SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE - sumatriptan succinate tablet, film coated
A-S Medication Solutions
HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
These highlights do not include all the information needed to use SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE TABLETS safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE TABLETS .
SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE tablets, for oral use
Initial U.S. Approval: 1992
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Sumatriptan succinate is a serotonin (5-HT1B/1D) receptor agonist (triptan) indicated for acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults. (1)
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Tablets: 25 mg, 50 mg, and 100 mg (3)
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Most common adverse reactions (≥2% and >placebo) were paresthesia, warm/cold sensation, chest pain/tightness/pressure and/or heaviness, neck/throat/jaw pain/tightness/pressure, other sensations of pain/pressure/tightness/heaviness, vertigo, and malaise/fatigue. (6.1)
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy: Based on animal data, may cause fetal harm. (8.1)
See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION.
FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS*
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 Dosing Information
2.2 Dosing in Patients with Hepatic Impairment
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Myocardial Ischemia, Myocardial Infarction, and Prinzmetal's Angina
5.3 Chest, Throat, Neck, and/or Jaw Pain/Tightness/Pressure
5.4 Cerebrovascular Events
5.5 Other Vasospasm Reactions
5.6 Medication Overuse Headache
5.7 Serotonin Syndrome
5.8 Increase in Blood Pressure
5.9 Anaphylactic/Anaphylactoid Reactions
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 Ergot-Containing Drugs
7.2 Monoamine Oxidase-A Inhibitors
7.3 Other 5-HT1 Agonists
7.4 Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors/Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors and Serotonin Syndrome
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
8.4 Pediatric Use
8.5 Geriatric Use
8.6 Hepatic Impairment
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
Sumatriptan succinate tablets are indicated for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults.
Limitations of Use:
The recommended dose of sumatriptan succinate tablets is 25 mg, 50 mg, or 100 mg. Doses of 50 mg and 100 mg may provide a greater effect than the 25 mg dose, but doses of 100 mg may not provide a greater effect than the 50 mg dose. Higher doses may have a greater risk of adverse reactions [see Clinical Studies (14)].
If the migraine has not resolved by 2 hours after taking sumatriptan succinate tablets, or returns after a transient improvement, a second dose may be administered at least 2 hours after the first dose. The maximum daily dose is 200 mg in a 24-hour period.
Use after sumatriptan injection
If the migraine returns following an initial treatment with sumatriptan injection, additional single sumatriptan succinate tablets (up to 100 mg/day) may be given with an interval of at least 2 hours between tablet doses.
The safety of treating an average of more than 4 headaches in a 30-day period has not been established.
Sumatriptan succinate tablets, 25 mg are white, triangular-shaped, film-coated tablets debossed with "S" on one side and "I" on the other side.
Sumatriptan succinate tablets, 50 mg are white, triangular-shaped, film-coated tablets debossed with "S" on one side and "50" on the other side.
Sumatriptan succinate tablets, 100 mg are pink, triangular-shaped, film-coated tablets debossed with "S" on one side and "100" on the other side.
Sumatriptan succinate tablets are contraindicated in patients with:
The use of sumatriptan succinate tablets is contraindicated in patients with ischemic or vasospastic CAD. There have been rare reports of serious cardiac adverse reactions, including acute myocardial infarction, occurring within a few hours following administration of sumatriptan succinate tablets. Some of these reactions occurred in patients without known CAD. Sumatriptan succinate tablets may cause coronary artery vasospasm (Prinzmetal's angina), even in patients without a history of CAD.
Perform a cardiovascular evaluation in triptan-naive patients who have multiple cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., increased age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, strong family history of CAD) prior to receiving sumatriptan succinate tablets. If there is evidence of CAD or coronary artery vasospasm, sumatriptan succinate tablets are contraindicated. For patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors who have a negative cardiovascular evaluation, consider administering the first dose of sumatriptan succinate tablets in a medically supervised setting and performing an electrocardiogram (ECG) immediately following administration of sumatriptan succinate tablets. For such patients, consider periodic cardiovascular evaluation in intermittent long-term users of sumatriptan succinate tablets.
Life-threatening disturbances of cardiac rhythm, including ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation leading to death, have been reported within a few hours following the administration of 5-HT1 agonists. Discontinue sumatriptan succinate tablets if these disturbances occur. Sumatriptan succinate tablets are contraindicated in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome or arrhythmias associated with other cardiac accessory conduction pathway disorders.
