Label: GANCICLOVIR- ganciclovir sodium injection, solution
- NDC Code(s): 51817-171-01
- Packager: Pharmascience Inc.
- Category: HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL
- DEA Schedule: None
- Marketing Status: Abbreviated New Drug Application
Updated February 12, 2019
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HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
These highlights do not include all the information needed to use GANCICLOVIR INJECTION safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for GANCICLOVIR INJECTION.
GANCICLOVIR injection, for intravenous use
Initial U.S. Approval: 1989
WARNING: HEMATOLOGIC TOXICITY, IMPAIRMENT OF FERTILITY, FETAL TOXICITY, MUTAGENESIS AND CARCINOGENESIS
See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning.
- Impairment of Fertility: Based on animal data and limited human data, Ganciclovir Injection may cause temporary or permanent inhibition of spermatogenesis in males and suppression of fertility in females. (5.3)
- Fetal Toxicity: Based on animal data, Ganciclovir Injection has the potential to cause birth defects in humans. (5.4)
- Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis: Based on animal data, Ganciclovir Injection has the potential to cause cancer in humans. (5.5)
RECENT MAJOR CHANGES
Boxed Warning 08/2018
Warnings and Precautions (5.3) 08/2018
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Ganciclovir Injection is a deoxynucleoside analogue cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA polymerase inhibitor indicated for the:
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATIONGanciclovir Injection is administered only intravenously. (2.1)
Dosage in Adult Patients with Normal Renal Function Treatment of CMV retinitis (2.3) Induction: 5 mg/kg (given intravenously at a constant rate over 1 hour) every 12 hours for 14 to 21 days.
Maintenance: 5 mg/kg (given intravenously at a constant rate over 1 hour) once daily for 7 days per week, or 6 mg/kg once daily for 5 days per week.
Prevention of CMV disease in transplant recipients (2.4) Induction: 5 mg/kg (given intravenously at a constant rate over 1 hour) every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days.
Maintenance: 5 mg/kg (given intravenously at a constant rate over 1 hour) once daily, 7 days per week, or 6 mg/kg once daily, 5 days per week until 100 to 120 days post-transplantation.
Adults with renal impairment: Adjust dosage based on creatinine clearance. (2.5)
DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
- For injection: 500 mg of ganciclovir as clear sterile solution in a vial. (3)
- Hypersensitivity to ganciclovir or valganciclovir. (4)
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Most common adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities reported in at least 20% of patients were: pyrexia, diarrhea, leukopenia, nausea, anemia, asthenia, headache, cough, decreased appetite, dyspnea, abdominal pain, sepsis, hyperhidrosis, and blood creatinine increased. (6.1)
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Pharmascience Inc. at 1-888-550-6060 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
- Imipenem-cilastatin: Seizures were reported in patients receiving ganciclovir and imipenem-cilastatin. Concomitant use is not recommended unless the potential benefits outweigh the risks. (7)
- Cyclosporine or amphotericin B: When coadministered with ganciclovir, the risk of nephrotoxicity may be increased. Monitor renal function. (5.2, 7)
- Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF): When coadministered with ganciclovir, the risk of hematological and renal toxicity may be increased. Monitor for ganciclovir and MMF toxicity. (7)
- Other drugs associated with myelosuppression or nephrotoxicity: Due to potential for increased toxicity, such drugs should be considered for concomitant use with ganciclovir only if the potential benefits are judged to outweigh the risks. (7)
- Didanosine: Ganciclovir coadministered with didanosine may increase didanosine levels. Monitor for didanosine toxicity (e.g., pancreatitis). (7)
- Probenecid: May increase ganciclovir levels. Monitor for evidence of ganciclovir toxicity. (7)
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
- Lactation: Breastfeeding is not recommended with use of Ganciclovir Injection. (8.2)
See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION.
Table of Contents
FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS*
WARNING: HEMATOLOGIC TOXICITY, IMPAIRMENT OF FERTILITY, FETAL TOXICITY, MUTAGENESIS AND CARCINOGENESIS
2.4 Recommended Dosage for the Prevention of CMV Disease in Adult Transplant Recipients with Normal Renal Function
- Sections or subsections omitted from the full prescribing information are not listed.
