.
Age: Geriatric Population
The effect of age on pharmacokinetics of CONZIP has not been studied. Healthy elderly subjects aged 65 to 75 years administered an immediate-release formulation of tramadol, have plasma concentrations and elimination half-lives comparable to those observed in healthy subjects younger than 65 years of age. In subjects over 75 years, mean maximum plasma concentrations are elevated (208 vs. 162 ng/mL) and the mean elimination half-life is prolonged (7 vs. 6 hours) compared to subjects 65 to 75 years of age. Adjustment of the daily dose is recommended for patients older than 75 years [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
Drug Interaction Studies
Potential for Tramadol to Affect Other Drugs
In vitro studies indicate that tramadol is unlikely to inhibit the CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of other drugs when tramadol is administered concomitantly at therapeutic doses. Tramadol does not appear to induce its own metabolism in humans, since observed maximal plasma concentrations after multiple oral doses are higher than expected based on single-dose data.
Poor / Extensive Metabolizers, CYP2D6
The formation of the active metabolite, M1, is mediated by CYP2D6, a polymorphic enzyme. Approximately 7% of the population has reduced activity of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme of cytochrome P-450 metabolizing enzyme system. These individuals are "poor metabolizers" of debrisoquine, dextromethorphan and tricyclic antidepressants, among other drugs. Based on a population PK analysis of Phase 1 studies with IR tablets in healthy subjects, concentrations of tramadol were approximately 20% higher in "poor metabolizers" versus "extensive metabolizers," while M1 concentrations were 40% lower.
In vitro drug interaction studies in human liver microsomes indicate that concomitant administration with inhibitors of CYP2D6 such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, and amitriptyline could result in some inhibition of the metabolism of tramadol.
Tramadol is metabolized to active metabolite M1 by CYP2D6. Coadministration of quinidine, a selective inhibitor of CYP2D6, with tramadol ER resulted in a 50-60% increase in tramadol exposure and a 50-60% decrease in M1 exposure. The clinical consequences of these findings are unknown.
To evaluate the effect of tramadol, a CYP2D6 substrate on quinidine, an in vitro drug interaction study in human liver microsomes was conducted. The results from this study indicate that tramadol has no effect on quinidine metabolism. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.6), Drug Interactions (7)].
CYP3A4 Inhibitors and Inducers
Since tramadol is also metabolized by CYP3A4, administration of CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ketoconazole and erythromycin, or CYP3A4 inducers, such as rifampin and St. John's Wort, with CONZIP may affect the metabolism of tramadol leading to altered tramadol exposure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.6), Drug Interactions (7)].
Concomitant administration of tramadol immediate-release tablets with cimetidine, a weak CPY3A4 inhibitor, does not result in clinically significant changes in tramadol pharmacokinetics. No alteration of the CONZIP dosage regimen with cimetidine is recommended.
Carcinogenicity assessment has been conducted in mice, rats and p53(+/-) heterozygous mice. A slight but statistically significant increase in two common murine tumors, pulmonary and hepatic, was observed in an NMRI mouse carcinogenicity study, particularly in aged mice. Mice were dosed orally up to 30 mg/kg in the drinking water (0.5 times the maximum recommended daily human dosage or MRHD) for approximately two years, although the study was not done with the Maximum Tolerated Dose. This finding is not believed to suggest risk in humans.
No evidence of carcinogenicity was noted in a rat 2-year carcinogenicity study testing oral doses of up to 30 mg/kg in the drinking water (1 times the MRHD). In a second rat study, no evidence of carcinogenicity was noted in rats at oral doses up to 75 mg/kg/day for males and 100 mg/kg/day for females (approximately 2 fold the maximum recommended human daily dose MRHD) for two years. However, the excessive decrease in body weight gain observed in the rat study might have reduced their sensitivity to any potential carcinogenic effect of the drug. No carcinogenic effect of tramadol was observed in p53(+/–)-heterozygous mice at oral doses up to 150 mg/kg/day for 26 weeks.
Tramadol was mutagenic in the presence of metabolic activation in the mouse lymphoma assay. Tramadol was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay using Salmonella and E. coli (Ames), the mouse lymphoma assay in the absence of metabolic activation, the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay, or the in vivo micronucleus assay in bone marrow.
CONZIP is bioequivalent under fasting conditions to another extended-release tramadol product [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] which demonstrated efficacy in two of four clinical trials of patients with chronic pain. To qualify for inclusion into these studies, patients were required to have moderate to moderately severe pain as defined by a pain intensity score of ≥40 mm, off previous medications, on a 0 - 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS).
