BETAINE- betaine powder, for solution
Cosette Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
These highlights do not include all the information needed to use BETAINE ANHYDROUS FOR ORAL SOLUTION safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for BETAINE ANHYDROUS FOR ORAL SOLUTION.
BETAINE ANHYDROUS for oral solution
Initial U.S. Approval: 1996
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution is a methylating agent indicated in pediatric and adult patients for the treatment of homocystinuria to decrease elevated homocysteine blood concentrations. Included within the category of homocystinuria are: (1)
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Adults and Pediatric Patients 3 Years of Age and Older (2)
Pediatric Patients Less than 3 Years of Age (2)
Preparation and Administration Instructions (2)
DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
For oral solution: in bottles containing 180 grams of betaine anhydrous. (3)
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution may worsen elevated plasma methionine concentrations and cerebral edema has been reported. Monitor plasma methionine concentrations in patients with CBS deficiency. Keep plasma methionine concentrations below 1,000 micromol/L through dietary modification and, if necessary, a reduction of Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution dosage. (5.1) (5)
See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION.
FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS*
1 INDICATIONS & USAGE
2 DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION
2.2 Preparation and Administration Instructions
3 DOSAGE FORMS & STRENGTHS
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Hypermethioninemia in Patients with CBS Deficiency
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
6.2 Post-marketing Experience
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
8.4 Pediatric Use
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis & Impairment Of Fertility
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution is indicated for the treatment of homocystinuria to decrease elevated homocysteine blood concentrations in pediatric and adult patients. Included within the category of homocystinuria are
Therapy with Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution should be directed by physicians knowledgeable in the management of patients with homocystinuria.
Adults and Pediatric Patients 3 Years of Age and Older
The recommended dosage is 6 grams per day, administered orally in divided doses of 3 grams twice daily.
Pediatric Patients Less than 3 Years of Age
The recommended starting dosage is 100 mg/kg/day divided in twice daily doses, and then increased weekly by 50 mg/kg increments.
Monitor patient response to Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution by homocysteine plasma concentration. Increase the dosage in all patients gradually until the plasma total homocysteine concentration is undetectable or present only in small amounts. An initial response in homocysteine plasma concentrations usually occurs within several days and steady state plasma concentrations occur within a month.
Monitor plasma methionine concentrations in patients with CBS deficiency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Dosages of up to 20 grams/day have been necessary to control homocysteine concentrations in some patients. However, one pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic in vitro simulation study indicated minimal benefit from exceeding a twice-daily dosing schedule and a 150 mg/kg/day dosage for Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution.
Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution is a white to off-white, crystalline, hygroscopic powder for oral solution available in bottles containing 180 grams of betaine anhydrous.
Patients with homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency may also have elevated plasma methionine concentrations. Treatment with Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution may further increase methionine concentrations due to the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Cerebral edema has been reported in patients with hypermethioninemia, including patients treated with Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. Monitor plasma methionine concentrations in patients with CBS deficiency. Plasma methionine concentrations should be kept below 1,000 micromol/L through dietary modification and, if necessary, a reduction of Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution dosage.
The following serious adverse reactions are described elsewhere in labeling:
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The assessment of clinical adverse reactions is based on a survey study of 41 physicians, who treated a total of 111 homocystinuria patients with Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution. Adverse reactions were retrospectively recalled and were not collected systematically in this open-label, uncontrolled, physician survey. Thus, this list may not encompass all types of potential adverse reactions, reliably estimate their frequency, or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. The following adverse reactions were reported (Table 1):
Table 1: Number of Patients with Adverse Reactions to Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution by Physician Survey
| Adverse Reactions
||Number of Patients
|Questionable psychological changes||1
|"Aspirated the powder"||1
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Severe cerebral edema and hypermethioninemia have been reported within 2 weeks to 6 months of starting Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution therapy, with complete recovery after discontinuation of Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution. All patients who developed cerebral edema had homocystinuria due to CBS deficiency and had severe elevation in plasma methionine concentrations (range 1,000 to 3,000 microM). As cerebral edema has also been reported in patients with hypermethioninemia, secondary hypermethioninemia due to betaine therapy has been postulated as a possible mechanism of action [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Other adverse reactions include: anorexia, agitation, depression, irritability, personality disorder, sleep disturbed, dental disorders, diarrhea, glossitis, nausea, stomach discomfort, vomiting, hair loss, hives, skin odor abnormalities, and urinary incontinence.
