OXYCODONE HYDROCHLORIDE- oxycodone hydrochloride capsule
Lannett Company, Inc.
HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
These highlights do not include all the information needed to use OXYCODONE HYDROCHLORIDE CAPSULES safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for OXYCODONE HYDROCHLORIDE CAPSULES.
Oxycodone Hydrochloride capsules, for oral use, CII
Initial U.S. Approval: 1950
WARNING: RISK OF MEDICATION ERRORS; ADDICTION, ABUSE, AND MISUSE; RISK EVALUATION AND MITIGATION STRATEGY (REMS); LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION; ACCIDENTAL INGESTION; NEONATAL OPIOID WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME; CYTOCHROME P450 3A4 INTERACTION; and RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH BENZODIAZEPINES OR OTHER CNS DEPRESSANTS
See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning.
RECENT MAJOR CHANGES
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsule is an opioid agonist indicated for the management of pain severe enough to require an opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatments are inadequate. (1)
Limitations of Use (1)
Because of the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse with opioids, even at recommended doses, reserve Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options [e.g., non-opioid analgesics or opioid combination products]:
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules are available in one strength. Each hard gelatin capsule contains 5 mg oxycodone hydrochloride. (3)
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Most common adverse reactions are nausea, constipation, vomiting, headache, pruritus, insomnia, dizziness, asthenia, and somnolence. (6)
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Lannett Company, Inc. at 1-844-834-0530 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov.medwatch.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy: May cause fetal harm. (8.1)
See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION.
FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS*
WARNING: ADDICTION, ABUSE, AND MISUSE: RISK EVALUATION AND MITIGATION STRATEGY (REMS); LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION; ACCIDENTAL INGESTION; NEONATAL OPIOID WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME; and CYTOCHROME P450 3A4 INTERACTION; and RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH BENZODIAZEPINES OR OTHER CNS DEPRESSANTS
5.7 Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease or in Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients
5.10 Risks of Use in Patients with Increased Intracranial Pressure, Brain Tumors, Head Injury, or Impaired Consciousness
Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules expose patients and other users to risks of opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Assess patient’s risk prior to prescribing Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules and monitor all patients regularly for the development of these behaviors and conditions. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS)
To ensure that the benefits of opioid analgesics outweigh the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required a REMS for these products [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Under the requirements of the REMS, drug companies with approved opioid analgesic products must make REMS-compliant education programs available to healthcare providers. Healthcare providers are strongly encouraged to
complete a REMS-compliant education program,
counsel patients and/or their caregivers, with every prescription, on safe use, serious risks, storage, and disposal of these products,
emphasize to patients and their caregivers the importance of reading the Medication Guide every time it is provided by their pharmacist, and
consider other tools to improve patient, household, and community safety.
Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression
Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules. Monitor for respiratory depression, especially during initiation of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules or following a dose increase. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Accidental ingestion of even one dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules, especially by children, can result in a fatal overdose of oxycodone. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
Prolonged use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Cytochrome P450 3A4 Interaction
The concomitant use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules with all cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors may result in an increase in oxycodone plasma concentrations, which could increase or prolong adverse reactions and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression. In addition, discontinuation of a concomitantly used cytochrome P450 3A4 inducer may result in an increase in oxycodone plasma concentration. Monitor patients receiving Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules and any CYP3A4 inhibitor or inducer. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Drug Interactions (7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Risks From Concomitant Use With Benzodiazepines Or Other CNS Depressants Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6), Drug Interactions (7)].
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules are an opioid agonist indicated for the management of pain severe enough to require an opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatments are inadequate.
Limitations of Use
Because of the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse with opioids, even at recommended doses, [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)], reserve Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options [e.g., non-opioid analgesics or opioid combination products]:
Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals [see Warnings and Precautions (5)].
Initiate the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient's severity of pain, patient response, prior analgesic treatment experience, and risk factors for addiction, abuse, and misuse [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression, especially within the first 24-72 hours of initiating therapy and following dosage increases with Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules and adjust the dosage accordingly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Although it is not possible to list every condition that is important to the selection of the initial dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules, attention must be given to:
1. the daily dose, potency and characteristics of a full agonist or mixed agonist/antagonist the patient has been taking previously
2. the reliability of the relative potency estimate to calculate the dose of oxycodone HCl needed
3. the degree of opioid tolerance
4. the general condition and medical status of the patient, including the patient’s weight and age
5. the balance between pain management and adverse reactions
6. the type and severity of the patient’s pain
7. risk factors for abuse or addiction, including a prior history of abuse or addiction
Use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules as the First Opioid Analgesic
Initiate treatment with Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules in a dosing range of 5 to 15 mg every 4 to 6 hours as needed for pain. Titrate the dose based upon the individual patient’s response to their initial dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules. Patients with chronic pain should have their dosage given on an around-the-clock basis to prevent the reoccurrence of pain rather than treating the pain after it has occurred. This dose can then be adjusted to an acceptable level of analgesia taking into account side effects experienced by the patient.
For control of severe chronic pain, Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules should be administered on a regularly scheduled basis, every 4 to 6 hours, at the lowest dosage level that will achieve adequate analgesia.
Conversion from Other Opioids to Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules
There is inter-patient variability in the potency of opioid drugs and opioid formulations. Therefore, a conservative approach is advised when determining the total daily dosage of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules. It is safer to underestimate a patient’s 24-hour Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules dosage than to overestimate the 24-hour Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules dosage and manage an adverse reaction due to overdose. If a patient has been receiving opioid-containing medications prior to taking Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules, the potency of the prior opioid relative to oxycodone should be factored into the selection of the total daily dose (TDD) of oxycodone.