In one 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients with moderate to moderately severe pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee and/or hip were administered doses from 100 mg to 400 mg daily. Treatment with the extended-release tramadol product was initiated at 100 mg once daily for four days then increased by 100 mg per day increments every five days to the randomized fixed dose. Between 51% and 59% of patients in active treatment groups completed the study and 56% of patients in the placebo group completed the study. Discontinuations due to adverse events were more common in the extended-release tramadol product 200 mg, 300 mg and 400 mg treatment groups (20%, 27%, and 30% of discontinuations, respectively) compared to 14% of the patients treated with the extended-release tramadol product 100 mg and 10% of patients treated with placebo.
Pain, as assessed by the WOMAC Pain subscale, was measured at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks and change from baseline assessed. A responder analysis based on the percent change in WOMAC Pain subscale demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in pain for the 100 mg and 200 mg treatment groups compared to placebo (see Figure 2).
In one 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled flexible-dosing trial of the extended-release tramadol product in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, patients titrated to an average daily dose of approximately 270 mg/day. Forty-nine percent of patients randomized to the active treatment group completed the study, while 52% of patients randomized to placebo completed the study. Most of the early discontinuations in the active treatment group were due to adverse events, accounting for 27% of the early discontinuations in contrast to 7% of the discontinuations from the placebo group. Thirty-seven percent of the placebo-treated patients discontinued the study due to lack of efficacy compared to 15% of active-treated patients. The active treatment group demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in the mean Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score, and a statistically significant difference in the responder rate, based on the percent change from baseline in the VAS score, measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks, between patients receiving the extended-release tramadol product and placebo (see Figure 3).
Four randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of CONZIP were conducted, none of which demonstrated efficacy but which differed in design from the preceding clinical studies described. Two trials were 12-week randomized placebo-controlled trials of CONZIP 100 mg/day, 200 mg/day, and 300 mg/day versus placebo in patients with moderate to moderately severe osteoarthritis pain of the hip and knee. The other two 12 week trials were similar in design, but only studied CONZIP 300 mg/day. In this fixed-dose design, subjects were required to titrate to a fixed dose, even if their pain responded to a lower titration dose.
CONZIP (tramadol hydrochloride) capsules are supplied as opaque white hard gelatin capsules, imprinted as follows.
|100 mg Capsules:||White capsule imprinted with blue ink "G 252" on cap and "100" between lines on the body|
|Bottle of 30 capsules:||NDC 68025-071-30|
|200 mg Capsules:||White capsule imprinted with violet ink "G 253" on cap and "200" between lines on the body|
|Bottle of 30 capsules:||NDC 68025-072-30|
|300 mg Capsules:||White capsule imprinted with red ink "G 254" on cap and "300" between lines on the body|
|Bottle of 30 capsules:||NDC 68025-073-30|
Dispense in a tight container. Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Keep out of reach of children.
Store CONZIP securely and dispose of properly [see Patient Counseling Information (17)].
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide)
Storage and Disposal
Because of the risks associated with accidental ingestion, misuse, and abuse, advise patients to store CONZIP securely, out of sight and reach of children, and in a location not accessible by others, including visitors to the home [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.2)]. Inform patients that leaving CONZIP unsecured can pose a deadly risk to others in the home.
Advise patients and caregivers that when medicines are no longer needed, they should be disposed of promptly. Inform patients that medicine take-back options are the preferred way to safely dispose of most types of unneeded medicines. If no take back programs or DEA-registered collectors are available, instruct patients to dispose of CONZIP by following these four steps:
Inform patients that they can visit www.fda.gov/drugdisposal for additional information on disposal of unused medicines.
Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse
Inform patients that the use of CONZIP even when taken as recommended, can result in addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Instruct patients not to share CONZIP with others and to take steps to protect CONZIP from theft or misuse.
Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression
Inform patients of the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression, including information that the risk is greatest when starting CONZIP or when the dosage is increased, and that it can occur even at recommended dosages.
Educate patients and caregivers on how to recognize respiratory depression and emphasize the importance of calling 911 or getting emergency medical help right away in the event of a known or suspected overdose [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Patient Access to Naloxone for the Emergency Treatment of Opioid Overdose
Discuss with the patient and caregiver the availability of naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose, both when initiating and renewing treatment with CONZIP. Inform patients and caregivers about the various ways to obtain naloxone as permitted by individual state naloxone dispensing and prescribing requirements or guidelines (e.g., by prescription, directly from a pharmacist, or as part of a community-based program) [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Educate patients and caregivers on how to recognize the signs and symptoms of an overdose.
