TOLMETIN SODIUM- tolmetin sodium tablet, film coated
Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Each tablet for oral administration contains 738 mg of tolmetin sodium, USP as the dihydrate in an amount equivalent to 600 mg of tolmetin. Each tablet contains 54 mg (2.35 mEq) of sodium and the following inactive ingredients: black iron oxide, crospovidone, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polydextrose, polyethylene glycol, povidone, pregelatinized starch (corn), sodium lauryl sulfate, titanium dioxide, triacetin and yellow iron oxide.
The pKa of tolmetin is 3.5 and tolmetin sodium is freely soluble in water.
Tolmetin sodium is a nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent. The structural formula is:
Sodium 1-methyl-5 p-toluoylpyrrole-2-acetate dihydrate
Molecular Formula: C15H14NNaO3.2H2O
Studies in animals have shown tolmetin sodium to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. In the rat, tolmetin prevents the development of experimentally induced polyarthritis and also decreases established inflammation.
The mode of action of tolmetin is not known. However, studies in laboratory animals and man have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory action of tolmetin is not due to pituitary-adrenal stimulation. Tolmetin inhibits prostaglandin synthetase in vitro and lowers the plasma level of prostaglandin E in man. This reduction in prostaglandin synthesis may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory action. Tolmetin does not appear to alter the course of the underlying disease in man.
In patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in normal volunteers, tolmetin sodium is rapidly and almost completely absorbed with peak plasma levels being reached within 30 to 60 minutes after an oral therapeutic dose. In controlled studies, the time to reach peak tolmetin plasma concentration is approximately 20 minutes longer following administration of a 600 mg tablet, compared to an equivalent dose given as 200 mg tablets. The clinical meaningfulness of this finding, if any, is unknown. Tolmetin displays a biphasic elimination from the plasma consisting of a rapid phase with a half-life of 1 to 2 hours followed by a slower phase with a half-life of about 5 hours. Peak plasma levels of approximately 40 mcg/mL are obtained with a 400 mg oral dose. Essentially all of the administered dose is recovered in the urine in 24 hours either as an inactive oxidative metabolite or as conjugates of tolmetin. An 18-day multiple-dose study demonstrated no accumulation of tolmetin when compared with a single dose.
In two fecal blood loss studies of 4 to 6 days duration involving 15 subjects each, tolmetin did not induce an increase in blood loss over that observed during a 4-day drug free control period. In the same studies, aspirin produced a greater blood loss than occurred during the drug free control period, and a greater blood loss than occurred during the tolmetin sodium treatment period. In one of the two studies, indomethacin produced a greater fecal blood loss than occurred during the drug free control period; in the second study, indomethacin did not induce a significant increase in blood loss.
Tolmetin is effective in treating both the acute flares and in the long-term management of the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
In patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis, tolmetin is as effective as aspirin and indomethacin in controlling disease activity, but the frequency of the milder gastrointestinal adverse effects and tinnitus was less than in aspirin-treated patients, and the incidence of central nervous system adverse effects was less than in indomethacin-treated patients.
In patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, tolmetin is as effective as aspirin in controlling disease activity, with a similar incidence of adverse reactions. Mean SGOT values, initially elevated in patients on previous aspirin therapy, remained elevated in the aspirin group and decreased in the tolmetin group.
Tolmetin has produced additional therapeutic benefit when added to a regimen of gold salts and, to a lesser extent, with corticosteroids. Tolmetin should not be used in conjunction with salicylates since greater benefit from the combination is not likely, but the potential for adverse reactions is increased.
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of tolmetin sodium tablets, USP and other treatment options before deciding to use tolmetin sodium tablets. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).
Tolmetin sodium tablets are indicated for the relief of signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Tolmetin sodium tablets are indicated in the treatment of acute flares and the long-term management of the chronic disease.
Tolmetin sodium tablets are also indicated for treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The safety and effectiveness of tolmetin sodium tablets have not been established in pediatric patients under 2 years of age (see PRECAUTIONS: Pediatric Use and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Tolmetin sodium tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to tolmetin sodium.