In converting patients from other opioids to Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules, close observation and adjustment of dosage based upon the patient’s response to Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules is imperative. Administration of supplemental analgesia for breakthrough or incident pain and titration of the total daily dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules may be necessary, especially in patients who have disease states that are changing rapidly.
Conversion from Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules to Extended-Release Oxycodone Hydrochloride
The relative bioavailability of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules compared to extended-release oxycodone is unknown, so conversion to extended-release tablets must be accompanied by close observation for signs of excessive sedation and respiratory depression.
Individually titrate Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules to a dose that provides adequate analgesia and minimizes adverse reactions. Continually reevaluate patients receiving Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules to assess the maintenance of pain control and the relative incidence of adverse reactions, as well as monitoring for the development of addiction, abuse, or misuse [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Frequent communication is important among the prescriber, other members of the healthcare team, the patient, and the caregiver/family during periods of changing analgesic requirements, including initial titration.
If the level of pain increases after dosage stabilization, attempt to identify the source of increased pain before increasing the Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules dosage. If unacceptable opioid-related adverse reactions are observed, consider reducing the dosage.
Adjust the dosage to obtain an appropriate balance between management of pain and opioid-related adverse reactions.
Do not abruptly discontinue Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules in patients who may be physically dependent on opioids. Rapid discontinuation of opioid analgesics in patients who are physically dependent on opioids has resulted in serious withdrawal symptoms, uncontrolled pain, and suicide. Rapid discontinuation has also been associated with attempts to find other sources of opioid analgesics, which may be confused with drug-seeking for abuse. Patients may also attempt to treat their pain or withdrawal symptoms with illicit opioids, such as heroin, and other substances.
When a decision has been made to decrease the dose or discontinue therapy in an opioid dependent patient taking Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules, there are a variety of factors that should be considered, including the dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules the patient has been taking, the duration of treatment, the type of pain being treated, and the physical and psychological attributes of the patient. It is important to ensure ongoing care of the patient and to agree on an appropriate tapering schedule and follow-up plan so that patient and provider goals and expectations are clear and realistic. When opioid analgesics are being discontinued due to a suspected substance use disorder, evaluate and treat the patient, or refer for evaluation and treatment of the substance use disorder. Treatment should include evidence-based approaches, such as medication assisted treatment of opioid use disorder. Complex patients with co-morbid pain and substance use disorders may benefit from referral to a specialist.
There are no standard opioid tapering schedules that are suitable for all patients. Good clinically practice dictates a patient-specific plan to taper the dose of the opioid gradually. For patients on Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules who are physically opioid-dependent, initiate the taper by a small enough increment (e.g., no greater than 10% to 25% of the total daily dose) to avoid withdrawal symptoms, and proceed with dose-lowering at an interval of every 2 to 4 weeks. Patients who have been taking opioids for briefer periods of time may tolerate a more rapid taper.
It may be necessary to provide the patient with lower dosage strengths to accomplish a successful taper. Reassess the patient frequently to manage pain and withdrawal symptoms, should they emerge. Common withdrawal symptoms include restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, perspiration, chills, myalgia, and mydriasis. Other signs and symptoms also may develop, including irritability, anxiety, backache, joint pain, weakness, abdominal cramps, insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, or increased blood pressure, respiratory rate, or heart rate. If withdrawal symptoms arise, it may be necessary to pause the taper for a period of time or raise the dose of the opioid analgesic to the previous dose, and then proceed with a slower taper. In addition, monitor patients for any changes in mood, emergence of suicidal thoughts, or use of other substances.
When managing patients taking opioid analgesics, particularly those who have been treated for a long duration and/or with high doses for chronic pain, ensure that a multimodal approach to pain management, including mental health support (if needed), is in place prior to initiating an opioid analgesic taper. A multimodal approach to pain management may optimize the treatment of chronic pain, as well as assist with the successful tapering of the opioid analgesic [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
Each Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsule is a size #4 Ivory Opaque/Reddish Orange Opaque capsule, imprinted with logo “LANNETT” on the cap and “1774” on the body.
Oxycodone Hydrochloride capsule is contraindicated in patients with:
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules contains oxycodone, a Schedule II controlled substance. As an opioid, Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules expose users to the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9)].
Although the risk of addiction in any individual is unknown, it can occur in patients appropriately prescribed Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules. Addiction can occur at recommended dosages and if the drug is misused or abused.
Assess each patient’s risk for opioid addiction, abuse, or misuse prior to prescribing Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules, and monitor all patients receiving Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules for the development of these behaviors and conditions. Risks are increased in patients with a personal or family history of substance abuse (including drug or alcohol abuse or addiction) or mental illness (e.g., major depression). The potential for these risks should not, however, prevent the proper management of pain in any given patient. Patients at increased risk may be prescribed opioids such as Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules, but use in such patients necessitates intensive counseling about the risks and proper use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules along with intensive monitoring for signs of addiction, abuse, and misuse.
Opioids are sought by drug abusers and people with addiction disorders and are subject to criminal diversion. Consider these risks when prescribing or dispensing Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules. Strategies to reduce these risks include prescribing the drug in the smallest appropriate quantity and advising the patient on the proper disposal of unused drug [see Patient Counseling Information (17)]. Contact local state professional licensing board or state controlled substances authority for information on how to prevent and detect abuse or diversion of this product.