Explain to patients and caregivers that naloxone's effects are temporary, and that they must call 911 or get emergency medical help right away in all cases of known or suspected opioid overdose, even if naloxone is administered [see Overdosage (10)].
If naloxone is prescribed, also advise patients and caregivers:
Inform patients that accidental ingestion, especially by children, may result in respiratory depression or death. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Instruct patients to take steps to store CONZIP securely and to dispose of unused CONZIP in accordance with the local state guidelines and/or regulations.
Ultra-Rapid Metabolism of Tramadol and Other Risk Factors for Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Children
Advise caregivers that CONZIP is contraindicated in all children younger than 12 years of age and in children younger than 18 years of age following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy. Advise caregivers of children ages 12 to18 years of age receiving CONZIP to monitor for signs of respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Interactions with Benzodiazepines and Other CNS Depressants
Inform patients and caregivers that potentially fatal additive effects may occur if CONZIP is used with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, and not to use these concomitantly unless supervised by a healthcare provider [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7), Drug Interactions (7)].
Inform patients that tramadol could cause a rare but potentially life-threatening condition, particularly during concomitant use with serotonergic drugs. Warn patients of the symptoms of serotonin syndrome and to seek medical attention right away if symptoms develop. Instruct patients to inform their healthcare provider if they are taking, or plan to take serotonergic medications [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8), Drug Interactions (7)].
Inform patients that CONZIP may cause seizures with concomitant use of serotonergic agents (including SSRIs, SNRIs, and triptans) or drugs that significantly reduce the metabolic clearance of tramadol [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].
Inform patients not to take CONZIP while using any drugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase. Patients should not start MAOIs while taking CONZIP [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Inform patients that opioids could cause adrenal insufficiency, a potentially life-threatening condition. Adrenal insufficiency may present with non-specific symptoms and signs such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. Advise patients to seek medical attention if they experience a constellation of these symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)].
Important Administration Instructions
Instruct patients how to properly take CONZIP, including the following:
Important Discontinuation Instructions
In order to avoid developing withdrawal symptoms, instruct patients not to discontinue CONZIP without first discussing a tapering plan with the prescriber [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].
Inform patients that CONZIP may cause orthostatic hypotension and syncope. Instruct patients how to recognize symptoms of low blood pressure and how to reduce the risk of serious consequences should hypotension occur (e.g., sit or lie down, carefully rise from a sitting or lying position) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)].
Inform patients that anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in CONZIP. Advise patients how to recognize such a reaction and when to seek medical attention [see Contraindications (4), Adverse Reactions (6)].
Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
Inform female patients of reproductive potential that prolonged use of CONZIP during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Inform female patients of reproductive potential that CONZIP can cause fetal harm and to inform their healthcare provider of a known or suspected pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Advise women that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with CONZIP [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].
Inform patients that chronic use of opioids may cause reduced fertility. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see Adverse Reactions (6.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].
Driving or Operating Heavy Machinery
Inform patients that CONZIP may impair the ability to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. Advise patients not to perform such tasks until they know how they will react to the medication [see Warnings and Precautions (5.18)].
|Manufactured by:||Galephar P.R., Inc.
Juncos, Puerto Rico 00777
|Distributed by:||Vertical Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Bridgewater, NJ 08807, USA
|This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.||Issued: 03/2021|
CONZIP ([KON-ZIP])([tramadol hydrochloride extended-release capsules]) , CIV
|Important information about CONZIP:
|Important Information Guiding Use in Pediatric Patients:
|Do not take CONZIP if you have:
|Before taking CONZIP, tell your healthcare provider if you have a history of:
|Tell your healthcare provider if you are:
|When taking CONZIP:
|While taking CONZIP DO NOT:
|The possible side effects of CONZIP:
|Get emergency medical help or call 911 right away if you have:
|These are not all the possible side effects of CONZIP. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Vertical Pharmaceuticals, LLC at (877) 958-3784 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. For more information go to dailymed.nlm.nih.gov
Distributed by: Vertical Pharmaceuticals, LLC, Bridgewater, NJ 08807 USA, call 1-877-958-3784.
Principal Display Panel – 100 mg Bottle Label
100 mg per capsule
Principal Display Panel – 200 mg Bottle Label
200 mg per capsule
tramadol hydrochloride capsule, extended release
tramadol hydrochloride capsule, extended release
tramadol hydrochloride capsule, extended release
|Labeler - Vertical Pharmaceuticals, LLC (173169017)|