Tolmetin should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS: Anaphylactoid Reactions and PRECAUTIONS: General: Preexisting Asthma).
Tolmetin is contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).
Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to 3 years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as tolmetin, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events (see WARNINGS).
Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Observational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV-related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next 4 years of follow-up.
Avoid the use of tolmetin in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If tolmetin is used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.
NSAIDs, including tolmetin, can lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs, including tolmetin, should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.
The Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists’ Collaboration meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials demonstrated an approximately two-fold increase in hospitalizations for heart failure in COX-2 selective-treated patients and nonselective NSAID-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. In a Danish National Registry study of patients with heart failure, NSAID use increased the risk of MI, hospitalization for heart failure, and death.
Additionally, fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients treated with NSAIDs. Use of tolmetin may blunt the CV effects of several therapeutic agents used to treat these medical conditions [e.g., diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)] (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions).
Avoid the use of tolmetin in patients with severe heart failure unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening heart failure. If tolmetin is used in patients with severe heart failure, monitor patients for signs of worsening heart failure.
NSAIDs, including tolmetin, can cause serious gastrointestinal adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3 to 6 months, and in about 2% to 4% of patients treated for one year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk.
NSAIDs should be prescribed with extreme caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk for GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients and therefore, special care should be taken in treating this population.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI adverse event is suspected. This should include discontinuation of the NSAID until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. For high risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered.
Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Acute interstitial nephritis with hematuria, proteinuria, and occasionally nephrotic syndrome have been reported in patients treated with tolmetin.
Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID may cause a dose dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.
No information is available from controlled clinical trials regarding the use of tolmetin in patients with advanced renal disease. Therefore, treatment with tolmetin is not recommended in these patients with advanced renal disease. If tolmetin therapy must be initiated, close monitoring of the patient’s renal function is advisable.
As with other NSAIDs, anaphylactoid reactions may occur in patients with known prior exposure to tolmetin. Tolmetin should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS: General: Preexisting Asthma). Emergency help should be sought in cases where an anaphylactoid reaction occurs.
NSAIDs, including tolmetin, can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.
Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) has been reported in patients taking NSAIDs such as tolmetin sodium tablets. Some of these events have been fatal or life-threatening. DRESS typically, although not exclusively, presents with fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, and/or facial swelling. Other clinical manifestations may include hepatitis, nephritis, hematological abnormalities, myocarditis, or myositis. Sometimes symptoms of DRESS may resemble an acute viral infection. Eosinophilia is often present. Because this disorder is variable in its presentation, other organ systems not noted here may be involved. It is important to note that early manifestations of hypersensitivity, such as fever or lymphadenopathy, may be present even though rash is not evident. If such signs or symptoms are present, discontinue tolmetin sodium tablets and evaluate the patient immediately.
Avoid use of NSAIDs, including tolmetin sodium tablets, in pregnant women at about 30 weeks gestation and later. NSAIDs including tolmetin sodium tablets, increase the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus at approximately this gestational age.
Use of NSAIDs, including tolmetin sodium tablets, at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy may cause fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios and, in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. These adverse outcomes are seen, on average, after days to weeks of treatment, although oligohydramnios has been infrequently reported as soon as 48 hours after NSAID initiation. Oligohydramnios is often, but not always, reversible with treatment discontinuation. Complications of prolonged oligohydramnios may, for example, include limb contractures and delayed lung maturation. In some postmarketing cases of impaired neonatal renal function, invasive procedures such as exchange transfusion or dialysis were required.
If NSAID treatment is necessary between about 20 weeks and 30 weeks gestation, limit tolmetin sodium tablets use to the lowest effective dose and shortest duration possible. Consider ultrasound monitoring of amniotic fluid if tolmetin sodium tablets treatment extends beyond 48 hours. Discontinue tolmetin sodium tablets if oligohydramnios occurs and follow up according to clinical practice (see PRECAUTIONS: Pregnancy).
Tolmetin cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids.
The pharmacological activity of tolmetin in reducing fever and inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.