To ensure that the benefits of opioid analgesics outweigh the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for these products. Under the requirements of the REMS, drug companies with approved opioid analgesic products must make REMS-compliant education programs available to healthcare providers. Healthcare providers are strongly encouraged to do all of the following:
To obtain further information on the opioid analgesic REMS and for a list of accredited REMS CME/CE, call 1-800-503-0784, or log on to www.opioidanalgesicrems.com. The FDA Blueprint can be found at www.fda.gov/OpioidAnalgesicREMSBlueprint.
Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression has been reported with the use of opioids, even when used as recommended. Respiratory depression, if not immediately recognized and treated, may lead to respiratory arrest and death. Management of respiratory depression may include close observation, supportive measures, and use of opioid antagonists, depending on the patient’s clinical status [see Overdosage (10)]. Carbon dioxide (CO2) retention from opioid-induced respiratory depression can exacerbate the sedating effects of opioids.
While serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression can occur at any time during the use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules, the risk is greatest during the initiation of therapy or following a dosage increase. Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression, especially within the first 24-72 hours of initiating therapy with and following dosage increases of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules.
To reduce the risk of respiratory depression, proper dosing and titration of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules are essential [see Dosage and Administration (2)]. Overestimating the Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules dosage when converting patients from another opioid product can result in a fatal overdose with the first dose.
Accidental ingestion of even one dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules, especially by children, can result in respiratory depression and death due to an overdose of oxycodone.
Opioids can cause sleep-related breathing disorders including central sleep apnea (CSA) and sleep-related hypoxemia. Opioid use increases the risk of CSA in a dose-dependent fashion. In patients who present with CSA, consider decreasing the opioid dosage using best practices for opioid taper [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].
Prolonged use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules during pregnancy can result in withdrawal in the neonate. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, unlike opioid withdrawal syndrome in adults, may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. Observe newborns for signs of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and manage accordingly. Advise pregnant women using opioids for a prolonged period of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1), Patient Counseling Information (17)].
Concomitant use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules with a CYP3A4 inhibitor, such as macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin), azole-antifungal agents (e.g., ketoconazole), and protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir), may increase plasma concentrations of oxycodone and prolong opioid adverse reactions, which may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)], particularly when an inhibitor is added after a stable dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules is achieved. Similarly, discontinuation of a CYP3A4 inducer, such as rifampin, carbamazepine, and phenytoin, in Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules-treated patients may increase oxycodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions. When using Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules with CYP3A4 inhibitors or discontinuing CYP3A4 inducers in Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules-treated patients, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider dosage reduction of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules until stable drug effects are achieved [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Drug Interactions (7)].
Concomitant use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules with CYP3A4 inducers or discontinuation of an CYP3A4 inhibitor could decrease oxycodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy or, possibly, lead to a withdrawal syndrome in a patient who had developed physical dependence to oxycodone. When using Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules with CYP3A4 inducers or discontinuing CYP3A4 inhibitors, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider increasing the opioid dosage if needed to maintain adequate analgesia or if symptoms of opioid withdrawal occur [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Drug Interactions (7)].
Profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death may result from the concomitant use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (e.g., non-benzodiazepine sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol). Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioid analgesics alone. Because of similar pharmacological properties, it is reasonable to expect similar risk with the concomitant use of other CNS depressant drugs with opioid analgesics [see Drug Interactions (7)].
If the decision is made to prescribe a benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant concomitantly with an opioid analgesic, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use. In patients already receiving an opioid analgesic, prescribe a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant than indicated in the absence of an opioid, and titrate based on clinical response. If an opioid analgesic is initiated in a patient already taking a benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant, prescribe a lower initial dose of the opioid analgesic, and titrate based on clinical response. Follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules are used with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (including alcohol and illicit drugs). Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the effects of concomitant use of the benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant have been determined. Screen patients for risk of substance use disorders, including opioid abuse and misuse, and warn them of the risk for overdose and death associated with the use of additional CNS depressants including alcohol and illicit drugs [see Drug Interactions (7) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].
The use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules in patients with acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment is contraindicated.
Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease: Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsule-treated patients with significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cor pulmonale, and those with a substantially decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre- existing respiratory depression are at increased risk of decreased respiratory drive including apnea, even at recommended dosages of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients: Life-threatening respiratory depression is more likely to occur in elderly, cachectic, or debilitated patients because they may have altered pharmacokinetics or altered clearance compared to younger, healthier patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Monitor such patients closely, particularly when initiating and titrating Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules and when Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules is given concomitantly with other drugs that depress respiration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. Alternatively, consider the use of non-opioid analgesics in these patients.
Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use. Presentation of adrenal insufficiency may include nonspecific symptoms and signs including nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. If adrenal insufficiency is suspected, confirm the diagnosis with diagnostic testing as soon as possible. If adrenal insufficiency is diagnosed, treat with physiologic replacement doses of corticosteroids. Wean the patient off of the opioid to allow adrenal function to recover and continue corticosteroid treatment until adrenal function recovers. Other opioids may be tried as some cases reported use of a different opioid without recurrence of adrenal insufficiency. The information available does not identify any particular opioids as being more likely to be associated with adrenal insufficiency.
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules may cause severe hypotension including orthostatic hypotension and syncope in ambulatory patients. There is increased risk in patients whose ability to maintain blood pressure has already been compromised by a reduced blood volume or concurrent administration of certain CNS depressant drugs (e.g., phenothiazines or general anesthetics) [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Monitor these patients for signs of hypotension after initiating or titrating the dosage of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules. In patients with circulatory shock, Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules may cause vasodilation that can further reduce cardiac output and blood pressure. Avoid the use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules in patients with circulatory shock.