Sensations of tightness, pain, pressure, and heaviness in the precordium, throat, neck, and jaw commonly occur after treatment with sumatriptan succinate tablets and are usually non-cardiac in origin. However, perform a cardiac evaluation if these patients are at high cardiac risk. The use of sumatriptan succinate tablets is contraindicated in patients with CAD and those with Prinzmetal’s variant angina.
Cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke have occurred in patients treated with 5-HT1 agonists, and some have resulted in fatalities. In a number of cases, it appears possible that the cerebrovascular events were primary, the 5-HT1 agonist having been administered in the incorrect belief that the symptoms experienced were a consequence of migraine when they were not. Also, patients with migraine may be at increased risk of certain cerebrovascular events (e.g., stroke, hemorrhage, TIA). Discontinue sumatriptan succinate tablets if a cerebrovascular event occurs. Before treating headaches in patients not previously diagnosed as migraineurs, and in migraineurs who present with atypical symptoms, exclude other potentially serious neurological conditions. Sumatriptan succinate tablets are contraindicated in patients with a history of stroke or TIA.
Sumatriptan succinate tablets may cause non-coronary vasospastic reactions, such as peripheral vascular ischemia, gastrointestinal vascular ischemia and infarction (presenting with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea), splenic infarction, and Raynaud's syndrome. In patients who experience symptoms or signs suggestive of non-coronary vasospasm reaction following the use of any 5-HT1 agonist, rule out a vasospastic reaction before receiving additional sumatriptan succinate tablets.
Reports of transient and permanent blindness and significant partial vision loss have been reported with the use of 5-HT1 agonists. Since visual disorders may be part of a migraine attack, a causal relationship between these events and the use of 5-HT1 agonists has not been clearly established.
Overuse of acute migraine drugs (e.g., ergotamine, triptans, opioids, or combination of these drugs for 10 or more days per month) may lead to exacerbation of headache (medication overuse headache). Medication overuse headache may present as migraine-like daily headaches or as a marked increase in frequency of migraine attacks. Detoxification of patients, including withdrawal of the overused drugs, and treatment of withdrawal symptoms (which often includes a transient worsening of headache) may be necessary.
Serotonin syndrome may occur with sumatriptan succinate tablets, particularly during coadministration with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and MAO inhibitors [see Drug Interactions (7.4)]. Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, hyperthermia), neuromuscular aberrations (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination), and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). The onset of symptoms usually occurs within minutes to hours of receiving a new or a greater dose of a serotonergic medication. Discontinue sumatriptan succinate tablets if serotonin syndrome is suspected.
Significant elevation in blood pressure, including hypertensive crisis with acute impairment of organ systems, has been reported on rare occasions in patients treated with 5-HT1 agonists, including patients without a history of hypertension. Monitor blood pressure in patients treated with sumatriptan succinate. Sumatriptan succinate tablets are contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled hypertension.
Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions have occurred in patients receiving sumatriptan succinate. Such reactions can be life-threatening or fatal. In general, anaphylactic reactions to drugs are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. Sumatriptan succinate tablets are contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity reaction to sumatriptan succinate.
Seizures have been reported following administration of sumatriptan succinate. Some have occurred in patients with either a history of seizures or concurrent conditions predisposing to seizures. There are also reports in patients where no such predisposing factors are apparent. Sumatriptan succinate tablets should be used with caution in patients with a history of epilepsy or conditions associated with a lowered seizure threshold.
The following adverse reactions are discussed in more detail in other sections of the prescribing information:
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Table 1 lists adverse reactions that occurred in placebo-controlled clinical trials in patients who took at least 1 dose of study drug. Only treatment-emergent adverse reactions that occurred at a frequency of 2% or more in any group treated with sumatriptan succinate tablets and that occurred at a frequency greater than the placebo group are included in Table 1.
