ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM- atorvastatin calcium tablet, film coated
NuCare Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets.
Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets for oral administration
Initial U.S. Approval: 1996
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets is an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase (statin) indicated as an adjunct therapy to diet to:
Limitations of Use
Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets has not been studied in Fredrickson Types I and V dyslipidemias.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
10, 20, 40, and 80 mg tablets ( 3).
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Skeletal muscle effects (e.g., myopathy and rhabdomyolysis): Risks increase when higher doses are used concomitantly with cyclosporine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., clarithromycin, itraconazole, HIV protease inhibitors). Predisposing factors include advanced age (> 65), uncontrolled hypothyroidism, and renal impairment. Rare cases of rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria have been reported. Advise patients to promptly report to their physician unexplained and/or persistent muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness. Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets therapy should be discontinued if myopathy is diagnosed or suspected ( 5.1, 8.5).
Liver enzyme abnormalities: Persistent elevations in hepatic transaminases can occur. Check liver enzyme tests before initiating therapy and as clinically indicated thereafter ( 5.2).
A higher incidence of hemorrhagic stroke was seen in patients without CHD but with stroke or TIA within the previous 6 months in the Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets 80 mg group vs. placebo ( 5.5).
The most commonly reported adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 2%) in patients treated with Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets in placebo-controlled trials regardless of causality were: nasopharyngitis, arthralgia, diarrhea, pain in extremity, and urinary tract infection ( 6.1).
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact UCB, Inc. at (1-844-599-CARE) or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION and FDA-approved patient labeling.
FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS*
2.1 Hyperlipidemia (Heterozygous Familial and Nonfamilial) and Mixed Dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb)
2.6 Dosage in Patients Taking Cyclosporine, Clarithromycin, Itraconazole, or Certain Protease Inhibitors
4.1 Active liver disease, which may include unexplained persistent elevations in hepatic transaminase levels
14.2 Hyperlipidemia (Heterozygous Familial and Nonfamilial) and Mixed Dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb)
Therapy with lipid-altering agents should be only one component of multiple risk factor intervention in individuals at significantly increased risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease due to hypercholesterolemia. Drug therapy is recommended as an adjunct to diet when the response to a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol and other nonpharmacologic measures alone has been inadequate. In patients with CHD or multiple risk factors for CHD, atorvastatin calcium tablets can be started simultaneously with diet.
In adult patients without clinically evident coronary heart disease, but with multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease such as age, smoking, hypertension, low HDL-C, or a family history of early coronary heart disease, Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets is indicated to:
In patients with type 2 diabetes, and without clinically evident coronary heart disease, but with multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease such as retinopathy, albuminuria, smoking, or hypertension, Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets is indicated to:
In patients with clinically evident coronary heart disease, Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets is indicated to:
Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets is indicated:
The recommended starting dose of atorvastatin calcium tablets is 10 or 20 mg once daily. Patients who require a large reduction in LDL-C (more than 45%) may be started at 40 mg once daily. The dosage range of atorvastatin calcium tablets is 10 to 80 mg once daily. Atorvastatin calcium tablets can be administered as a single dose at any time of the day, with or without food. The starting dose and maintenance doses of atorvastatin calcium tablets should be individualized according to patient characteristics such as goal of therapy and response (see current NCEP Guidelines). After initiation and/or upon titration of atorvastatin calcium tablets, lipid levels should be analyzed within 2 to 4 weeks and dosage adjusted accordingly.
The recommended starting dose of atorvastatin calcium tablets is 10 mg/day; the maximum recommended dose is 20 mg/day (doses greater than 20 mg have not been studied in this patient population). Doses should be individualized according to the recommended goal of therapy [see current NCEP Pediatric Panel Guidelines, Clinical Pharmacology (12), and Indications and Usage (1.2)]. Adjustments should be made at intervals of 4 weeks or more.
The dosage of atorvastatin calcium tablets in patients with homozygous FH is 10 to 80 mg daily. Atorvastatin calcium tablets should be used as an adjunct to other lipid-lowering treatments (e.g., LDL apheresis) in these patients or if such treatments are unavailable.
Atorvastatin calcium tablets may be used with bile acid resins. The combination of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and fibrates should generally be used with caution [see Warnings and Precautions, Skeletal Muscle (5.1), Drug Interactions (7)].
Renal disease does not affect the plasma concentrations nor LDL-C reduction of atorvastatin calcium tablets; thus, dosage adjustment in patients with renal dysfunction is not necessary [see Warnings and Precautions, Skeletal Muscle (5.1), Clinical Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics (12.3)].
White, round, film-coated tablets containing 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg atorvastatin calcium.
Women who are pregnant or may become pregnant . Atorvastatin calcium tablets may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides increase during normal pregnancy, and cholesterol or cholesterol derivatives are essential for fetal development. Atherosclerosis is a chronic process and discontinuation of lipid-lowering drugs during pregnancy should have little impact on the outcome of long-term therapy of primary hypercholesterolemia. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of atorvastatin calcium tablets use during pregnancy; however in rare reports, congenital anomalies were observed following intrauterine exposure to statins. In rat and rabbit animal reproduction studies, atorvastatin revealed no evidence of teratogenicity. ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM TABLETS SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED TO WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE ONLY WHEN SUCH PATIENTS ARE HIGHLY UNLIKELY TO CONCEIVE AND HAVE BEEN INFORMED OF THE POTENTIAL HAZARDS. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, atorvastatin calcium tablets should be discontinued immediately and the patient apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
It is not known whether atorvastatin is excreted into human milk; however a small amount of another drug in this class does pass into breast milk. Because statins have the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, women who require atorvastatin calcium tablets treatment should not breastfeed their infants [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].
|Interacting Agents||Prescribing Recommendations|
|Cyclosporine, HIV protease inhibitors (tipranavir plus ritonavir), hepatitis C protease inhibitor (telaprevir)||Avoid atorvastatin|
|HIV protease inhibitor (lopinavir plus ritonavir)||Use with caution and lowest dose necessary|
|Clarithromycin, itraconazole, HIV protease inhibitors (saquinavir plus ritonavir *, darunavir plus ritonavir, fosamprenavir, fosamprenavir plus ritonavir)||Do not exceed 20 mg atorvastatin daily|
| HIV protease inhibitor (nelfinavir)
Hepatitis C protease inhibitor (boceprevir)
|Do not exceed 40 mg atorvastatin daily|
Statins, like some other lipid-lowering therapies, have been associated with biochemical abnormalities of liver function. Persistent elevations (>3 times the upper limit of normal [ULN] occurring on 2 or more occasions) in serum transaminases occurred in 0.7% of patients who received atorvastatin calcium tablets in clinical trials. The incidence of these abnormalities was 0.2%, 0.2%, 0.6%, and 2.3% for 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg, respectively.
One patient in clinical trials developed jaundice. Increases in liver function tests (LFT) in other patients were not associated with jaundice or other clinical signs or symptoms. Upon dose reduction, drug interruption, or discontinuation, transaminase levels returned to or near pretreatment levels without sequelae. Eighteen of 30 patients with persistent LFT elevations continued treatment with a reduced dose of atorvastatin calcium tablets.
It is recommended that liver enzyme tests be obtained prior to initiating therapy with atorvastatin calcium tablets and repeated as clinically indicated. There have been rare postmarketing reports of fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure in patients taking statins, including atorvastatin. If serious liver injury with clinical symptoms and/or hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice occurs during treatment with atorvastatin calcium tablets, promptly interrupt therapy. If an alternate etiology is not found, do not restart atorvastatin calcium tablets.
Atorvastatin calcium tablets should be used with caution in patients who consume substantial quantities of alcohol and/or have a history of liver disease. Active liver disease or unexplained persistent transaminase elevations are contraindications to the use of atorvastatin calcium tablets [see Contraindications (4.1)].
Increases in HbA1c and fasting serum glucose levels have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including atorvastatin calcium tablets.