In patients who may be susceptible to the intracranial effects of CO2 retention (e.g., those with evidence of increased intracranial pressure or brain tumors), Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules may reduce respiratory drive, and the resultant CO2 retention can further increase intracranial pressure. Monitor such patients for signs of sedation and respiratory depression, particularly when initiating therapy with Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules.
Opioids may also obscure the clinical course in a patient with a head injury. Avoid the use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules in patients with impaired consciousness or coma.
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules are contraindicated in patients with known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus.
The oxycodone in Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Opioids may cause increases in serum amylase. Monitor patients with biliary tract disease, including acute pancreatitis, for worsening symptoms.
The oxycodone in Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules may increase the frequency of seizures in patients with seizure disorders, and may increase the risk of seizures occurring in other clinical settings associated with seizures. Monitor patients with a history of seizure disorders for worsened seizure control during Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules therapy.
Do not abruptly discontinue Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules in a patient physically dependent on opioids. When discontinuing Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules in a physically dependent patient, gradually taper the dosage. Rapid tapering of oxycodone in a patient physically dependent on opioids may lead to a withdrawal syndrome and return of pain [see Dosage and Administration (2.4.), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
Additionally, avoid the use of mixed agonist/antagonist (e.g., pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol) or partial agonist (e.g., buprenorphine) analgesics in patients who are receiving a full opioid agonist analgesic, including Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules. In these patients, mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules may impair the mental or physical abilities needed to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating machinery. Warn patients not to drive or operate dangerous machinery unless they are tolerant to the effects of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules and know how they will react to the medication [see Patient Counseling Information (17)].
The following serious adverse reactions are described, or described in greater detail, in other sections:
The following adverse reactions associated with the use of oxycodone were identified in clinical studies or postmarketing reports. Because some of these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Serious adverse reactions associated with oxycodone use included: respiratory depression, respiratory arrest, circulatory depression, cardiac arrest, hypotension, and/or shock.
The common adverse reactions seen on initiation of therapy with oxycodone are dose- related and are typical opioid-related adverse reactions. The most frequent adverse events include nausea, constipation, vomiting, headache, and pruritus. The frequency of these reactions depended on several factors, including clinical setting, the patient’s level of opioid tolerance, and host factors specific to the individual.
In all patients for whom dosing information was available (n=191) from the open-label and double-blind studies involving another formulation of immediate-release oxycodone, the following adverse events were recorded in oxycodone treated patients with an incidence ≥ 3%. In descending order of frequency, they were: nausea, constipation, vomiting, headache, pruritus, insomnia, dizziness, asthenia, and somnolence.
The other less frequently observed adverse reactions from opioid analgesics, including Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules included:
Body as a Whole: abdominal pain, accidental injury, allergic reaction, back pain, chills and fever, fever, flu syndrome, infection, neck pain, pain, photosensitivity reaction, and sepsis.
Cardiovascular: deep thrombophlebitis, heart failure, hemorrhage, hypotension, migraine, palpitation, and tachycardia.
Digestive: anorexia, diarrhea, dyspepsia, dysphagia, gingivitis, glossitis, and nausea and vomiting.
Hemic and Lymphatic: anemia and leukopenia.
Metabolic and Nutritional: edema, gout, hyperglycemia, iron deficiency anemia and peripheral edema.
Musculoskeletal: arthralgia, arthritis, bone pain, myalgia and pathological fracture.
Nervous: agitation, anxiety, confusion, dry mouth, hypertonia, hypesthesia, nervousness, neuralgia, personality disorder, tremor, and vasodilation.
Respiratory: bronchitis, cough increased, dyspnea, epistaxis, laryngismus, lung disorder, pharyngitis, rhinitis, and sinusitis.
Skin and Appendages: herpes simplex, rash, sweating, and urticaria.
Special Senses: amblyopia.
Urogenital: urinary tract infection
Serotonin syndrome: Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported during concomitant use of opioids with serotonergic drugs.
Adrenal insufficiency: Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use.
Anaphylaxis: Anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules.
Androgen deficiency: Cases of androgen deficiency have occurred with chronic use of opioids [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
Table 1 includes clinically significant drug interactions with Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules
Table 1: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules
|Inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6|
The concomitant use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules and CYP3A4 inhibitors can increase the plasma concentration of oxycodone, resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects. These effects could be more pronounced with concomitant use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules and CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors, particularly when an inhibitor is added after a stable dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules is achieved [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].After stopping a CYP3A4 inhibitor, as the effects of the inhibitor decline, the oxycodone plasma concentration will decrease [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], resulting in decreased opioid efficacy or a withdrawal syndrome in patients who had developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
|Intervention:||If concomitant use is necessary, consider dosage reduction of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules until stable drug effects are achieved.
Monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals.If a CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued, consider increasing the Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules dosage until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal.
|Examples:||Macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin, azole-antifungal agents (e.g., ketoconazole), protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir)|
|The concomitant use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules and CYP3A4 inducers can decrease the plasma concentration of oxycodone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], resulting in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence to oxycodone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
After stopping a CYP3A4 inducer, as the effects of the inducer decline, the oxycodone plasma concentration will increase [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], which could increase or prolong both the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions, and may cause serious respiratory depression.
If concomitant use is necessary, consider increasing the Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsule dosage until stable drug effects are achieved.Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. If a CYP3A4 inducer is discontinued, consider Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsule dosage reduction and monitor for signs of respiratory depression.
|Examples:||Rifampin, carbamazepine, phenytoin|
|Benzodiazepines and other Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants|
Due to additive pharmacologic effect, the concomitant use of benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants including alcohol, increases the risk of respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death.
|Intervention:||Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].|
Benzodiazepines and other sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol.