Because of ocular changes observed in animals and of reports of adverse eye findings with NSAIDs, it is recommended that patients who develop visual disturbances during treatment with tolmetin have ophthalmologic evaluations.
Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs including tolmetin. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis, and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes have been reported.
A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred should be evaluated for evidence of the development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with tolmetin. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), tolmetin should be discontinued.
Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs including tolmetin. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including tolmetin, should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia. NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving tolmetin who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants, should be carefully monitored.
Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm which can be fatal. Since cross-reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other NSAIDs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, tolmetin should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with preexisting asthma.
Patients should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with an NSAID and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to read the NSAID Medication Guide that accompanies each prescription dispensed.
Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs should have their CBC and a chemistry profile checked periodically. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop, systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.) or if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, tolmetin should be discontinued.
Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE Inhibitors.
As with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of tolmetin sodium and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects.
Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations have shown that NSAIDs can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, the patient should be observed closely for signs of renal failure, as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.
NSAIDs have produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance was decreased by approximately 20%. These effects have been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by the NSAID. Thus, when NSAIDs and lithium are administered concurrently, subjects should be observed carefully for signs of lithium toxicity.
NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.
The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than users of either drug alone.
The in vitro binding of warfarin to human plasma proteins is unaffected by tolmetin, and tolmetin does not alter the prothrombin time of normal volunteers. However, increased prothrombin time and bleeding have been reported in patients on concomitant tolmetin and warfarin therapy. Therefore, caution should be exercised when administering tolmetin to patients on anticoagulants.
The metabolites of tolmetin sodium in urine have been found to give positive tests for proteinuria using tests which rely on acid precipitation as their endpoint (e.g., sulfosalicylic acid). No interference is seen in the tests for proteinuria using dye-impregnated commercially available reagent strips (e.g., Albustix®, Uristix®, etc.).
In a controlled single-dose study, administration of tolmetin with milk had no effect on peak plasma tolmetin concentrations, but decreased total tolmetin bioavailability by 16%. When tolmetin was taken immediately after a meal, peak plasma tolmetin concentrations were reduced by 50% while total bioavailability was again decreased by 16%.
Tolmetin sodium did not possess any carcinogenic liability in the following long-term studies: a 24-month study in rats at doses as high as 75 mg/kg/day, and an 18-month study in mice at doses as high as 50 mg/kg/day.
No mutagenic potential of tolmetin sodium was found in the Ames Salmonella-Microsomal Activation Test.
Reproductive studies revealed no impairment of fertility in animals. Effects on parturition have been shown, however, as with other prostaglandin inhibitors. This information is detailed in the Pregnancy section.
Use of NSAIDs, including tolmetin sodium tablets, can cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus and fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios and, in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. Because of these risks, limit dose and duration of tolmetin sodium tablets use between about 20 and 30 weeks of gestation, and avoid tolmetin sodium tablets use at about 30 weeks of gestation and later in pregnancy (see WARNINGS: Fetal Toxicity).
Use of NSAIDs, including tolmetin sodium tablets, at about 30 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus.
Use of NSAIDs at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy has been associated with cases of fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment.
Data from observational studies regarding other potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use in women in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive. In animal reproduction studies in rats and rabbits at doses up to 50 mg/kg (1.5 times the maximum clinical dose based on a body weight of 60 kg) there revealed no evidence of teratogenesis or impaired fertility due to tolmetin. However, animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as tolmetin, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss. Prostaglandins also have been shown to have an important role in fetal kidney development. In published animal studies, prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors have been reported to impair kidney development when administered at clinically relevant doses. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population(s) is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Avoid use of NSAIDs in women at about 30 weeks gestation and later in pregnancy, because NSAIDs, including tolmetin sodium tablets, can cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus (see WARNINGS: Fetal Toxicity).
If an NSAID is necessary at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy, limit the use to the lowest effective dose and shortest duration possible. If tolmetin sodium tablets treatment extends beyond 48 hours, consider monitoring with ultrasound for oligohydramnios. If oligohydramnios occurs, discontinue tolmetin sodium tablets and follow up according to clinical practice (see WARNINGS: Fetal Toxicity).