Statins interfere with cholesterol synthesis and theoretically might blunt adrenal and/or gonadal steroid production. Clinical studies have shown that atorvastatin calcium tablets does not reduce basal plasma cortisol concentration or impair adrenal reserve. The effects of statins on male fertility have not been studied in adequate numbers of patients. The effects, if any, on the pituitary-gonadal axis in premenopausal women are unknown. Caution should be exercised if a statin is administered concomitantly with drugs that may decrease the levels or activity of endogenous steroid hormones, such as ketoconazole, spironolactone, and cimetidine.
Brain hemorrhage was seen in a female dog treated for 3 months at 120 mg/kg/day. Brain hemorrhage and optic nerve vacuolation were seen in another female dog that was sacrificed in moribund condition after 11 weeks of escalating doses up to 280 mg/kg/day. The 120 mg/kg dose resulted in a systemic exposure approximately 16 times the human plasma area-under-the-curve (AUC, 0-24 hours) based on the maximum human dose of 80 mg/day. A single tonic convulsion was seen in each of 2 male dogs (one treated at 10 mg/kg/day and one at 120 mg/kg/day) in a 2-year study. No CNS lesions have been observed in mice after chronic treatment for up to 2 years at doses up to 400 mg/kg/day or in rats at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day. These doses were 6 to 11 times (mouse) and 8 to 16 times (rat) the human AUC (0-24) based on the maximum recommended human dose of 80 mg/day.
CNS vascular lesions, characterized by perivascular hemorrhages, edema, and mononuclear cell infiltration of perivascular spaces, have been observed in dogs treated with other members of this class. A chemically similar drug in this class produced optic nerve degeneration (Wallerian degeneration of retinogeniculate fibers) in clinically normal dogs in a dose-dependent fashion at a dose that produced plasma drug levels about 30 times higher than the mean drug level in humans taking the highest recommended dose.
In a post-hoc analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) study where atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg vs. placebo was administered in 4,731 subjects without CHD who had a stroke or TIA within the preceding 6 months, a higher incidence of hemorrhagic stroke was seen in the atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg group compared to placebo (55, 2.3% atorvastatin vs. 33, 1.4% placebo; HR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.59; p=0.0168). The incidence of fatal hemorrhagic stroke was similar across treatment groups (17 vs. 18 for the atorvastatin and placebo groups, respectively). The incidence of nonfatal hemorrhagic stroke was significantly higher in the atorvastatin group (38, 1.6%) as compared to the placebo group (16, 0.7%). Some baseline characteristics, including hemorrhagic and lacunar stroke on study entry, were associated with a higher incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in the atorvastatin group [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the label:
Rhabdomyolysis and myopathy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Liver enzyme abnormalities [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, the adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
In the atorvastatin calcium tablets placebo-controlled clinical trial database of 16,066 patients (8755 atorvastatin calcium tablets vs. 7311 placebo; age range 10–93 years, 39% women, 91% Caucasians, 3% Blacks, 2% Asians, 4% other) with a median treatment duration of 53 weeks, 9.7% of patients on atorvastatin calcium tablets and 9.5% of the patients on placebo discontinued due to adverse reactions regardless of causality. The five most common adverse reactions in patients treated with atorvastatin calcium tablets that led to treatment discontinuation and occurred at a rate greater than placebo were: myalgia (0.7%), diarrhea (0.5%), nausea (0.4%), alanine aminotransferase increase (0.4%), and hepatic enzyme increase (0.4%).
The most commonly reported adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 2% and greater than placebo) regardless of causality, in patients treated with atorvastatin calcium tablets in placebo controlled trials (n=8755) were: nasopharyngitis (8.3%), arthralgia (6.9%), diarrhea (6.8%), pain in extremity (6.0%), and urinary tract infection (5.7%).
Table 2 summarizes the frequency of clinical adverse reactions, regardless of causality, reported in ≥ 2% and at a rate greater than placebo in patients treated with atorvastatin calcium tablets (n=8755), from seventeen placebo-controlled trials.
|Adverse Reaction *|| Any dose
| 10 mg
| 20 mg
| 40 mg
| 80 mg
|Pain in extremity||6.0||8.5||3.7||9.3||3.1||5.9|
|Urinary tract infection||5.7||6.9||6.4||8.0||4.1||5.6|
Other adverse reactions reported in placebo-controlled studies include:
Body as a whole: malaise, pyrexia; Digestive system: abdominal discomfort, eructation, flatulence, hepatitis, cholestasis; Musculoskeletal system: musculoskeletal pain, muscle fatigue, neck pain, joint swelling; Metabolic and nutritional system: transaminases increase, liver function test abnormal, blood alkaline phosphatase increase, creatine phosphokinase increase, hyperglycemia; Nervous system: nightmare; Respiratory system: epistaxis; Skin and appendages: urticaria; Special senses: vision blurred, tinnitus; Urogenital system: white blood cells urine positive.
Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT)
In ASCOT [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] involving 10,305 participants (age range 40–80 years, 19% women; 94.6% Caucasians, 2.6% Africans, 1.5% South Asians, 1.3% mixed/other) treated with atorvastatin calcium tablets 10 mg daily (n=5,168) or placebo (n=5,137), the safety and tolerability profile of the group treated with atorvastatin calcium tablets was comparable to that of the group treated with placebo during a median of 3.3 years of follow-up.
Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS)
In CARDS [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] involving 2,838 subjects (age range 39–77 years, 32% women; 94.3% Caucasians, 2.4% South Asians, 2.3% Afro-Caribbean, 1.0% other) with type 2 diabetes treated with atorvastatin calcium tablets 10 mg daily (n=1,428) or placebo (n=1,410), there was no difference in the overall frequency of adverse reactions or serious adverse reactions between the treatment groups during a median follow-up of 3.9 years. No cases of rhabdomyolysis were reported.
Treating to New Targets Study (TNT)
In TNT [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] involving 10,001 subjects (age range 29–78 years, 19% women; 94.1% Caucasians, 2.9% Blacks, 1.0% Asians, 2.0% other) with clinically evident CHD treated with atorvastatin calcium tablets 10 mg daily (n=5006) or atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg daily (n=4995), there were more serious adverse reactions and discontinuations due to adverse reactions in the high-dose atorvastatin group (92, 1.8%; 497, 9.9%, respectively) as compared to the low-dose group (69, 1.4%; 404, 8.1%, respectively) during a median follow-up of 4.9 years. Persistent transaminase elevations (≥3 × ULN twice within 4–10 days) occurred in 62 (1.3%) individuals with atorvastatin 80 mg and in nine (0.2%) individuals with atorvastatin 10 mg. Elevations of CK (≥ 10 × ULN) were low overall, but were higher in the high-dose atorvastatin treatment group (13, 0.3%) compared to the low-dose atorvastatin group (6, 0.1%).
Incremental Decrease in Endpoints through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Study (IDEAL)
In IDEAL [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] involving 8,888 subjects (age range 26–80 years, 19% women; 99.3% Caucasians, 0.4% Asians, 0.3% Blacks, 0.04% other) treated with atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg/day (n=4439) or simvastatin 20–40 mg daily (n=4449), there was no difference in the overall frequency of adverse reactions or serious adverse reactions between the treatment groups during a median follow-up of 4.8 years.
Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL)
In SPARCL involving 4731 subjects (age range 21–92 years, 40% women; 93.3% Caucasians, 3.0% Blacks, 0.6% Asians, 3.1% other) without clinically evident CHD but with a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) within the previous 6 months treated with atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg (n=2365) or placebo (n=2366) for a median follow-up of 4.9 years, there was a higher incidence of persistent hepatic transaminase elevations (≥ 3 x ULN twice within 4–10 days) in the atorvastatin group (0.9%) compared to placebo (0.1%). Elevations of CK (>10 x ULN) were rare, but were higher in the atorvastatin group (0.1%) compared to placebo (0.0%). Diabetes was reported as an adverse reaction in 144 subjects (6.1%) in the atorvastatin group and 89 subjects (3.8%) in the placebo group [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
In a post-hoc analysis, atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg reduced the incidence of ischemic stroke (218/2365, 9.2% vs. 274/2366, 11.6%) and increased the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke (55/2365, 2.3% vs. 33/2366, 1.4%) compared to placebo. The incidence of fatal hemorrhagic stroke was similar between groups (17 atorvastatin calcium tablets vs. 18 placebo). The incidence of non-fatal hemorrhagic strokes was significantly greater in the atorvastatin group (38 non-fatal hemorrhagic strokes) as compared to the placebo group (16 non-fatal hemorrhagic strokes). Subjects who entered the study with a hemorrhagic stroke appeared to be at increased risk for hemorrhagic stroke [7 (16%) atorvastatin calcium tablets vs. 2 (4%) placebo].
There were no significant differences between the treatment groups for all-cause mortality: 216 (9.1%) in the atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg/day group vs. 211 (8.9%) in the placebo group. The proportions of subjects who experienced cardiovascular death were numerically smaller in the atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg group (3.3%) than in the placebo group (4.1%). The proportions of subjects who experienced non-cardiovascular death were numerically larger in the atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg group (5.0%) than in the placebo group (4.0%).
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of atorvastatin calcium tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Adverse reactions associated with atorvastatin calcium tablets therapy reported since market introduction, that are not listed above, regardless of causality assessment, include the following: anaphylaxis, angioneurotic edema, bullous rashes (including erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis), rhabdomyolysis, myositis, fatigue, tendon rupture, fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure, dizziness, depression, peripheral neuropathy, and pancreatitis.
There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy associated with statin use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
There have been rare postmarketing reports of cognitive impairment (e.g., memory loss, forgetfulness, amnesia, memory impairment, confusion) associated with statin use. These cognitive issues have been reported for all statins. The reports are generally nonserious, and reversible upon statin discontinuation, with variable times to symptom onset (1 day to years) and symptom resolution (median of 3 weeks).
In a 26-week controlled study in boys and postmenarchal girls (n=140, 31% female; 92% Caucasians, 1.6% Blacks, 1.6% Asians, 4.8% other), the safety and tolerability profile of atorvastatin calcium tablets 10 to 20 mg daily was generally similar to that of placebo [see Clinical Studies (14.6) and Use in Special Populations, Pediatric Use (8.4)].
Atorvastatin calcium tablets is metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4. Concomitant administration of atorvastatin calcium tablets with strong inhibitors of CYP 3A4 can lead to increases in plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. The extent of interaction and potentiation of effects depend on the variability of effect on CYP 3A4.
Clarithromycin: Atorvastatin AUC was significantly increased with concomitant administration of atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg with clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily) compared to that of atorvastatin calcium tablets alone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Therefore, in patients taking clarithromycin, caution should be used when the atorvastatin calcium tablets dose exceeds 20 mg [see Warnings and Precautions, Skeletal Muscle (5.1) and Dosage and Administration (2.6)].
Combination of Protease Inhibitors: Atorvastatin AUC was significantly increased with concomitant administration of atorvastatin calcium tablets with several combinations of HIV protease inhibitors, as well as with the hepatitis C protease inhibitor telaprevir, compared to that of atorvastatin calcium tablets alone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Therefore, in patients taking the HIV protease inhibitor tipranavir plus ritonavir, or the hepatitis C protease inhibitor telaprevir, concomitant use of atorvastatin calcium tablets should be avoided. In patients taking the HIV protease inhibitor lopinavir plus ritonavir, caution should be used when prescribing atorvastatin calcium tablets and the lowest dose necessary should be used. In patients taking the HIV protease inhibitors saquinavir plus ritonavir, darunavir plus ritonavir, fosamprenavir, or fosamprenavir plus ritonavir, the dose of atorvastatin calcium tablets should not exceed 20 mg and should be used with caution [see Warnings and Precautions, Skeletal Muscle (5.1) and Dosage and Administration (2.6)]. In patients taking the HIV protease inhibitor nelfinavir or the hepatitis C protease inhibitor boceprevir, the dose of atorvastatin calcium tablets should not exceed 40 mg and close clinical monitoring is recommended.
Itraconazole: Atorvastatin AUC was significantly increased with concomitant administration of atorvastatin calcium tablets 40 mg and itraconazole 200 mg [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Therefore, in patients taking itraconazole, caution should be used when the atorvastatin calcium tablets dose exceeds 20 mg [see Warnings and Precautions, Skeletal Muscle (5.1) and Dosage and Administration (2.6)].
Contains one or more components that inhibit CYP 3A4 and can increase plasma concentrations of atorvastatin, especially with excessive grapefruit juice consumption (>1.2 liters per day).
Atorvastatin and atorvastatin-metabolites are substrates of the OATP1B1 transporter. Inhibitors of the OATP1B1 (e.g., cyclosporine) can increase the bioavailability of atorvastatin. Atorvastatin AUC was significantly increased with concomitant administration of atorvastatin calcium tablets 10 mg and cyclosporine 5.2 mg/kg/day compared to that of atorvastatin calcium tablets alone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. The co-administration of atorvastatin calcium tablets with cyclosporine should be avoided [see Warnings and Precautions, Skeletal Muscle (5.1)].
Due to an increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis when HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are co-administered with gemfibrozil, concomitant administration of atorvastatin calcium tablets with gemfibrozil should be avoided [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Because it is known that the risk of myopathy during treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors is increased with concurrent administration of other fibrates, atorvastatin calcium tablets should be administered with caution when used concomitantly with other fibrates [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
The risk of skeletal muscle effects may be enhanced when atorvastatin calcium tablets is used in combination with niacin; a reduction in atorvastatin calcium tablets dosage should be considered in this setting [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Concomitant administration of atorvastatin calcium tablets with inducers of cytochrome P450 3A4 (e.g., efavirenz, rifampin) can lead to variable reductions in plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. Due to the dual interaction mechanism of rifampin, simultaneous co-administration of atorvastatin calcium tablets with rifampin is recommended, as delayed administration of atorvastatin calcium tablets after administration of rifampin has been associated with a significant reduction in atorvastatin plasma concentrations.
When multiple doses of atorvastatin calcium tablets and digoxin were coadministered, steady state plasma digoxin concentrations increased by approximately 20%. Patients taking digoxin should be monitored appropriately.
Co-administration of atorvastatin calcium tablets and an oral contraceptive increased AUC values for norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. These increases should be considered when selecting an oral contraceptive for a woman taking atorvastatin calcium tablets.
Atorvastatin calcium tablets had no clinically significant effect on prothrombin time when administered to patients receiving chronic warfarin treatment.
Pregnancy Category X
Atorvastatin calcium tablets is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides increase during normal pregnancy. Lipid lowering drugs offer no benefit during pregnancy because cholesterol and cholesterol derivatives are needed for normal fetal development. Atherosclerosis is a chronic process, and discontinuation of lipid-lowering drugs during pregnancy should have little impact on long-term outcomes of primary hypercholesterolemia therapy.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of atorvastatin use during pregnancy. There have been rare reports of congenital anomalies following intrauterine exposure to statins. In a review of about 100 prospectively followed pregnancies in women exposed to other statins, the incidences of congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortions, and fetal deaths/stillbirths did not exceed the rate expected in the general population. However, this study was only able to exclude a three-to-four-fold increased risk of congenital anomalies over background incidence. In 89% of these cases, drug treatment started before pregnancy and stopped during the first trimester when pregnancy was identified.
Atorvastatin crosses the rat placenta and reaches a level in fetal liver equivalent to that of maternal plasma. Atorvastatin was not teratogenic in rats at doses up to 300 mg/kg/day or in rabbits at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day. These doses resulted in multiples of about 30 times (rat) or 20 times (rabbit) the human exposure based on surface area (mg/m 2) [see Contraindications, Pregnancy (4.3)].