The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin.
|Intervention:||If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules if serotonin syndrome is suspected.|
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), triptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that affect the serotonin neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol), certain muscle relaxants (i.e., cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue).
|Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)|
MAOI interactions with opioids may manifest as serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity (e.g., respiratory depression, coma)[see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
The use of Oxycodone Capsules is not recommended for patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping such treatment.If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression.
|Examples:||phenelzine, tranylcypromine, linezolid|
|Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics|
May reduce the analgesic effect of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms.
|Intervention:||Avoid concomitant use.|
|Examples:||butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine, buprenorphine|
Oxycodone may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of skeletal muscle relaxants and produce an increased degree of respiratory depression.
Monitor patients for signs of respiratory depression that may be greater than otherwise expected and decrease the dosage of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules and/or the muscle relaxant as necessary.
|Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone.|
Monitor patients for signs of diminished diuresis and/or effects on blood pressure and increase the dosage of the diuretic as needed.
The concomitant use of anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules is used concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs.
Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy may cause neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. Available data with Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage.
Animal reproduction studies with oral administrations of oxycodone hydrochloride in rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis at doses 2.6 and 8.1 times, respectively, the human dose of 60 mg/day did not reveal evidence of teratogenicity or embryo-fetal toxicity. In several published studies, treatment of pregnant rats with oxycodone at clinically relevant doses and below, resulted in neurobehavioral effects in offspring [see Data]. Based on animal data, advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.
The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy for medical or nonmedical purposes can result in physical dependence in the neonate and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome shortly after birth.
Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome presents as irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea, and failure to gain weight. The onset, duration, and severity of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination of the drug by the newborn. Observe newborns for symptoms of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and manage accordingly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Labor or Delivery
Opioids cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression and psycho- physiologic effects in neonates. An opioid antagonist, such as naloxone, must be available for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression in the neonate. Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules is not recommended for use in pregnant women during or immediately prior to labor, when other analgesic techniques are more appropriate. Opioid analgesics, including Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules, can prolong labor through actions which temporarily reduce the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions. However, this effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilation, which tends to shorten labor. Monitor neonates exposed to opioid analgesics during labor for signs of excess sedation and respiratory depression.
In embryo-fetal development studies in rats and rabbits, pregnant animals received oral doses of oxycodone hydrochloride administered during the period of organogenesis up to 16 mg/kg/day and up 25 mg/kg/day, respectively. These studies revealed no evidence of teratogenicity or embryo-fetal toxicity due to oxycodone. The highest doses tested in rats and rabbits were equivalent to approximately 2.6 and 8.1 times an adult human dose of 60 mg/day, respectively, on a mg/m2 basis. In published studies, offspring of pregnant rats administered oxycodone during gestation have been reported to exhibit neurobehavioral effects including altered stress responses, increased anxiety-like behavior (2 mg/kg/day IV from Gestation Day 8 to 21 and Postnatal Day 1, 3, and 5; 0.3-times an adult human dose of 60 mg/day, on a mg/m2 basis) and altered learning and memory (15 mg/kg/day orally from breeding through parturition; 2.4 times an adult human dose of 60 mg/day, on a mg/m2 basis).
Oxycodone is present in breast milk. Published lactation studies report variable concentrations of oxycodone in breast milk with administration of immediate-release oxycodone to nursing mothers in the early postpartum period. The lactation studies did not assess breastfed infants for potential adverse reactions. Lactation studies have not been conducted with Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules, and no information is available on the effects of the drug on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules or from the underlying maternal condition.
Monitor infants exposed to Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules through breast milk for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfed infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped, or when breast- feeding is stopped.
Chronic use of opioids may cause reduced fertility in females and males of reproductive potential. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see Adverse Reactions (6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
The safety and effectiveness and the pharmacokinetics of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules in pediatric patients below the age of 18 have not been established.
Elderly patients (aged 65 years or older) may have increased sensitivity to oxycodone. In general, use caution when selecting a dose for an elderly patient, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Respiratory depression is the chief risk for elderly patients treated with opioids, and has occurred after large initial doses were administered to patients who were not opioid-tolerant or when opioids were co-administered with other agents that depress respiration. Titrate the dosage of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules slowly in geriatric patients and monitor closely for signs of central nervous system and respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
Oxycodone is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Since oxycodone is extensively metabolized in the liver, its clearance may decrease in patients with hepatic impairment. Initiate therapy in these patients with a lower than usual dosage of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules and titrate carefully. Monitor closely for adverse events such as respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Information from oxycodone tablets indicate that patients with renal impairment had higher plasma concentrations of oxycodone than subjects with normal renal function. Initiate therapy with a lower than usual dosage of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules and titrate carefully. Monitor closely for adverse events such as respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules contains oxycodone, a Schedule II controlled substance
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules contains oxycodone, a substance with a high potential for abuse similar to other opioids including fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxymorphone, and tapentadol. Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules can be abused and is subject to misuse, addiction, and criminal diversion [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
All patients treated with opioids require careful monitoring for signs of abuse and addiction, because use of opioid analgesic products carries the risk of addiction even under appropriate medical use.
Prescription drug abuse is the intentional non-therapeutic use of a prescription drug, even once, for its rewarding psychological or physiological effects.
Drug addiction is a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use and includes: a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance, and sometimes a physical withdrawal.