Table 1. Adverse Reactions Reported by at Least 2% of Patients Treated with Sumatriptan Succinate Tablets and at a Greater Frequency than Placebo
|Percent of Patients Reporting
Tablets 25 mg
(n = 417)
|Sumatriptan Succinate Tablets 50 mg |
(n = 771)
|Sumatriptan Succinate Tablets 100 mg |
(n = 437)
(n = 309)
Paresthesia (all types)
Pain and other pressure sensations
Chest - pain/tightness/
pressure and/or heaviness
Neck/throat/jaw - pain/
Pain - location specified
Other - pressure/tightness/
The incidence of adverse reactions in controlled clinical trials was not affected by gender or age of the patients. There were insufficient data to assess the impact of race on the incidence of adverse reactions.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of sumatriptan succinate tablets, sumatriptan nasal spray, and sumatriptan injection. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These reactions have been chosen for inclusion due to either their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or causal connection to sumatriptan succinate or a combination of these factors.
Ergot-containing drugs have been reported to cause prolonged vasospastic reactions. Because these effects may be additive, use of ergotamine-containing or ergot-type medications (like dihydroergotamine or methysergide) and sumatriptan succinate tablets within 24 hours of each other is contraindicated.
MAO-A inhibitors increase systemic exposure by 7-fold. Therefore, the use of sumatriptan succinate tablets in patients receiving MAO-A inhibitors is contraindicated [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Because their vasospastic effects may be additive, coadministration of sumatriptan succinate tablets and other 5-HT1 agonists (e.g., triptans) within 24 hours of each other is contraindicated.
Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported during coadministration of triptans and SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, and MAO inhibitors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
Data from a prospective pregnancy exposure registry and epidemiological studies of pregnant women have not detected an increased frequency of birth defects or a consistent pattern of birth defects among women exposed to sumatriptan compared with the general population (see Data). In developmental toxicity studies in rats and rabbits, oral administration of sumatriptan to pregnant animals was associated with embryolethality, fetal abnormalities, and pup mortality. When administered by the intravenous route to pregnant rabbits, sumatriptan was embryolethal (see Data).
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and of miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. The reported rate of major birth defects among deliveries to women with migraine ranged from 2.2% to 2.9% and the reported rate of miscarriage was 17%, which were similar to rates reported in women without migraine.
Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk: Several studies have suggested that women with migraine may be at increased risk of preeclampsia during pregnancy.
Human Data: The Sumatriptan/Naratriptan/Treximet* (sumatriptan and naproxen sodium) Pregnancy Registry, a population-based international prospective study, collected data for sumatriptan from January 1996 to September 2012. The Registry documented outcomes of 626 infants and fetuses exposed to sumatriptan during pregnancy (528 with earliest exposure during the first trimester, 78 during the second trimester, 16 during the third trimester, and 4 unknown). The occurrence of major birth defects (excluding fetal deaths and induced abortions without reported defects and all spontaneous pregnancy losses) during first-trimester exposure to sumatriptan was 4.2% (20/478 [95% CI: 2.6% to 6.5%]) and during any trimester of exposure was 4.2% (24/576 [95% CI: 2.7% to 6.2%]). The sample size in this study had 80% power to detect at least a 1.73- to 1.91-fold increase in the rate of major malformations. The number of exposed pregnancy outcomes accumulated during the registry was insufficient to support definitive conclusions about overall malformation risk or for making comparisons of the frequencies of specific birth defects. Of the 20 infants with reported birth defects after exposure to sumatriptan in the first trimester, 4 infants had ventricular septal defects, including one infant who was exposed to both sumatriptan and naratriptan, and 3 infants had pyloric stenosis. No other birth defect was reported for more than 2 infants in this group.
In a study using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, live births to women who reported using triptans or ergots during pregnancy were compared with those of women who did not. Of the 2,257 births with first-trimester exposure to sumatriptan, 107 infants were born with malformations (relative risk 0.99 [95% CI: 0.91 to 1.21]). A study using linked data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway to the Norwegian Prescription Database compared pregnancy outcomes in women who redeemed prescriptions for triptans during pregnancy, as well as a migraine disease comparison group who redeemed prescriptions for sumatriptan before pregnancy only, compared with a population control group. Of the 415 women who redeemed prescriptions for sumatriptan during the first trimester, 15 had infants with major congenital malformations (OR 1.16 [95% CI: 0.69 to 1.94]) while for the 364 women who redeemed prescriptions for sumatriptan before, but not during, pregnancy, 20 had infants with major congenital malformations (OR 1.83 [95% CI: 1.17 to 2.88]), each compared with the population comparison group. Additional smaller observational studies evaluating use of sumatriptan during pregnancy have not suggested an increased risk of teratogenicity.