In a study in rats given 20, 100, or 225 mg/kg/day, from gestation day 7 through to lactation day 21 (weaning), there was decreased pup survival at birth, neonate, weaning, and maturity in pups of mothers dosed with 225 mg/kg/day. Body weight was decreased on days 4 and 21 in pups of mothers dosed at 100 mg/kg/day; pup body weight was decreased at birth and at days 4, 21, and 91 at 225 mg/kg/day. Pup development was delayed (rotorod performance at 100 mg/kg/day and acoustic startle at 225 mg/kg/day; pinnae detachment and eye-opening at 225 mg/kg/day). These doses correspond to 6 times (100 mg/kg) and 22 times (225 mg/kg) the human AUC at 80 mg/day.
Statins may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Atorvastatin calcium tablets should be administered to women of childbearing potential only when such patients are highly unlikely to conceive and have been informed of the potential hazards. If the woman becomes pregnant while taking atorvastatin calcium tablets, it should be discontinued immediately and the patient advised again as to the potential hazards to the fetus and the lack of known clinical benefit with continued use during pregnancy.
It is not known whether atorvastatin is excreted in human milk, but a small amount of another drug in this class does pass into breast milk. Nursing rat pups had plasma and liver drug levels of 50% and 40%, respectively, of that in their mother's milk. Animal breast milk drug levels may not accurately reflect human breast milk levels. Because another drug in this class passes into human milk and because statins have a potential to cause serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, women requiring atorvastatin calcium tablets treatment should be advised not to nurse their infants [see Contraindications (4)].
Safety and effectiveness in patients 10-17 years of age with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia have been evaluated in a controlled clinical trial of 6 months' duration in adolescent boys and postmenarchal girls. Patients treated with atorvastatin calcium tablets had an adverse experience profile generally similar to that of patients treated with placebo. The most common adverse experiences observed in both groups, regardless of causality assessment, were infections. Doses greater than 20 mg have not been studied in this patient population. In this limited controlled study, there was no significant effect on growth or sexual maturation in boys or on menstrual cycle length in girls [see Clinical Studies (14.6); Adverse Reactions, Pediatric Patients (ages 10-17 years) (6.3); and Dosage and Administration, Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Pediatric Patients (10-17 years of age) (2.2)]. Adolescent females should be counseled on appropriate contraceptive methods while on atorvastatin calcium tablets therapy [see Contraindications, Pregnancy (4.3) and Use in Specific Populations, Pregnancy (8.1)]. Atorvastatin calcium tablets has not been studied in controlled clinical trials involving pre-pubertal patients or patients younger than 10 years of age.
Clinical efficacy with doses up to 80 mg/day for 1 year have been evaluated in an uncontrolled study of patients with homozygous FH including 8 pediatric patients [see Clinical Studies, Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (14.5)].
Of the 39,828 patients who received atorvastatin calcium tablets in clinical studies, 15,813 (40%) were ≥65 years old and 2,800 (7%) were ≥75 years old. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older adults cannot be ruled out. Since advanced age (≥65 years) is a predisposing factor for myopathy, atorvastatin calcium tablets should be prescribed with caution in the elderly.
There is no specific treatment for atorvastatin calcium tablets overdosage. In the event of an overdose, the patient should be treated symptomatically, and supportive measures instituted as required. Due to extensive drug binding to plasma proteins, hemodialysis is not expected to significantly enhance atorvastatin calcium tablets clearance.
Atorvastatin calcium tablets is a synthetic lipid-lowering agent. Atorvastatin is an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, an early and rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis.
Atorvastatin calcium is [R-(R*, R*)]-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-ß, δ-dihydroxy-5-(1-methylethyl)-3-phenyl-4-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]-1H-pyrrole-1-heptanoic acid, calcium salt (2:1) trihydrate. The empirical formula of atorvastatin calcium is (C 33H 34 FN 2O 5) 2Ca•3H 2O and its molecular weight is 1209.42. Its structural formula is:
Atorvastatin calcium is a white to off-white crystalline powder that is insoluble in aqueous solutions of pH 4 and below. Atorvastatin calcium is very slightly soluble in distilled water, pH 7.4 phosphate buffer, and acetonitrile; slightly soluble in ethanol; and freely soluble in methanol.
Atorvastatin calcium tablets for oral administration contain 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg atorvastatin and the following inactive ingredients: amino methacrylate copolymer, colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, sodium stearyl fumarate, talc, titanium dioxide.
Atorvastatin calcium tablets is a selective, competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme that converts 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to mevalonate, a precursor of sterols, including cholesterol. Cholesterol and triglycerides circulate in the bloodstream as part of lipoprotein complexes. With ultracentrifugation, these complexes separate into HDL (high-density lipoprotein), IDL (intermediate-density lipoprotein), LDL (low-density lipoprotein), and VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) fractions. Triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol in the liver are incorporated into VLDL and released into the plasma for delivery to peripheral tissues. LDL is formed from VLDL and is catabolized primarily through the high-affinity LDL receptor. Clinical and pathologic studies show that elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol (total-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (apo B) promote human atherosclerosis and are risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease, while increased levels of HDL-C are associated with a decreased cardiovascular risk.
In animal models, atorvastatin calcium tablets lower plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol synthesis in the liver and by increasing the number of hepatic LDL receptors on the cell surface to enhance uptake and catabolism of LDL; atorvastatin calcium tablets also reduces LDL production and the number of LDL particles. Atorvastatin calcium tablets reduces LDL-C in some patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), a population that rarely responds to other lipid-lowering medication(s).
A variety of clinical studies have demonstrated that elevated levels of total-C, LDL-C, and apo B (a membrane complex for LDL-C) promote human atherosclerosis. Similarly, decreased levels of HDL-C (and its transport complex, apo A) are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Epidemiologic investigations have established that cardiovascular morbidity and mortality vary directly with the level of total-C and LDL-C, and inversely with the level of HDL-C.
Atorvastatin calcium tablets reduces total-C, LDL-C, and apo B in patients with homozygous and heterozygous FH, nonfamilial forms of hypercholesterolemia, and mixed dyslipidemia. Atorvastatin calcium tablets also reduces VLDL-C and TG and produces variable increases in HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1. Atorvastatin calcium tablets reduces total-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, apo B, TG, and non-HDL-C, and increases HDL-C in patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia. Atorvastatin calcium tablets reduces intermediate density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C) in patients with dysbetalipoproteinemia.
Like LDL, cholesterol-enriched triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, including VLDL, intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and remnants, can also promote atherosclerosis. Elevated plasma triglycerides are frequently found in a triad with low HDL-C levels and small LDL particles, as well as in association with non-lipid metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease. As such, total plasma TG has not consistently been shown to be an independent risk factor for CHD. Furthermore, the independent effect of raising HDL or lowering TG on the risk of coronary and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been determined.
Atorvastatin calcium tablets, as well as some of its metabolites, are pharmacologically active in humans. The liver is the primary site of action and the principal site of cholesterol synthesis and LDL clearance. Drug dosage, rather than systemic drug concentration, correlates better with LDL-C reduction. Individualization of drug dosage should be based on therapeutic response [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
Absorption: Atorvastatin calcium tablets is rapidly absorbed after oral administration; maximum plasma concentrations occur within 1 to 2 hours. Extent of absorption increases in proportion to atorvastatin calcium tablets dose. The absolute bioavailability of atorvastatin (parent drug) is approximately 14% and the systemic availability of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity is approximately 30%. The low systemic availability is attributed to presystemic clearance in gastrointestinal mucosa and/or hepatic first-pass metabolism. Although food decreases the rate and extent of drug absorption by approximately 25% and 9%, respectively, as assessed by Cmax and AUC, LDL-C reduction is similar whether atorvastatin calcium tablets is given with or without food. Plasma atorvastatin calcium tablets concentrations are lower (approximately 30% for Cmax and AUC) following evening drug administration compared with morning. However, LDL-C reduction is the same regardless of the time of day of drug administration [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
Distribution: Mean volume of distribution of atorvastatin calcium tablets is approximately 381 liters. Atorvastatin calcium tablets is ≥98% bound to plasma proteins. A blood/plasma ratio of approximately 0.25 indicates poor drug penetration into red blood cells. Based on observations in rats, atorvastatin calcium tablets is likely to be secreted in human milk [see Contraindications, Nursing Mothers (4.4) and Use in Specific Populations, Nursing Mothers (8.3)].