“Drug-seeking” behavior is very common in persons with substance use disorders. Drug- seeking tactics include emergency calls or visits near the end of office hours, refusal to undergo appropriate examination, testing, or referral, repeated “loss” of prescriptions, tampering with prescriptions, and reluctance to provide prior medical records or contact information for other treating health care provider(s). “Doctor shopping” (visiting multiple prescribers to obtain additional prescriptions) is common among drug abusers and people suffering from untreated addiction. Preoccupation with achieving adequate pain relief can be appropriate behavior in a patient with poor pain control.
Abuse and addiction are separate and distinct from physical dependence and tolerance. Health care providers should be aware that addiction may not be accompanied by concurrent tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence in all addicts. In addition, abuse of opioids can occur in the absence of true addiction.
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules, like other opioids, can be diverted for non-medical use into illicit channels of distribution. Careful record-keeping of prescribing information, including quantity, frequency, and renewal requests, as required by state and federal law, is strongly advised.
Proper assessment of the patient, proper prescribing practices, periodic re-evaluation of therapy, and proper dispensing and storage are appropriate measures that help to limit abuse of opioid drugs.
Risks Specific to Abuse of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules are for oral use only. Abuse of oxycodone poses a risk of overdose and death. The risk is increased with concurrent abuse of alcohol and other central nervous system depressants.
Parenteral drug abuse is commonly associated with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis and HIV.
Both tolerance and physical dependence can develop during chronic opioid therapy. Tolerance is the need for increasing doses of opioids to maintain a defined effect such as analgesia (in the absence of disease progression or other external factors). Tolerance may occur to both the desired and undesired effects of drugs, and may develop at different rates for different effects.
Physical dependence is a physiological state in which the body adapts to the drug after a period of regular exposure, resulting in withdrawal symptoms after abrupt discontinuation or a significant dosage reduction of a drug. Withdrawal also may be precipitated through the administration of drugs with opioid antagonist activity (e.g., naloxone, nalmefene), mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics (e.g., pentazocine, butorphanol, nalbuphine), or partial agonists (e.g., buprenorphine). Physical dependence may not occur to a clinically significant degree until after several days to weeks of continued opioid usage.
Do not abruptly discontinue Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules in a patient physically dependent on opioids. Rapid tapering of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules in a patient physically dependent on opioids may lead to serious withdrawal symptoms, uncontrolled pain, and suicide. Rapid discontinuation has also been associated with attempts to find other sources of opioid analgesics, which may be confused with drug-seeking for abuse.
When discontinuing Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules, gradually taper the dosage using a patient-specific plan that considers the following: the dose of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules the patient has been taking, the duration of treatment, and the physical and psychological attributes of the patient. To improve the likelihood of a successful taper and minimize withdrawal symptoms, it is important that the opioid tapering schedule is agreed upon by the patient. In patients taking opioids for a long duration at high doses, ensure that a multimodal approach to pain management, including mental health support (if needed), is in place prior to initiating an opioid analgesic taper [see Dosage and Administration (2.4),Warnings and Precautions (5.13)].
Infants born to mothers physically dependent on opioids will also be physically dependent and may exhibit respiratory difficulties and withdrawal signs [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Acute overdose with Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules can be manifested by respiratory depression, somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, constricted pupils, and, in some cases, pulmonary edema, bradycardia, hypotension, partial or complete airway obstruction, atypical snoring, and death. Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen with hypoxia in overdose situations [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
Treatment of Overdose
In case of overdose, priorities are the reestablishment of a patent and protected airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation, if needed. Employ other supportive measures (including oxygen and vasopressors) in the management of circulatory shock and pulmonary edema as indicated. Cardiac arrest or arrhythmias will require advanced life-support techniques.
The opioid antagonists, naloxone or nalmefene, are specific antidotes to respiratory depression resulting from opioid overdose. For clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to oxycodone overdose, administer an opioid antagonist. Opioid antagonists should not be administered in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to oxycodone overdose.
Because the duration of opioid reversal is expected to be less than the duration of action of oxycodone in Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules, carefully monitor the patient until spontaneous respiration is reliably re-established. If the response to an opioid antagonist is suboptimal or only brief in nature, administer additional antagonist as directed by the product’s prescribing information.
In an individual physically dependent on opioids, administration of the recommended usual dosage of the antagonist will precipitate an acute withdrawal syndrome. The severity of the withdrawal symptoms experienced will depend on the degree of physical dependence and the dose of the antagonist administered. If a decision is made to treat serious respiratory depression in the physically dependent patient, administration of the antagonist should be initiated with care and by titration with smaller than usual doses of the antagonist.
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsule is a white, odorless crystalline powder derived from the opium alkaloid, thebaine. It is soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. Chemically, oxycodone hydrochloride is (5R,9R,13S,14S)-4, 5α-epoxy-14-hydroxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-one, hydrochloride (salt) with a molecular mass of 351.82. Its molecular formula is C18H21NO4∙HCl, and it has the following chemical structure.
Each hard gelatin capsule contains 5 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride, USP and the following inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate, pregelatinized starch (corn), sodium starch glycolate, magnesium stearate, colloidal silicon dioxide, gelatin, titanium dioxide, FD&C Red #40, FD&C Yellow #6, and D&C Yellow #10. The imprinting ink contains: shellac glaze in ethanol, iron oxide black, n-butyl alcohol, propylene glycol, ethanol, methanol, FD&C Blue #2 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Red #40 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue #1 Aluminum Lake, and D&C Yellow #10 Aluminum Lake.
Oxycodone is a full opioid agonist and is relatively selective for the mu-opioid receptor, although it can bind to other opioid receptors at higher doses. The principal therapeutic action of oxycodone is analgesia. Like all full opioid agonists, there is no ceiling effect for analgesia with oxycodone. Clinically, dosage is titrated to provide adequate analgesia and may be limited by adverse reactions, including respiratory and CNS depression.