There are no adequate, well controlled studies in pregnant women. Tolmetin sodium capsules should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Published literature reports that the use of NSAIDs at about 30 weeks of gestation and later in pregnancy may cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus.
Published studies and postmarketing reports describe maternal NSAID use at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy associated with fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. These adverse outcomes are seen, on average, after days to weeks of treatment, although oligohydramnios has been infrequently reported as soon as 48 hours after NSAID initiation. In many cases, but not all, the decrease in amniotic fluid was transient and reversible with cessation of the drug. There have been a limited number of case reports of maternal NSAID use and neonatal renal dysfunction without oligohydramnios, some of which were irreversible. Some cases of neonatal renal dysfunction required treatment with invasive procedures, such as exchange transfusion or dialysis.
Methodological limitations of these postmarketing studies and reports include lack of a control group; limited information regarding dose, duration, and timing of drug exposure; and concomitant use of other medications. These limitations preclude establishing a reliable estimate of the risk of adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes with maternal NSAID use. Because the published safety data on neonatal outcomes involved mostly preterm infants, the generalizability of certain reported risks to the full-term infant exposed to NSAIDs through maternal use is uncertain.
In rat studies with NSAIDs, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased pup survival occurred. The effects of tolmetin on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.
Tolmetin sodium has been shown to be secreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from tolmetin sodium, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 2 years have not been established.
The adverse reactions which have been observed in clinical trials encompass observations in about 4,370 patients treated with tolmetin sodium, over 800 of whom have undergone at least one year of therapy. These adverse reactions, reported below by body system, are among those typical of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and, as expected, gastrointestinal complaints were most frequent. In clinical trials with tolmetin, about 10% of patients dropped out because of adverse reactions, mostly gastrointestinal in nature.
The following adverse reactions which occurred more frequently than 1 in 100 were reported in controlled clinical trials:
Gastrointestinal: nausea (11%), dyspepsia*, gastrointestinal distress*, abdominal pain*, diarrhea*, flatulence*, vomiting*, constipation, gastritis, and peptic ulcer. Forty percent of the ulcer patients had a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or were receiving concomitant anti-inflammatory drugs including corticosteroids, which are known to produce peptic ulceration.
Body as a Whole: headache*, asthenia*, chest pain
Cardiovascular: elevated blood pressure*, edema*
Central Nervous System: dizziness*, drowsiness, depression
Metabolic/Nutritional: weight gain*, weight loss*
Dermatologic: skin irritation
Special Senses: tinnitus, visual disturbance
Hematologic: Small and transient decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit not associated with gastrointestinal bleeding have occurred. These are similar to changes reported with other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Urogenital: elevated BUN, urinary tract infection
* Reactions occurring in 3% to 9% of patients treated with tolmetin sodium.
Reactions occurring in fewer than 3% of the patients are unmarked.
(Causal Relationship Probable) The following adverse reactions were reported less frequently than 1 in 100 in controlled clinical trials or were reported since marketing. The probability exists that there is a causal relationship between tolmetin and these adverse reactions.
Gastrointestinal: gastrointestinal bleeding with or without evidence of peptic ulcer, perforation, glossitis, stomatitis, hepatitis, liver function abnormalities
Body as a Whole: anaphylactoid reactions, fever, lymphadenopathy, serum sickness
Hematologic: hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia, agranulocytosis
Cardiovascular: congestive heart failure in patients with marginal cardiac function
Dermatologic: urticaria, purpura, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis
Urogenital: hematuria, proteinuria, dysuria, renal failure
(Causal Relationship Unknown) Other adverse reactions were reported less frequently than 1 in 100 in controlled clinical trials or were reported since marketing, but a causal relationship between tolmetin and the reaction could not be determined. These rarely reported reactions are being listed as alerting information for the physician since the possibility of a causal relationship cannot be excluded.