Metabolism: Atorvastatin calcium tablets is extensively metabolized to ortho- and parahydroxylated derivatives and various beta-oxidation products. In vitro inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by ortho- and parahydroxylated metabolites is equivalent to that of atorvastatin calcium tablets. Approximately 70% of circulating inhibitory activity for HMG-CoA reductase is attributed to active metabolites. In vitro studies suggest the importance of atorvastatin calcium tablets metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4, consistent with increased plasma concentrations of atorvastatin calcium tablets in humans following co-administration with erythromycin, a known inhibitor of this isozyme [see Drug Interactions (7.1)]. In animals, the ortho-hydroxy metabolite undergoes further glucuronidation.
Excretion: Atorvastatin calcium tablets and its metabolites are eliminated primarily in bile following hepatic and/or extra-hepatic metabolism; however, the drug does not appear to undergo enterohepatic recirculation. Mean plasma elimination half-life of atorvastatin calcium tablets in humans is approximately 14 hours, but the half-life of inhibitory activity for HMG-CoA reductase is 20 to 30 hours due to the contribution of active metabolites. Less than 2% of a dose of atorvastatin calcium tablets is recovered in urine following oral administration.
Geriatric: Plasma concentrations of atorvastatin calcium tablets are higher (approximately 40% for Cmax and 30% for AUC) in healthy elderly subjects (age ≥65 years) than in young adults. Clinical data suggest a greater degree of LDL-lowering at any dose of drug in the elderly patient population compared to younger adults [see Use in Specific Populations, Geriatric Use (8.5)].
Gender: Plasma concentrations of atorvastatin calcium tablets in women differ from those in men (approximately 20% higher for Cmax and 10% lower for AUC); however, there is no clinically significant difference in LDL-C reduction with atorvastatin calcium tablets between men and women.
Renal Impairment: Renal disease has no influence on the plasma concentrations or LDL-C reduction of atorvastatin calcium tablets; thus, dose adjustment in patients with renal dysfunction is not necessary [see Dosage and Administration, Dosage in Patients with Renal Impairment (2.5), Warnings and Precautions, Skeletal Muscle (5.1)].
Hemodialysis: While studies have not been conducted in patients with end-stage renal disease, hemodialysis is not expected to significantly enhance clearance of atorvastatin calcium tablets since the drug is extensively bound to plasma proteins.
Hepatic Impairment: In patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease, plasma concentrations of atorvastatin calcium tablets are markedly increased. Cmax and AUC are each 4-fold greater in patients with Childs-Pugh A disease. Cmax and AUC are approximately 16-fold and 11-fold increased, respectively, in patients with Childs-Pugh B disease [see Contraindications (4.1)].
|Co-administered drug and dosing regimen||Atorvastatin|
|Dose (mg)||Change in AUC*||Change in Cmax*|
|† Cyclosporine 5.2 mg/kg/day, stable dose||10 mg QD for 28 days||↑ 8.7 fold||↑10.7 fold|
|† Tipranavir 500 mg BID/ ritonavir 200 mg BID, 7 days||10 mg, SD||↑ 9.4 fold||↑ 8.6 fold|
|† Telaprevir 750 mg q8h, 10 days||20 mg, SD||↑ 7.88 fold||↑ 10.6 fold|
|†,‡ Saquinavir 400 mg BID/ ritonavir 400mg BID, 15 days||40 mg QD for 4 days||↑ 3.9 fold||↑ 4.3 fold|
|† Clarithromycin 500 mg BID, 9 days||80 mg QD for 8 days||↑ 4.4 fold||↑ 5.4 fold|
|† Darunavir 300 mg BID/ritonavir 100 mg BID, 9 days||10 mg QD for 4 days||↑ 3.4 fold||↑ 2.25 fold|
|† Itraconazole 200 mg QD, 4 days||40 mg SD||↑ 3.3 fold||↑ 20%|
|† Fosamprenavir 700 mg BID/ ritonavir 100 mg BID, 14 days||10 mg QD for 4 days||↑ 2.53 fold||↑ 2.84 fold|
|† Fosamprenavir 1400 mg BID, 14 days||10 mg QD for 4 days||↑ 2.3 fold||↑ 4.04 fold|
|† Nelfinavir 1250 mg BID, 14 days||10 mg QD for 28 days||↑ 74%||↑ 2.2 fold|
|† Grapefruit Juice, 240 mL QD §||40 mg, SD||↑ 37%||↑ 16%|
|Diltiazem 240 mg QD, 28 days||40 mg, SD||↑ 51%||No change|
|Erythromycin 500 mg QID, 7 days||10 mg, SD||↑ 33%||↑ 38%|
|Amlodipine 10 mg, single dose||80 mg, SD||↑ 15%||↓ 12 %|
|Cimetidine 300 mg QD, 2 weeks||10 mg QD for 2 weeks||↓ Less than 1%||↓ 11%|
|Colestipol 10 mg BID, 28 weeks||40 mg QD for 28 weeks||Not determined||↓ 26% ¶|
|Maalox TC® 30 mL QD, 17 days||10 mg QD for 15 days||↓ 33%||↓ 34%|
|Efavirenz 600 mg QD, 14 days||10 mg for 3 days||↓ 41%||↓ 1%|
|† Rifampin 600 mg QD, 7 days (co-administered) #||40 mg SD||↑ 30%||↑ 2.7 fold|
|† Rifampin 600 mg QD, 5 days (doses separated) #||40 mg SD||↓ 80%||↓ 40%|
|† Gemfibrozil 600 mg BID, 7 days||40 mg SD||↑ 35%||↓ Less than 1%|
|† Fenofibrate 160 mg QD, 7 days||40 mg SD||↑ 3%||↑ 2%|
|Boceprevir 800 mg TID, 7 days||40 mg SD||↑ 2.30 fold||↑ 2.66 fold|
|Atorvastatin||Co-administered drug and dosing regimen|
|Drug/Dose (mg)||Change in AUC||Change in Cmax|
|80 mg QD for 15 days||Antipyrine, 600 mg SD||↑ 3%||↓ 11%|
|80 mg QD for 14 days||* Digoxin 0.25 mg QD, 20 days||↑ 15%||↑ 20 %|
|40 mg QD for 22 days|| Oral contraceptive QD, 2 months
- norethindrone 1mg
- ethinyl estradiol 35μg
|10 mg, SD||Tipranavir 500 mg BID/ritonavir 200 mg BID, 7 days||No change||No change|
|10 mg QD for 4 days||Fosamprenavir 1400 mg BID, 14 days||↓ 27%||↓ 18%|
|10 mg QD for 4 days||Fosamprenavir 700 mg BID/ritonavir 100 mg BID, 14 days||No change||No change|
In a 2-year carcinogenicity study in rats at dose levels of 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg/day, 2 rare tumors were found in muscle in high-dose females: in one, there was a rhabdomyosarcoma and, in another, there was a fibrosarcoma. This dose represents a plasma AUC (0-24) value of approximately 16 times the mean human plasma drug exposure after an 80 mg oral dose.
A 2-year carcinogenicity study in mice given 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg/day resulted in a significant increase in liver adenomas in high-dose males and liver carcinomas in high-dose females. These findings occurred at plasma AUC (0–24) values of approximately 6 times the mean human plasma drug exposure after an 80 mg oral dose.