The precise mechanism of the analgesic action is unknown. However, specific CNS opioid receptors for endogenous compounds with opioid-like activity have been identified throughout the brain and spinal cord and are thought to play a role in the analgesic effects of this drug.
Effects on the Central Nervous System (CNS)
Oxycodone produces respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratory centers. The respiratory depression involves a reduction in the responsiveness of the brain stem respiratory centers to both increases in carbon dioxide tension and electrical stimulation.
Oxycodone causes miosis, even in total darkness. Pinpoint pupils are a sign of opioid overdose but are not pathognomonic (e.g., pontine lesions of hemorrhagic or ischemic origins may produce similar findings). Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen due to hypoxia in overdose situations.
Effects on the Gastrointestinal Tract and Other Smooth Muscle
Oxycodone causes a reduction in motility associated with an increase in smooth muscle tone in the antrum of the stomach and duodenum. Digestion of food in the small intestine is delayed and propulsive contractions are decreased. Propulsive peristaltic waves in the colon are decreased, while tone may be increased to the point of spasm, resulting in constipation. Other opioid-induced effects may include a reduction in biliary and pancreatic secretions, spasm of sphincter of Oddi, and transient elevations in serum amylase.
Effects on the Cardiovascular System
Oxycodone produces peripheral vasodilation which may result in orthostatic hypotension or syncope. Manifestations of histamine release and/or peripheral vasodilation may include pruritus, flushing, red eyes, sweating, and/or orthostatic hypotension.
Effects on the Endocrine System
Opioids inhibit the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and luteinizing hormone (LH) in humans [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. They also stimulate prolactin, growth hormone (GH) secretion, and pancreatic secretion of insulin and glucagon.
Chronic use of opioids may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to androgen deficiency that may manifest as low libido, impotence, erectile dysfunction, amenorrhea, or infertility. The causal role of opioids in the clinical syndrome of hypogonadism is unknown because the various medical, physical, lifestyle, and psychological stressors that may influence gonadal hormone levels have not been adequately controlled for in studies conducted to date [see Adverse Reactions (6)].
Effects on the Immune System
Opioids have been shown to have a variety of effects on components of the immune system in in vitro and animal models. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Overall, the effects of opioids appear to be modestly immunosuppressive.
The minimum effective analgesic concentration will vary widely among patients, especially among patients who have been previously treated with potent agonist opioids. The minimum effective analgesic concentration of oxycodone for any individual patient may increase over time due to an increase in pain, the development of a new pain syndrome and/or the development of analgesic tolerance [see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.2)].
Concentration–Adverse Reaction Relationships
There is a relationship between increasing oxycodone plasma concentration and increasing frequency of dose-related opioid adverse reactions such as nausea, vomiting, CNS effects, and respiratory depression. In opioid-tolerant patients, the situation may be altered by the development of tolerance to opioid-related adverse reactions [see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.2, 2.3)].
The activity of oxycodone hydrochloride is primarily due to the parent drug oxycodone.
About 60 to 87% of an oral dose reaches the systemic circulation in comparison to a parenteral dose. This high oral bioavailability (compared to other opioids) is due to lower pre-systemic and/or first-pass metabolism of oxycodone.
When Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules are administered with a high-fat meal, mean AUC values are increased by 23% and peak concentrations are decreased by 14%. Food causes a delay in Tmax(1.00 to 3 hours). Similar effects of food are expected with the oral solution.
Following intravenous administration, the volume of distribution (Vss) for oxycodone was 2.6 L/kg. Plasma protein binding of oxycodone at 37°C and a pH of 7.4 was about 45%. Oxycodone has been found in breast milk.
Oxycodone hydrochloride is extensively metabolized by multiple metabolic pathways to noroxycodone, oxymorphone, and noroxymorphone, which are subsequently glucuronidated. CYP3A4 mediated N-demethylation to noroxycodone is the primary metabolic pathway of oxycodone with a less contribution from CYP2D6 mediated 0-demethylation to oxymorphone.
Therefore, the formation of these and related metabolites can, in theory, be affected by other drugs. The major circulating metabolite is noroxycodone with an AUC ratio of 0.6 relative to that of oxycodone. Noroxycodone is reported to be a considerably weaker analgesic than oxycodone. Oxymorphone, although possessing analgesic activity, is present in the plasma only in low concentrations. The correlation between oxymorphone concentrations and opioid effects was much less than that seen with oxycodone plasma concentrations. The analgesic activity profile of other metabolites is not known.
Oxycodone and its metabolites are excreted primarily via the kidney. The amounts measured in the urine have been reported as follows: free oxycodone up to 19%; conjugated oxycodone up to 50%; free oxymorphone 0%; conjugated oxymorphone < 14%; both free and conjugated noroxycodone have been found in the urine but not quantified. The total plasma clearance was 0.8 L/min for adults. Apparent elimination half-life of oxycodone following the administration of oxycodone is approximately 4 hours.
Age: Geriatric Population:
Information obtained from oxycodone tablets indicate that the plasma concentrations of oxycodone did not appear to be increased in patients over of the age of 65.
Because oxycodone is extensively metabolized in the liver, its clearance may decrease in hepatic-impaired patients. A dose adjustment is recommended in these patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].
Because this drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function, a dose reduction is recommended for renal impaired patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].
Drug Interaction Studies
CYP3A4 is the major enzyme involved in noroxycodone formation. A published study showed that the co-administration of voriconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, increased oxycodone AUC and Cmax by 3.6 and 1.7 fold, respectively.