Body as a Whole: epistaxis
Special Senses: optic neuropathy, retinal and macular changes
In the event of overdosage, the stomach should be emptied by inducing vomiting or by gastric lavage followed by the administration of activated charcoal.
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of tolmetin sodium tablets and other treatment options before deciding to use tolmetin sodium tablets. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).
After observing the response to initial therapy with tolmetin sodium tablets, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs.
For the relief of rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis, the recommended starting dose for adults is 400 mg three times daily (1200 mg daily), preferably including a dose on arising and a dose at bedtime. To achieve optimal therapeutic effect the dose should be adjusted according to the patient’s response after 1 or 2 weeks. Control is usually achieved at doses of 600 mg to 1800 mg daily in divided doses (generally t.i.d.). Doses larger than 1800 mg/day have not been studied and are not recommended.
For the relief of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, the recommended starting dose for pediatric patients (2 years and older) is 20 mg/kg/day in divided doses (t.i.d. or q.i.d.). When control has been achieved, the usual dose ranges from 15 to 30 mg/kg/day. Doses higher than 30 mg/kg/day have not been studied, and, therefore, are not recommended.
A therapeutic response to tolmetin sodium can be expected in a few days to a week. Progressive improvement can be anticipated during succeeding weeks of therapy. If gastrointestinal symptoms occur, tolmetin sodium tablets can be administered with antacids other than sodium bicarbonate. Tolmetin sodium bioavailability and pharmacokinetics are not significantly affected by acute or chronic administration of magnesium and aluminum hydroxides; however, bioavailability is affected by food or milk (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug-Food Interaction).
Tolmetin Sodium Tablets, USP are available containing 738 mg of tolmetin sodium, USP as the dihydrate in an amount equivalent to 600 mg of tolmetin.
The 600 mg tablets are beige, film-coated, oval-shaped, unscored tablets debossed with M 313 on one side of the tablet and blank on the other side. They are available as follows:
bottles of 100 tablets
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]
Protect from light.
Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.
PHARMACIST: Dispense a Medication Guide with each prescription.
What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?
NSAIDs can cause serious side effects, including:
The risk of getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with:
NSAIDs should only be used:
What are NSAIDs?
NSAIDs are used to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as different types of arthritis, menstrual cramps, and other types of short-term pain.
Who should not take NSAIDs?
Do not take NSAIDs:
Before taking NSAIDs, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:
Tell your healthcare provider about all of the medicines you take, including prescription or over-the-counter medicines, vitamins or herbal supplements. NSAIDs and some other medicines can interact with each other and cause serious side effects. Do not start taking any new medicine without talking to your healthcare provider first.
What are the possible side effects of NSAIDs?
NSAIDs can cause serious side effects, including:
See “What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?”
Get emergency help right away if you get any of the following symptoms:
Stop taking your NSAID and call your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following symptoms:
If you take too much of your NSAID, call your healthcare provider or get medical help right away.
These are not all the possible side effects of NSAIDs. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist about NSAIDs.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
Other information about NSAIDs
General information about the safe and effective use of NSAIDs
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use NSAIDs for a condition for which they were not prescribed. Do not give NSAIDs to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. They may harm them.
Manufactured for: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc., Morgantown, WV 26505 U.S.A.
For more information, call Mylan at 1-877-446-3679 (1-877-4-INFO-RX).
This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
The brands listed are trademarks of their respective owners.
Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Morgantown, WV 26505 U.S.A.
PHARMACIST: Dispense the accompanying
Medication Guide to each patient.
Rx only 100 Tablets
*Each film-coated tablet contains
738 mg of tolmetin sodium, USP
(dihydrate) equivalent to 600 mg
Dispense in a tight, light-resistant
container as defined in the USP
using a child-resistant closure.
Keep container tightly closed.
Keep this and all medication
out of the reach of children.
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F ).
[See USP Controlled Room
Protect from light.
Usual Dosage: See accompanying
This container is not intended for
dispensing for household use.
Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Morgantown, WV 26505 U.S.A.
tolmetin sodium tablet, film coated
|Labeler - Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc. (059295980)|