In vitro, atorvastatin was not mutagenic or clastogenic in the following tests with and without metabolic activation: the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, the HGPRT forward mutation assay in Chinese hamster lung cells, and the chromosomal aberration assay in Chinese hamster lung cells. Atorvastatin was negative in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test.
Studies in rats performed at doses up to 175 mg/kg (15 times the human exposure) produced no changes in fertility. There was aplasia and aspermia in the epididymis of 2 of 10 rats treated with 100 mg/kg/day of atorvastatin for 3 months (16 times the human AUC at the 80 mg dose); testis weights were significantly lower at 30 and 100 mg/kg and epididymal weight was lower at 100 mg/kg. Male rats given 100 mg/kg/day for 11 weeks prior to mating had decreased sperm motility, spermatid head concentration, and increased abnormal sperm. Atorvastatin caused no adverse effects on semen parameters, or reproductive organ histopathology in dogs given doses of 10, 40, or 120 mg/kg for two years.
In the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT), the effect of atorvastatin calcium tablets on fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease was assessed in 10,305 hypertensive patients 40-80 years of age (mean of 63 years), without a previous myocardial infarction and with TC levels ≤251 mg/dL (6.5 mmol/L). Additionally all patients had at least 3 of the following cardiovascular risk factors: male gender (81.1%), age >55 years (84.5%), smoking (33.2%), diabetes (24.3%), history of CHD in a first-degree relative (26%), TC:HDL >6 (14.3%), peripheral vascular disease (5.1%), left ventricular hypertrophy (14.4%), prior cerebrovascular event (9.8%), specific ECG abnormality (14.3%), proteinuria/albuminuria (62.4%). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients were treated with anti-hypertensive therapy (Goal BP <140/90 mm Hg for non-diabetic patients, <130/80 mm Hg for diabetic patients) and allocated to either atorvastatin calcium tablets 10 mg daily (n=5168) or placebo (n=5137), using a covariate adaptive method which took into account the distribution of nine baseline characteristics of patients already enrolled and minimized the imbalance of those characteristics across the groups. Patients were followed for a median duration of 3.3 years.
The effect of 10 mg/day of atorvastatin calcium tablets on lipid levels was similar to that seen in previous clinical trials.
Atorvastatin calcium tablets significantly reduced the rate of coronary events [either fatal coronary heart disease (46 events in the placebo group vs. 40 events in the atorvastatin calcium tablets group) or non-fatal MI (108 events in the placebo group vs. 60 events in the atorvastatin calcium tablets group)] with a relative risk reduction of 36% [(based on incidences of 1.9% for atorvastatin calcium tablets vs. 3.0% for placebo), p=0.0005 (see Figure 1)]. The risk reduction was consistent regardless of age, smoking status, obesity or presence of renal dysfunction. The effect of atorvastatin calcium tablets was seen regardless of baseline LDL levels. Due to the small number of events, results for women were inconclusive.
Figure 1: Effect of Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets 10 mg/day on Cumulative Incidence of Non-Fatal Myocardial Infarction or Coronary Heart Disease Death (in ASCOT-LLA)
Atorvastatin calcium tablets also significantly decreased the relative risk for revascularization procedures by 42%. Although the reduction of fatal and non-fatal strokes did not reach a pre-defined significance level (p=0.01), a favorable trend was observed with a 26% relative risk reduction (incidences of 1.7% for atorvastatin calcium tablets and 2.3% for placebo). There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for death due to cardiovascular causes (p=0.51) or noncardiovascular causes (p=0.17).
In the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS), the effect of atorvastatin calcium tablets on cardiovascular disease (CVD) endpoints was assessed in 2838 subjects (94% white, 68% male), ages 40-75 with type 2 diabetes based on WHO criteria, without prior history of cardiovascular disease and with LDL ≤160 mg/dL and TG ≤600 mg/dL. In addition to diabetes, subjects had 1 or more of the following risk factors: current smoking (23%), hypertension (80%), retinopathy (30%), or microalbuminuria (9%) or macroalbuminuria (3%). No subjects on hemodialysis were enrolled in the study. In this multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial, subjects were randomly allocated to either atorvastatin calcium tablets 10 mg daily (1429) or placebo (1411) in a 1:1 ratio and were followed for a median duration of 3.9 years. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of any of the major cardiovascular events: myocardial infarction, acute CHD death, unstable angina, coronary revascularization, or stroke. The primary analysis was the time to first occurrence of the primary endpoint.
Baseline characteristics of subjects were: mean age of 62 years, mean HbA1c 7.7%; median LDL-C 120 mg/dL; median TC 207 mg/dL; median TG 151 mg/dL; median HDL-C 52mg/dL.
The effect of atorvastatin calcium tablets 10 mg/day on lipid levels was similar to that seen in previous clinical trials.
Atorvastatin calcium tablets significantly reduced the rate of major cardiovascular events (primary endpoint events) (83 events in the atorvastatin calcium tablets group vs. 127 events in the placebo group) with a relative risk reduction of 37%, HR 0.63, 95% CI (0.48, 0.83) (p=0.001) (see Figure 2). An effect of atorvastatin calcium tablets was seen regardless of age, sex, or baseline lipid levels.
Atorvastatin calcium tablets significantly reduced the risk of stroke by 48% (21 events in the atorvastatin calcium tablets group vs. 39 events in the placebo group), HR 0.52, 95% CI (0.31, 0.89) (p=0.016) and reduced the risk of MI by 42% (38 events in the atorvastatin calcium tablets group vs. 64 events in the placebo group), HR 0.58, 95.1% CI (0.39, 0.86) (p=0.007). There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for angina, revascularization procedures, and acute CHD death.
There were 61 deaths in the atorvastatin calcium tablets group vs. 82 deaths in the placebo group (HR 0.73, p=0.059).
Figure 2. Effect of Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets 10 mg/day on Time to Occurrence of Major Cardiovascular Event (myocardial infarction, acute CHD death, unstable angina, coronary revascularization, or stroke) in CARDS.
In the Treating to New Targets Study (TNT), the effect of atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg/day vs. atorvastatin calcium tablets 10 mg/day on the reduction in cardiovascular events was assessed in 10,001 subjects (94% white, 81% male, 38% ≥65 years) with clinically evident coronary heart disease who had achieved a target LDL-C level <130 mg/dL after completing an 8-week, open-label, run-in period with atorvastatin calcium tablets 10 mg/day. Subjects were randomly assigned to either 10 mg/day or 80 mg/day of atorvastatin calcium tablets and followed for a median duration of 4.9 years. The primary endpoint was the time-to-first occurrence of any of the following major cardiovascular events (MCVE): death due to CHD, non-fatal myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, and fatal and non-fatal stroke. The mean LDL-C, TC, TG, non-HDL, and HDL cholesterol levels at 12 weeks were 73, 145, 128, 98, and 47 mg/dL during treatment with 80 mg of atorvastatin calcium tablets and 99, 177, 152, 129, and 48 mg/dL during treatment with 10 mg of atorvastatin calcium tablets.
Treatment with atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg/day significantly reduced the rate of MCVE (434 events in the 80 mg/day group vs. 548 events in the 10 mg/day group) with a relative risk reduction of 22%, HR 0.78, 95% CI (0.69, 0.89), p=0.0002 (see Figure 3 and Table 5). The overall risk reduction was consistent regardless of age (<65, ≥65) or gender.