Animal Data: Oral administration of sumatriptan to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis resulted in an increased incidence of fetal blood vessel (cervicothoracic and umbilical) abnormalities. The highest no-effect dose for embryofetal developmental toxicity in rats was 60 mg/kg/day, or approximately 3 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 200 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis. Oral administration of sumatriptan to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis resulted in increased incidences of embryolethality and fetal cervicothoracic vascular and skeletal abnormalities. Intravenous administration of sumatriptan to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis resulted in an increased incidence of embryolethality. The highest oral and intravenous no-effect doses for developmental toxicity in rabbits were 15 (approximately 2 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) and 0.75 mg/kg/day, respectively.
Oral administration of sumatriptan to rats prior to and throughout gestation resulted in embryofetal toxicity (decreased body weight, decreased ossification, increased incidence of skeletal abnormalities). The highest no-effect dose was 50 mg/kg/day, or approximately 2 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis. In offspring of pregnant rats treated orally with sumatriptan during organogenesis, there was a decrease in pup survival. The highest no-effect dose for this effect was 60 mg/kg/day, or approximately 3 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis. Oral treatment of pregnant rats with sumatriptan during the latter part of gestation and throughout lactation resulted in a decrease in pup survival. The highest no-effect dose for this finding was 100 mg/kg/day, or approximately 5 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis.
Sumatriptan is excreted in human milk following subcutaneous administration (see Data). There is no information regarding sumatriptan concentrations in milk from lactating women following administration of sumatriptan succinate tablets. There are no data on the effects of sumatriptan on the breastfed infant or the effects of sumatriptan on milk production.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for sumatriptan succinate tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from sumatriptan or from the underlying maternal condition.
Infant exposure to sumatriptan can be minimized by avoiding breastfeeding for 12 hours after treatment with sumatriptan succinate tablets.
Following subcutaneous administration of a 6 mg dose of sumatriptan injection in 5 lactating volunteers, sumatriptan was present in milk.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Sumatriptan succinate tablets are not recommended for use in patients younger than 18 years of age.
Two controlled clinical trials evaluated sumatriptan nasal spray (5 mg to 20 mg) in 1,248 adolescent migraineurs aged 12 to 17 years who treated a single attack. The trials did not establish the efficacy of sumatriptan nasal spray compared with placebo in the treatment of migraine in adolescents. Adverse reactions observed in these clinical trials were similar in nature to those reported in clinical trials in adults.
Five controlled clinical trials (2 single-attack trials, 3 multiple-attack trials) evaluating oral sumatriptan succinate tablets (25 mg to 100 mg) in pediatric patients aged 12 to 17 years enrolled a total of 701 adolescent migraineurs. These trials did not establish the efficacy of oral sumatriptan succinate tablets compared with placebo in the treatment of migraine in adolescents. Adverse reactions observed in these clinical trials were similar in nature to those reported in clinical trials in adults. The frequency of all adverse reactions in these patients appeared to be both dose- and age-dependent, with younger patients reporting reactions more commonly than older adolescents.
Postmarketing experience documents that serious adverse reactions have occurred in the pediatric population after use of subcutaneous, oral, and/or intranasal sumatriptan succinate. These reports include reactions similar in nature to those reported rarely in adults, including stroke, visual loss, and death. A myocardial infarction has been reported in a 14-year-old male following the use of oral sumatriptan succinate tablets; clinical signs occurred within 1 day of drug administration. Clinical data to determine the frequency of serious adverse reactions in pediatric patients who might receive subcutaneous, oral, or intranasal sumatriptan succinate are not presently available.
Clinical trials of sumatriptan succinate tablets did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and older to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
A cardiovascular evaluation is recommended for geriatric patients who have other cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, strong family history of CAD) prior to receiving sumatriptan succinate tablets [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
The maximum single dose in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment should not exceed 50 mg. Sumatriptan succinate tablets are contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Patients in clinical trials (N = 670) received single oral doses of 140 to 300 mg without significant adverse reactions. Volunteers (N = 174) received single oral doses of 140 to 400 mg without serious adverse reactions.