A published study showed that the co-administration of rifampin, a drug metabolizing enzyme inducer, decreased oxycodone AUC and Cmax values by 86% and 63%, respectively.
Oxycodone is metabolized in part to oxymorphone via the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP2D6. While this pathway may be blocked by a variety of drugs (e.g., certain cardiovascular drugs and antidepressants), such blockade has not yet been shown to be of clinical significance with this agent.
Long-term studies in animals to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of oxycodone hydrochloride have not been conducted.
Oxycodone hydrochloride was genotoxic in an in vitro mouse lymphoma assay in the presence of metabolic activation. There was no evidence of genotoxic potential in an in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay (Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli) and in an assay for chromosomal aberrations (in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay).
Impairment of Fertility
Studies in animals to evaluate the potential impact of oxycodone on fertility have not been conducted.
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsule 5 mg is a hard gelatin size #4 ivory opaque/reddish orange opaque capsule, imprinted with logo “LANNETT” on the cap and “1774” on the body available in one strength as follows:
NDC# 0527-1774-01: Bottle of 100 Capsules
Store at 20°C to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container.
Protect from moisture and light.
Store Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules securely and dispose of properly [see Patient Counseling Information 17)].
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
Storage and Disposal:
Because of the risks associated with accidental ingestion, misuse, and abuse, advise patients to store Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules securely, out of sight and reach of children, and in a location not accessible by others, including visitors to the home [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.2)]. Inform patients that leaving Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules unsecured can pose a deadly risk to others in the home.
Advise patients and caregivers that when medicines are no longer needed, they should be disposed of promptly. Expired, unwanted, or unused Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules should be disposed of by flushing the unused medication down the toilet if a drug take-back option is not readily available. Inform patients that they can visit www.fda.gov/drugdisposal for a complete list of medicines recommended for disposal by flushing, as well as additional information on disposal of unused medicines.
Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse
Inform patients that the use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules, even when taken as recommended, can result in addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Instruct patients not to share Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules with others and to take steps to protect Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules from theft or misuse.
Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression
Inform patients of the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression, including information that the risk is greatest when starting Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules or when the dosage is increased, and that it can occur even at recommended dosages [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Advise patients how to recognize respiratory depression and to seek medical attention if breathing difficulties develop.
Inform patients that accidental ingestion, especially by children, may result in respiratory depression or death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Interactions with Benzodiazepines and Other CNS Depressants
Inform patients and caregivers that potentially fatal additive effects may occur if Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules are used with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, and not to use these concomitantly unless supervised by a health care provider [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6), Drug Interactions (7)].
Inform patients that opioids could cause a rare but potentially life-threatening condition resulting from concomitant administration of serotonergic drugs. Warn patients of the symptoms of serotonin syndrome and to seek medical attention right away if symptoms develop. Instruct patients to inform their healthcare providers if they are taking, or plan to take serotonergic medications. [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Inform patients to avoid taking Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules while using any drugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase. Patients should not start MAOIs while taking Oxycodone Capsules [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Inform patients that opioids could cause adrenal insufficiency, a potentially life- threatening condition. Adrenal insufficiency may present with non-specific symptoms and signs such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. Advise patients to seek medical attention if they experience a constellation of these symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].
Important Administration Instructions
Instruct patients how to properly take Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules. Patients should be advised not to adjust the dose of Oxycodone Capsules without consulting the prescribing healthcare provider [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
Important Discontinuation Instructions
In order to avoid developing withdrawal symptoms, instruct patients not to discontinue Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules without first discussing a tapering plan with the prescriber [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].
Inform patients that Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules may cause orthostatic hypotension and syncope. Instruct patients how to recognize symptoms of low blood pressure and how to reduce the risk of serious consequences should hypotension occur (e.g., sit or lie down, carefully rise from a sitting or lying position) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].
Inform patients that anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules. Advise patients how to recognize such a reaction and when to seek medical attention [see Adverse Reactions (6)].
Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
Inform female patients of reproductive potential that prolonged use of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4), Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Inform female patients of reproductive potential that Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules can cause fetal harm and to inform the healthcare provider of a known or suspected pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Advise nursing mothers to monitor infants for increased sleepiness (more than usual), breathing difficulties, or limpness. Instruct nursing mothers to seek immediate medical care if they notice these signs [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].
Inform patients that chronic use of opioids may cause reduced fertility. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].
Driving or Operating Heavy Machinery
Inform patients that Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules may impair the ability to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. Advise patients not to perform such tasks until they know how they will react to the medication [see Warnings and Precautions (5.14)].
Lannett Company, Inc.
Philadelphia, PA 19136
CIB70351D Rev. 11/2019
Oxycodone Hydrochloride (ox-ee-CO-dohn) Capsules, CII
Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules is:
Important information about Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules:
Do not take Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules if you have:
Before taking Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules, tell your healthcare provider if you have a history of:
Tell your healthcare provider if you are:
When taking Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules:
While taking Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules DO NOT:
The possible side effects of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules:
These are not all the possible side effects of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Capsules. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. For more information go to dailymed.nlm.nih.gov
Distributed by: Lannett Company, Inc. Philadelphia, PA 19136 or call 1-844-834-0530
This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. CIB71744B Rev. 11/2019
oxycodone hydrochloride capsule
|Labeler - Lannett Company, Inc. (002277481)|
|Lannett Company, Inc.||006422406||ANALYSIS(0527-1774) , LABEL(0527-1774) , MANUFACTURE(0527-1774) , PACK(0527-1774) , RELABEL(0527-1774) , REPACK(0527-1774)|