Available data from a limited number of published case reports and post marketing experience with Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution use in pregnancy have not identified any drug associated risks for major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with betaine.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
There are no data on the presence of betaine in human or animal milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution or from the underlying maternal condition.
The safety and effectiveness of Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution have been established in pediatric patients. The majority of case studies of homocystinuria patients treated with Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution have been pediatric patients, including patients ranging in age from 24 days to 17 years [see Clinical Studies (14)]. Children younger than 3 years of age may benefit from dose titration [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
There is no information on Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution overdose in humans. In an acute toxicology study in rats, death occurred frequently at doses equal to or greater than 10 g/kg.
Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution is an agent for the treatment of homocystinuria. It contains no ingredients other than anhydrous betaine. Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution is a white to off-white, crystalline, hygroscopic powder, which is diluted in water and administered orally. The chemical name of betaine anhydrous powder is trimethylglycine. It has a molecular weight of 117.15. The structural formula is:
Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution acts as a methyl group donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine in patients with homocystinuria. Betaine occurs naturally in the body. It is a metabolite of choline and is present in small amounts in foods such as beets, spinach, cereals, and seafood.
Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution was observed to lower plasma homocysteine concentrations in three types of homocystinuria, including CBS deficiency; MTHFR deficiency; and cbl defect. Patients have taken Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution for many years without evidence of tolerance. There has been no demonstrated correlation between Betaine concentrations and homocysteine concentrations.
In CBS-deficient patients, large increases in methionine concentrations over baseline have been observed. Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution has also been demonstrated to increase low plasma methionine and S- adenosylmethionine (SAM) concentrations in patients with MTHFR deficiency and cbl defect.
Long-term carcinogenicity and fertility studies have not been conducted with Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution. No evidence of genotoxicity was demonstrated in the following tests: metaphase analysis of human lymphocytes; bacterial reverse mutation assay; and mouse micronucleus test.
Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution was studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 6 patients (3 males and 3 females) with CBS deficiency, ages 7 to 32 years at enrollment. Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution was administered at a dosage of 3 grams twice daily, for 12 months. Plasma homocystine concentrations were significantly reduced (p<0.01) compared to placebo. Plasma methionine concentrations were variable and not significantly different compared to placebo.
Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution has also been evaluated in observational studies without concurrent controls in patients with homocystinuria due to CBS deficiency, MTHFR deficiency, or cbl defect. A review of 16 case studies and the randomized controlled trial previously described was also conducted, and the data available for each study were summarized; however, no formal statistical analyses were performed. The studies included a total of 78 male and female patients with homocystinuria who were treated with Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution. This included 48 patients with CBS deficiency, 13 with MTHFR deficiency, and 11 with cbl defect, ranging in age from 24 days to 53 years. The majority of patients (n=48) received 6 gm/day, 3 patients received less than 6 gm/day, 12 patients received doses from 6 to 15 gm/day, and 5 patients received doses over 15 gm/day. Most patients were treated for more than 3 months (n=57) and 30 patients were treated for 1 year or longer (range 1 month to 11 years). Homocystine is formed nonenzymatically from two molecules of homocysteine, and both have been used to evaluate the effect of Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution in patients with homocystinuria. Plasma homocystine or homocysteine concentrations were reported numerically for 62 patients, and 61 of these patients showed decreases with Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution treatment. Homocystine decreased by 83 to 88% regardless of the pre-treatment concentration, and homocysteine decreased by 71 to 83%, regardless of the pre-treatment concentration. Clinical improvement, such as improvement in seizures, or behavioral and cognitive functioning, was reported by the treating physicians in about three-fourths of patients. Many of these patients were also taking other therapies such as vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cobalamin), and folate with variable biochemical responses. In most cases, adding Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution resulted in a further reduction of either homocystine or homocysteine concentrations.
Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution is available in plastic bottles containing 180 grams of betaine anhydrous as a white to off-white, crystalline, hygroscopic powder. Each bottle is equipped with a plastic child-resistant cap and is supplied with a polypropylene measuring scoop. One level scoop (1.9cc) is equal to 1 gram of betaine anhydrous powder.
NDC 0713-0352-81 (180 g/bottle)
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F), excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Protect from moisture.
Preparation and Administration Instructions
Instruct patients and caregivers to administer Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution as follows:
Cosette Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
South Plainfield, NJ 07080
betaine powder, for solution
|Labeler - Cosette Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (116918230)|