Overdose in animals has been fatal and has been heralded by convulsions, tremor, paralysis, inactivity, ptosis, erythema of the extremities, abnormal respiration, cyanosis, ataxia, mydriasis, salivation, and lacrimation.
The elimination half-life of sumatriptan is approximately 2.5 hours [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], and therefore monitoring of patients after overdose with sumatriptan succinate tablets should continue for at least 12 hours or while symptoms or signs persist.
It is unknown what effect hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis has on the serum concentrations of sumatriptan.
Sumatriptan succinate tablets contain sumatriptan succinate, a selective 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist. Sumatriptan succinate is chemically designated as 3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-N-methyl-indole-5-methanesulfonamide succinate (1:1), and it has the following structure:
The molecular formula is C14H21N3O2S·C4H6O4, representing a molecular weight of 413.5. Sumatriptan succinate is a white to off-white powder that is readily soluble in water and in saline. Each sumatriptan succinate tablet for oral administration contains 35 mg, 70 mg, or 140 mg of sumatriptan succinate, USP equivalent to 25 mg, 50 mg, or 100 mg of sumatriptan, respectively.
Each tablet also contains the inactive ingredients colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, D&C Red # 27 aluminum lake (100 mg only), dibasic calcium phosphate, hypromellose, iron oxide red (100 mg only), magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol (25 mg & 50 mg only), polysorbate 80 (25 mg & 50 mg only) propylene glycol (100 mg only), talc and titanium dioxide.
Sumatriptan binds with high affinity to human cloned 5-HT1B/1D receptors. Sumatriptan presumably exerts its therapeutic effects in the treatment of migraine headache through agonist effects at the 5-HT1B/1D receptors on intracranial blood vessels and sensory nerves of the trigeminal system, which result in cranial vessel constriction and inhibition of pro-inflammatory neuropeptide release.
Significant elevation in blood pressure, including hypertensive crisis, has been reported in patients with and without a history of hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].
Peripheral (Small) Arteries
In healthy volunteers (N = 18), a trial evaluating the effects of sumatriptan on peripheral (small vessel) arterial reactivity failed to detect a clinically significant increase in peripheral resistance.
Transient increases in blood pressure observed in some patients in clinical trials carried out during sumatriptan’s development as a treatment for migraine were not accompanied by any clinically significant changes in heart rate.
The mean maximum concentration following oral dosing with 25 mg is 18 ng/mL (range: 7 to 47 ng/mL) and 51 ng/mL (range: 28 to 100 ng/mL) following oral dosing with 100 mg of sumatriptan. This compares with a Cmax of 5 and 16 ng/mL following dosing with a 5 and 20 mg intranasal dose, respectively. The mean Cmax following a 6 mg subcutaneous injection is 71 ng/mL (range: 49 to 110 ng/mL). The bioavailability is approximately 15%, primarily due to presystemic metabolism and partly due to incomplete absorption. The Cmax is similar during a migraine attack and during a migraine-free period, but the Tmax is slightly later during the attack, approximately 2.5 hours compared with 2 hours. When given as a single dose, sumatriptan displays dose proportionality in its extent of absorption (area under the curve [AUC]) over the dose range of 25 to 200 mg, but the Cmax after 100 mg is approximately 25% less than expected (based on the 25 mg dose).
Effect of Food: A food effect trial involving administration of sumatriptan succinate tablets 100 mg to healthy volunteers under fasting conditions and with a high-fat meal indicated that the Cmax and AUC were increased by 15% and 12%, respectively, when administered in the fed state.
Protein binding, determined by equilibrium dialysis over the concentration range of 10 to 1,000 ng/mL is low, approximately 14% to 21%. The effect of sumatriptan on the protein binding of other drugs has not been evaluated. The apparent volume of distribution is 2.7 L/kg.
In vitro studies with human microsomes suggest that sumatriptan is metabolized by MAO, predominantly the A isoenzyme. Most of a radiolabeled dose of sumatriptan excreted in the urine is the major metabolite indole acetic acid (IAA) or the IAA glucuronide, both of which are inactive.
The elimination half-life of sumatriptan is approximately 2.5 hours. Radiolabeled 14C-sumatriptan administered orally is largely renally excreted (about 60%) with about 40% found in the feces. Most of the radiolabeled compound excreted in the urine is the major metabolite, IAA, which is inactive, or the IAA glucuronide. Only 3% of the dose can be recovered as unchanged sumatriptan.