Figure 3: Effect of Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets 80 mg/day vs. 10 mg/day on Time to Occurrence of Major Cardiovascular Events (TNT)
|HR * (95%CI)|
|HR=hazard ratio; CHD=coronary heart disease; CI=confidence interval; MI=myocardial infarction; CHF=congestive heart failure; CV=cardiovascular; PVD=peripheral vascular disease; CABG=coronary artery bypass graft|
|Confidence intervals for the Secondary Endpoints were not adjusted for multiple comparisons|
|First major cardiovascular endpoint||548||(10.9)||434||(8.7)||0.78 (0.69, 0.89)|
|Components of the Primary Endpoint|
|CHD death||127||(2.5)||101||(2.0)||0.80 (0.61, 1.03)|
|Non-fatal, non-procedure related MI||308||(6.2)||243||(4.9)||0.78 (0.66, 0.93)|
|Resuscitated cardiac arrest||26||(0.5)||25||(0.5)||0.96 (0.56, 1.67)|
|Stroke (fatal and non-fatal)||155||(3.1)||117||(2.3)||0.75 (0.59, 0.96)|
|First CHF with hospitalization||164||(3.3)||122||(2.4)||0.74 (0.59, 0.94)|
|First PVD endpoint||282||(5.6)||275||(5.5)||0.97 (0.83, 1.15)|
|First CABG or other coronary revascularization procedure ‡||904||(18.1)||667||(13.4)||0.72 (0.65, 0.80)|
|First documented angina endpoint ‡||615||(12.3)||545||(10.9)||0.88 (0.79, 0.99)|
|All-cause mortality||282||(5.6)||284||(5.7)||1.01 (0.85, 1.19)|
|Components of All-Cause Mortality|
|Cardiovascular death||155||(3.1)||126||(2.5)||0.81 (0.64, 1.03)|
|Noncardiovascular death||127||(2.5)||158||(3.2)||1.25 (0.99, 1.57)|
|Cancer death||75||(1.5)||85||(1.7)||1.13 (0.83, 1.55)|
|Other non-CV death||43||(0.9)||58||(1.2)||1.35 (0.91, 2.00)|
|Suicide, homicide, and other traumatic non-CV death||9||(0.2)||15||(0.3)||1.67 (0.73, 3.82)|
Of the events that comprised the primary efficacy endpoint, treatment with atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg/day significantly reduced the rate of non-fatal, non-procedure related MI and fatal and non-fatal stroke, but not CHD death or resuscitated cardiac arrest (Table 5). Of the predefined secondary endpoints, treatment with atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg/day significantly reduced the rate of coronary revascularization, angina, and hospitalization for heart failure, but not peripheral vascular disease. The reduction in the rate of CHF with hospitalization was only observed in the 8% of patients with a prior history of CHF.
There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for all-cause mortality (Table 5). The proportions of subjects who experienced cardiovascular death, including the components of CHD death and fatal stroke, were numerically smaller in the atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg group than in the atorvastatin calcium tablets 10 mg treatment group. The proportions of subjects who experienced noncardiovascular death were numerically larger in the atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg group than in the atorvastatin calcium tablets 10 mg treatment group.
In the Incremental Decrease in Endpoints Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Study (IDEAL), treatment with atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg/day was compared to treatment with simvastatin 20-40 mg/day in 8,888 subjects up to 80 years of age with a history of CHD to assess whether reduction in CV risk could be achieved. Patients were mainly male (81%), white (99%) with an average age of 61.7 years, and an average LDL-C of 121.5 mg/dL at randomization; 76% were on statin therapy. In this prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint (PROBE) trial with no run-in period, subjects were followed for a median duration of 4.8 years. The mean LDL-C, TC, TG, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels at Week 12 were 78, 145, 115, 45, and 100 mg/dL during treatment with 80 mg of atorvastatin calcium tablets and 105, 179, 142, 47, and 132 mg/dL during treatment with 20-40 mg of simvastatin.
There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for the primary endpoint, the rate of first major coronary event (fatal CHD, non-fatal MI, and resuscitated cardiac arrest): 411 (9.3%) in the atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg/day group vs. 463 (10.4%) in the simvastatin 20-40 mg/day group, HR 0.89, 95% CI ( 0.78, 1.01), p=0.07.
There were no significant differences between the treatment groups for all-cause mortality: 366 (8.2%) in the atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg/day group vs. 374 (8.4%) in the simvastatin 20-40 mg/day group. The proportions of subjects who experienced CV or non-CV death were similar for the atorvastatin calcium tablets 80 mg group and the simvastatin 20-40 mg group.
Atorvastatin calcium tablets reduce s total-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, apo B, and TG, and increases HDL-C in patients with hyperlipidemia and mixed dyslipidemia. Therapeutic response is seen within 2 weeks, and maximum response is usually achieved within 4 weeks and maintained during chronic therapy.
Atorvastatin calcium tablets is effective in a wide variety of patient populations with hyperlipidemia, with and without hypertriglyceridemia, in men and women, and in the elderly.
In two multicenter, placebo-controlled, dose-response studies in patients with hyperlipidemia, atorvastatin calcium tablets given as a single dose over 6 weeks, significantly reduced total-C, LDL-C, apo B, and TG (Pooled results are provided in Table 6).
|Dose||N||TC||LDL-C||Apo B||TG||HDL-C|| Non-HDL-
In patients with Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb hyperlipoproteinemia pooled from 24 controlled trials, the median (25 th and 75 th percentile) percent changes from baseline in HDL-C for atorvastatin calcium tablets 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg were 6.4 (-1.4, 14), 8.7 (0, 17), 7.8 (0, 16), and 5.1 (-2.7, 15), respectively. Additionally, analysis of the pooled data demonstrated consistent and significant decreases in total-C, LDL-C, TG, total-C/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C.
In three multicenter, double-blind studies in patients with hyperlipidemia, atorvastatin calcium tablets was compared to other statins. After randomization, patients were treated for 16 weeks with either atorvastatin calcium tablets 10 mg per day or a fixed dose of the comparative agent (Table 7).
|N||Total-C||LDL-C||Apo B||TG||HDL-C|| Non-HDL-C/
Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets
|707||-27 *||-36 *||-28 *||-17 *||+7||-37 *|
|Lovastatin 20 mg 95% CI for Diff †||191|| -19
Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets
|222||-25 ‡||-35 ‡||-27 ‡||-17 ‡||+6||-36 ‡|
|Pravastatin 20 mg 95% CI for Diff †||77|| -17
Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets
|132||-29 §||-37 §||-34 §||-23 §||+7||-39 §|
|Simvastatin 10 mg 95% CI for Diff †||45|| -24
The impact on clinical outcomes of the differences in lipid-altering effects between treatments shown in Table 7 is not known. Table 7 does not contain data comparing the effects of atorvastatin calcium tablets 10 mg and higher doses of lovastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin. The drugs compared in the studies summarized in the table are not necessarily interchangeable.
The response to atorvastatin calcium tablets in 64 patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia treated across several clinical trials is shown in the table below (Table 8). For the atorvastatin calcium tablets-treated patients, median (min, max) baseline TG level was 565 (267–1502).
| Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets
| Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets
| Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets
|Triglycerides||-12.4 (-36.6, 82.7)||-41.0 (-76.2, 49.4)||-38.7 (-62.7, 29.5)||-51.8 (-82.8, 41.3)|
|Total-C||-2.3 (-15.5, 24.4)||-28.2 (-44.9, -6.8)||-34.9 (-49.6, -15.2)||-44.4 (-63.5, -3.8)|
|LDL-C||3.6 (-31.3, 31.6)||-26.5 (-57.7, 9.8)||-30.4 (-53.9, 0.3)||-40.5 (-60.6, -13.8)|
|HDL-C||3.8 (-18.6, 13.4)||13.8 (-9.7, 61.5)||11.0 (-3.2, 25.2)||7.5 (-10.8, 37.2)|
|VLDL-C||-1.0 (-31.9, 53.2)||-48.8 (-85.8, 57.3)||-44.6 (-62.2, -10.8)||-62.0 (-88.2, 37.6)|
|non-HDL-C||-2.8 (-17.6, 30.0)||-33.0 (-52.1, -13.3)||-42.7 (-53.7, -17.4)||-51.5 (-72.9, -4.3)|
The results of an open-label crossover study of 16 patients (genotypes: 14 apo E2/E2 and 2 apo E3/E2) with dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III) are shown in the table below (Table 9).