Age: The pharmacokinetics of sumatriptan in the elderly (mean age: 72 years, 2 males and 4 females) and in subjects with migraine (mean age: 38 years, 25 males and 155 females) were similar to that in healthy male subjects (mean age: 30 years).
Patients with Renal Impairment: The effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of sumatriptan has not been examined.
Patients with Hepatic Impairment: The liver plays an important role in the presystemic clearance of orally administered sumatriptan. Accordingly, the bioavailability of sumatriptan following oral administration may be markedly increased in patients with liver disease. In one small trial of patients with moderate liver impairment (n = 8) matched for sex, age, and weight with healthy subjects (n = 8), the hepatically-impaired patients had an approximately 70% increase in AUC and Cmax and a Tmax 40 minutes earlier compared with the healthy subjects.
The pharmacokinetics of sumatriptan in patients with severe hepatic impairment has not been studied. The use of sumatriptan succinate tablets in this population is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4), Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].
Male and Female Patients: In a trial comparing females to males, no pharmacokinetic differences were observed between genders for AUC, Cmax, Tmax, and half-life.
Racial Groups: The systemic clearance and Cmax of subcutaneous sumatriptan were similar in black (n = 34) and Caucasian (n = 38) healthy male subjects. Oral sumatriptan has not been evaluated for race differences.
Drug Interaction Studies
Monoamine Oxidase-A Inhibitors: Treatment with MAO-A inhibitors generally leads to an increase of sumatriptan plasma levels [see Contraindications (4), Drug Interactions (7.2)].
Due to gut and hepatic metabolic first-pass effects, the increase of systemic exposure after coadministration of an MAO-A inhibitor with oral sumatriptan is greater than after coadministration of the MAO inhibitors with subcutaneous sumatriptan.
In a trial of 14 healthy females, pretreatment with an MAO-A inhibitor decreased the clearance of subcutaneous sumatriptan, resulting in a 2-fold increase in the area under the sumatriptan plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), corresponding to a 40% increase in elimination half-life.
A small trial evaluating the effect of pretreatment with an MAO-A inhibitor on the bioavailability from a 25 mg oral sumatriptan tablet resulted in an approximately 7-fold increase in systemic exposure.
Alcohol: Alcohol consumed 30 minutes prior to sumatriptan ingestion had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of sumatriptan.
In carcinogenicity studies in mouse and rat, sumatriptan was administered orally for 78 and 104 weeks, respectively, at doses up to 160 mg/kg/day (the high dose in rat was reduced from 360 mg/kg/day during Week 21). There was no evidence in either species of an increase in tumors related to sumatriptan administration. Plasma exposures (AUC) at the highest doses tested were 20 and 8 times that in humans at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 200 mg/day.
Sumatriptan was negative in in vitro (bacterial reverse mutation [Ames], gene cell mutation in Chinese hamster V79/HGPRT, chromosomal aberration in human lymphocytes) and in vivo (rat micronucleus) assays.
Impairment of Fertility
When sumatriptan (5, 50, 500 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to male and female rats prior to and throughout the mating period, there was a treatment-related decrease in fertility secondary to a decrease in mating in animals treated with doses greater than 5 mg/kg/day (less than the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). It is not clear whether this finding was due to an effect on males or females or both.
When sumatriptan was administered by subcutaneous injection to male and female rats prior to and throughout the mating period, there was no evidence of impaired fertility at doses up to 60 mg/kg/day.
Dogs receiving oral sumatriptan developed corneal opacities and defects in the corneal epithelium. Corneal opacities were seen at the lowest dose tested, 2 mg/kg/day, and were present after 1 month of treatment. Defects in the corneal epithelium were noted in a 60-week study. Earlier examinations for these toxicities were not conducted and no-effect doses were not established. Plasma exposure at the lowest dose tested was approximately 2 times that in humans at the MRHD.
The efficacy of sumatriptan succinate tablets in the acute treatment of migraine headaches was demonstrated in 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Patients enrolled in these 3 trials were predominately female (87%) and Caucasian (97%), with a mean age of 40 years (range: 18 to 65 years). Patients were instructed to treat a moderate to severe headache.
Headache response, defined as a reduction in headache severity from moderate or severe pain to mild or no pain, was assessed up to 4 hours after dosing. Associated symptoms such as nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia were also assessed. Maintenance of response was assessed for up to 24 hours postdose. A second dose of sumatriptan succinate tablets or other medication was allowed 4 to 24 hours after the initial treatment for recurrent headache. Acetaminophen was offered to patients in Trials 2 and 3 beginning at 2 hours after initial treatment if the migraine pain had not improved or had worsened. Additional medications were allowed 4 to 24 hours after the initial treatment for recurrent headache or as rescue in all 3 trials. The frequency and time to use of these additional treatments were also determined. In all trials, doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg were compared with placebo in the treatment of migraine attacks. In 1 trial, doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg were also compared with each other.
In all 3 trials, the percentage of patients achieving headache response 2 and 4 hours after treatment was significantly greater among patients receiving sumatriptan succinate tablets at all doses compared with those who received placebo. In 1 of the 3 trials, there was a statistically significant greater percentage of patients with headache response at 2 and 4 hours in the 50 mg or 100 mg group when compared with the 25 mg dose groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the 50 mg and 100 mg dose groups in any trial. The results from the 3 controlled clinical trials are summarized in Table 2.
Table 2. Percentage of Patients with Headache Response (Mild or No Headache) 2 and 4 Hours following Treatment
| ||Sumatriptan Succinate Tablets 25 mg
2 h 4 h
2 h 4 h
Tablets 100 mg
2 h 4 h
2 h 4 h
|Trial 1||52%a 67% a
(n = 298)
|61% a,b 78% a,b
(n = 296)
|62% a,b 79% a,b
(n = 296)
(n = 94)
|Trial 2||52% a 70% a
(n = 66)
|50% a 68% a
(n = 62)
(n = 66)
(n = 65)
|Trial 3||52% a 65% a
(n = 48)
|54% a 72% a
(n = 46)
|57%a 78% a
(n = 46)
(n = 47)
a P<0.05 in comparison with placebo.
b P<0.05 in comparison with 25 mg.
The estimated probability of achieving an initial headache response over the 4 hours following treatment in pooled Trials 1, 2, and 3 is depicted in Figure 1.
For patients with migraine-associated nausea, photophobia, and/or phonophobia at baseline, there was a lower incidence of these symptoms at 2 hours (Trial 1) and at 4 hours (Trials 1, 2, and 3) following administration of sumatriptan succinate tablets compared with placebo.
As early as 2 hours in Trials 2 and 3, or as early as 4 hours in Trial 1, through 24 hours following the initial dose of study treatment, patients were allowed to use additional treatment for pain relief in the form of a second dose of study treatment or other medication. The estimated probability of patients taking a second dose or other medication for migraine over the 24 hours following the initial dose of study treatment is summarized in Figure 2.
There is evidence that doses above 50 mg do not provide a greater effect than 50 mg. There was no evidence to suggest that treatment with sumatriptan succinate tablets was associated with an increase in the severity of recurrent headaches. The efficacy of sumatriptan succinate tablets was unaffected by presence of aura; duration of headache prior to treatment; gender, age, or weight of the subject; relationship to menses; or concomitant use of common migraine prophylactic drugs (e.g., beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, tricyclic antidepressants). There were insufficient data to assess the impact of race on efficacy.
NDC: 50090-5939-0 1 TABLET, FILM COATED in a BLISTER PACK / 9 in a CARTON
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Patient Information).
Risk of Myocardial Ischemia and/or Infarction, Prinzmetal’s Angina, Other Vasospasm-Related Events, Arrhythmias, and Cerebrovascular Events
Inform patients that sumatriptan succinate tablets may cause serious cardiovascular side effects such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Although serious cardiovascular events can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat, significant rise in blood pressure, weakness, and slurring of speech, and should ask for medical advice if any indicative sign or symptoms are observed. Apprise patients of the importance of this follow-up [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.5, 5.8)].
Inform patients that anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions have occurred in patients receiving sumatriptan succinate tablets. Such reactions can be life-threatening or fatal. In general, anaphylactic reactions to drugs are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].