|Median % Change (min, max)|
|Median (min, max) at Baseline (mg/dL)|| Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets
| Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets
|Total-C||442 (225, 1320)||-37 (-85, 17)||-58 (-90, -31)|
|Triglycerides||678 (273, 5990)||-39 (-92, -8)||-53 (-95, -30)|
|IDL-C + VLDL-C||215 (111, 613)||-32 (-76, 9)||-63 (-90, -8)|
|non-HDL-C||411 (218, 1272)||-43 (-87, -19)||-64 (-92, -36)|
In a study without a concurrent control group, 29 patients ages 6 to 37 years with homozygous FH received maximum daily doses of 20 to 80 mg of atorvastatin calcium tablets. The mean LDL-C reduction in this study was 18%. Twenty-five patients with a reduction in LDL-C had a mean response of 20% (range of 7% to 53%, median of 24%); the remaining 4 patients had 7% to 24% increases in LDL-C. Five of the 29 patients had absent LDL-receptor function. Of these, 2 patients also had a portacaval shunt and had no significant reduction in LDL-C. The remaining 3 receptor-negative patients had a mean LDL-C reduction of 22%.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study followed by an open-label phase, 187 boys and postmenarchal girls 10-17 years of age (mean age 14.1 years) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) or severe hypercholesterolemia, were randomized to atorvastatin calcium tablets (n=140) or placebo (n=47) for 26 weeks and then all received atorvastatin calcium tablets for 26 weeks. Inclusion in the study required 1) a baseline LDL-C level ≥ 190 mg/dL or 2) a baseline LDL-C level ≥ 160 mg/dL and positive family history of FH or documented premature cardiovascular disease in a first or second-degree relative. The mean baseline LDL-C value was 218.6 mg/dL (range: 138.5–385.0 mg/dL) in the atorvastatin calcium tablets group compared to 230.0 mg/dL (range: 160.0–324.5 mg/dL) in the placebo group. The dosage of atorvastatin calcium tablets (once daily) was 10 mg for the first 4 weeks and uptitrated to 20 mg if the LDL-C level was > 130 mg/dL. The number of atorvastatin calcium tablets-treated patients who required uptitration to 20 mg after Week 4 during the double-blind phase was 78 (55.7%).
Atorvastatin calcium tablets significantly decreased plasma levels of total-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B during the 26-week double-blind phase (see Table 10).
|Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets||140||-31.4||-39.6||2.8||-12.0||-34.0|
The mean achieved LDL-C value was 130.7 mg/dL (range: 70.0–242.0 mg/dL) in the atorvastatin calcium tablets group compared to 228.5 mg/dL (range: 152.0–385.0 mg/dL) in the placebo group during the 26-week double-blind phase.
The safety and efficacy of doses above 20 mg have not been studied in controlled trials in children. The long-term efficacy of atorvastatin calcium tablets therapy in childhood to reduce morbidity and mortality in adulthood has not been established.
1 National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP): Highlights of the Report of the Expert Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels in Children and Adolescents, Pediatrics. 89(3):495-501. 1992.
Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets are supplied as white, round, film-coated tablets of atorvastatin calcium containing 20mg atorvastatin.
20 mg tablets: debossed with "2" on one side and plain on the other.
|NDC 68071-1915-3||bottles of 30|
|NDC 68071-1915-6||bottles of 60|
Patients taking Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets should be advised that cholesterol is a chronic condition and they should adhere to their medication along with their National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-recommended diet, a regular exercise program as appropriate, and periodic testing of a fasting lipid panel to determine goal attainment.
Patients should be advised about substances they should not take concomitantly with atorvastatin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] . Patients should also be advised to inform other healthcare professionals prescribing a new medication that they are taking Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets.
All patients starting therapy with Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets should be advised of the risk of myopathy and told to report promptly any unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever or if these muscle signs or symptoms persist after discontinuing Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets. The risk of this occurring is increased when taking certain types of medication or consuming larger quantities (>1 liter) of grapefruit juice. They should discuss all medication, both prescription and over the counter, with their healthcare professional.
It is recommended that liver enzyme tests be performed before the initiation Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets and if signs or symptoms of liver injury occur. All patients treated with Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets should be advised to report promptly any symptoms that may indicate liver injury, including fatigue, anorexia, right upper abdominal discomfort, dark urine, or jaundice.
Women of childbearing age should be advised to use an effective method of birth control to prevent pregnancy while using Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets. Discuss future pregnancy plans with your patients, and discuss when to stop Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets if they are trying to conceive. Patients should be advised that if they become pregnant, they should stop taking Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets and call their healthcare professional.
Kremers Urban Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
Rev. 6E 09/2015
Atorvastatin Calcium (a-TOR-va STAT-in KAL-see-um) Tablets
Rev. 3E 09/2014
Read the Patient Information that comes with Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets before you start taking it and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This leaflet does not take the place of talking with your doctor about your condition or treatment.
If you have any questions about Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
What is Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets?
Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets is a prescription medicine that lowers cholesterol in your blood. It lowers the LDL-C ("bad" cholesterol) and triglycerides in your blood. It can raise your HDL-C ("good" cholesterol) as well. Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets is for adults and children over 10 whose cholesterol does not come down enough with exercise and a low-fat diet alone.
Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets can lower the risk for heart attack, stroke, certain types of heart surgery, and chest pain in patients who have heart disease or risk factors for heart disease such as:
∙ age, smoking, high blood pressure, low HDL-C, heart disease in the family.
Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets can lower the risk for heart attack or stroke in patients with diabetes and risk factors such as:
∙ eye problems, kidney problems, smoking, or high blood pressure.
Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets start to work in about 2 weeks.
What is Cholesterol?
Cholesterol and triglycerides are fats that are made in your body. They are also found in foods. You need some cholesterol for good health, but too much is not good for you. Cholesterol and triglycerides can clog your blood vessels. It is especially important to lower your cholesterol if you have heart disease, smoke, have diabetes or high blood pressure, are older, or if heart disease starts early in your family.
Who Should Not Take Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets?
Do not take Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets if you:
Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets have not been studied in children under 10 years of age.
Before You Start Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets
Tell your doctor if you:
Some medicines should not be taken with Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets. Tell your doctor about all the medicines you take, including prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets and certain other medicines can interact causing serious side effects. Especially tell your doctor if you take medicines for:
Know all the medicines you take. Keep a list of them with you to show your doctor and pharmacist.
How Should I Take Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets?
Don't break Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets before taking.
What Should I Avoid While Taking Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets?
What are the Possible Side Effects of Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets?
Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets can cause serious side effects. These side effects have happened only to a small number of people. Your doctor can monitor you for them. These side effects usually go away if your dose is lowered or Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets is stopped. These serious side effects include:
Call your doctor right away if you have:
In clinical studies, patients reported the following common side effects while taking Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets: diarrhea, upset stomach, muscle and joint pain, and alterations in some laboratory blood tests.
The following additional side effects have been reported with Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets: tiredness, tendon problems, memory loss, and confusion.
Talk to your doctor or pharmacist if you have side effects that bother you or that will not go away.
These are not all the side effects of Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for a complete list.
How do I store Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets?
General Information About Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for conditions that are not mentioned in patient information leaflets. Do not use Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets to other people, even if they have the same problem you have. It may harm them.
This leaflet summarizes the most important information about Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets. If you would like more information, talk with your doctor. You can ask your doctor or pharmacist for information about Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets that is written for health professionals. Or you can go to www.kremersurban.com.
What are the Ingredients in Atorvastatin Calcium Tablets?
Active Ingredient: atorvastatin calcium
Inactive Ingredients: amino methacrylate copolymer, colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, sodium stearyl fumarate, talc, titanium dioxide.
Kremers Urban Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
CIA75884B Rev. 2E 11/2012
atorvastatin calcium tablet, film coated
|Labeler - NuCare Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (010632300)|
|NuCare Pharmaceuticals ,Inc.||010632300||repack(68071-1915)|