Concomitant Use with Other Triptans or Ergot Medications
Inform patients that use of sumatriptan succinate tablets within 24 hours of another triptan or an ergot-type medication (including dihydroergotamine or methysergide) is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4), Drug Interactions (7.1, 7.3)].
Caution patients about the risk of serotonin syndrome with the use of sumatriptan succinate tablets or other triptans, particularly during combined use with SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, and MAO inhibitors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7), Drug Interactions (7.4)].
Medication Overuse Headache
Inform patients that use of acute migraine drugs for 10 or more days per month may lead to an exacerbation of headache and encourage patients to record headache frequency and drug use (e.g., by keeping a headache diary) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
Advise patients to notify their healthcare provider if they become pregnant during treatment or plan to become pregnant [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Advise patients to notify their healthcare provider if they are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].
Ability to Perform Complex Tasks
Treatment with sumatriptan succinate tablets may cause somnolence and dizziness; instruct patients to evaluate their ability to perform complex tasks after administration of sumatriptan succinate tablets.
Sumatriptan Succinate Tablets
What is the most important information I should know about sumatriptan succinate tablets?
Sumatriptan succinate tablets can cause serious side effects, including:
Heart attack and other heart problems. Heart problems may lead to death.
Stop taking sumatriptan succinate tablets and get emergency medical help right away if you have any of the following symptoms of a heart attack:
Sumatriptan succinate tablets are not for people with risk factors for heart disease unless a heart exam is done and shows no problem. You have a higher risk for heart disease if you:
What are sumatriptan succinate tablets?
Sumatriptan succinate tablets are a prescription medicine used to treat acute migraine headaches with or without aura in adults.
Sumatriptan succinate tablets are not used to treat other types of headaches such as hemiplegic (that make you unable to move on one side of your body) or basilar (rare form of migraine with aura) migraines.
Sumatriptan succinate tablets are not used to prevent or decrease the number of migraine headaches you have.
It is not known if sumatriptan succinate tablets are safe and effective to treat cluster headaches.
It is not known if sumatriptan succinate tablets are safe and effective in children under 18 years of age.
Do not take sumatriptan succinate tablets if you have:
Ask your healthcare provider if you are not sure if your medicine is listed above.
Before you take sumatriptan succinate tablets, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:
Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements.
Sumatriptan succinate tablets and certain other medicines can affect each other, causing serious side effects.
Especially tell your healthcare provider if you take antidepressant medicines called:
Ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for a list of these medicines if you are not sure.
Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them to show your healthcare provider or pharmacist when you get a new medicine.
How should I take sumatriptan succinate tablets?
What should I avoid while taking sumatriptan succinate tablets?
Sumatriptan succinate tablets can cause dizziness, weakness, or drowsiness. If you have these symptoms, do not drive a car, use machinery, or do anything where you need to be alert.
What are the possible side effects of sumatriptan succinate tablets?
Sumatriptan succinate tablets may cause serious side effects. See “What is the most important information I should know about sumatriptan succinate tablets?”
These serious side effects include:
The most common side effects of sumatriptan succinate tablets include:
Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.
These are not all the possible side effects of sumatriptan succinate tablets.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
How should I store sumatriptan succinate tablets?
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).
Keep sumatriptan succinate tablets and all medicines out of the reach of children.
General information about the safe and effective use of sumatriptan succinate tablets.
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in Patient Information leaflets. Do not use sumatriptan succinate tablets for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give sumatriptan succinate tablets to other people, even if they have the same symptoms you have. It may harm them.
This Patient Information leaflet summarizes the most important information about sumatriptan succinate tablets. If you would like more information, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for information about sumatriptan succinate tablets that is written for healthcare professionals.
For more information, call 1-800-818-4555.
What are the ingredients in sumatriptan succinate tablets?
Active ingredient: sumatriptan succinate
Inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, D&C Red # 27 aluminum lake (100 mg only), dibasic calcium phosphate, hypromellose, iron oxide red (100 mg only), magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol (25 mg & 50 mg only), polysorbate 80 (25 mg & 50 mg only) propylene glycol (100 mg only), talc and titanium dioxide.
This Patient Information has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
* All trademarks are the properties of their respective owners.
Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.
Cranbury, NJ 08512
Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Halol-389 350, Gujarat, India.
sumatriptan succinate tablet, film coated
|Labeler - A-S Medication Solutions (830016429)|
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