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WARNING: HEMATOLOGIC TOXICITY, IMPAIRMENT OF FERTILITY, FETAL TOXICITY, MUTAGENESIS AND CARCINOGENESIS
- Hematologic Toxicity: Granulocytopenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia have been reported in patients treated with Ganciclovir Injection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
- Impairment of Fertility: Based on animal data and limited human data, Ganciclovir Injection may cause temporary or permanent inhibition of spermatogenesis in males and suppression of fertility in females [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
- Fetal Toxicity: Based on animal data, Ganciclovir Injection has the potential to cause birth defects in humans [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
- Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis: Based on animal data, Ganciclovir Injection has the potential to cause cancers in humans [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
1.1 Treatment of CMV Retinitis
Ganciclovir Injection is indicated for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in immunocompromised adult patients, including patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].
1.2 Prevention of CMV Disease in Transplant Recipients
Ganciclovir Injection is indicated for the prevention of CMV disease in adult transplant recipients at risk for CMV disease [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
2. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 Important Dosing and Administration Information
- Do not administer Ganciclovir Injection by rapid or bolus intravenous injection which may increase toxicity as a result of excessive plasma levels.
- The recommended dosage and infusion rate for Ganciclovir Injection should not be exceeded.
- Do not administer the reconstituted Ganciclovir Injection solution intramuscularly or subcutaneously because it may result in severe tissue irritation due to high pH [see Description (11)].
- Administration of Ganciclovir Injection should be accompanied by adequate hydration.
- Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
2.2 Testing Before and During Treatment
- Females of reproductive potential should undergo pregnancy testing before initiation of treatment with Ganciclovir Injection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4), Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3)].
- All patients should be monitored for renal function before and during treatment with Ganciclovir Injection and dose should be adjusted as needed [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
- Patients with CMV retinitis should have frequent ophthalmological examinations during treatment with Ganciclovir Injection solution to monitor disease status and for other retinal abnormalities [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
2.4 Recommended Dosage for the Prevention of CMV Disease in Adult Transplant Recipients with Normal Renal Function
2.5 Recommended Dosage in Adult Patients with Renal Impairment
Table 1. Recommended Induction and Maintenance Dosage for Adult Patients with Renal Impairment Creatinine Clearance*
Induction Dose (mg/kg)
Dosing Interval (hours) for Induction Ganciclovir Injection
Maintenance Dose (mg/kg)
Dosing Interval (hours) for Maintenance
- Creatinine clearance can be related to serum creatinine by the formulas given below.
Greater than or equal to 70 5 12 5 24 5069 2.5 12 2.5 24 2549 2.5 24 1.25 24 1024 1.25 24 0.625 24 Less than 10 1.25 3 times per week, following hemodialysis 0.625 3 times per week, following hemodialysis Creatinine clearance for males = (140 - age [yrs]) (body wt [kg]) (72) (serum creatinine [mg/dL])
Creatinine clearance for females = 0.85 × male value
Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis
Induction dosing for Ganciclovir Injection in patients undergoing hemodialysis should not exceed 1.25 mg/kg 3 times per week; and maintenance dosing should not exceed 0.625 mg/kg 3 times per week following each hemodialysis session. Ganciclovir Injection should be given shortly after completion of the hemodialysis session, since hemodialysis has been shown to reduce plasma levels by approximately 50% [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
2.6 Preparation of Ganciclovir Injection
- Sterile Solution of Ganciclovir Injection Instructions:
a) Shake the vial
b) Visually inspect the solution for particulate matter and discoloration prior to proceeding with infusion. Discard the vial if particulate matter or discoloration is observed.
- Infusion Instructions:
a) Based on patient weight, the appropriate volume of the solution (ganciclovir concentration 50 mg/mL) should be removed from the vial and added to an acceptable infusion fluid (typically 100 mL) for delivery over the course of 1 hour. Infusion concentrations greater than 10 mg/mL are not recommended. The following infusion fluids have been determined to be chemically and physically compatible with Ganciclovir Injection: 0.9% Sodium Chloride, 5% Dextrose, Ringer's Injection and Lactated Ringer's Injection, USP.
b) Ganciclovir Injection, when further diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or other acceptable infusion fluid as specified above, should be used within 24 hours of dilution to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination. The diluted infusion solution should be refrigerated (2°C to 8°C). Do not freeze.
2.7 Handling and Disposal
Caution should be exercised in the handling and preparation of solutions of Ganciclovir Injection. Solutions of Ganciclovir Injection are alkaline (pH 11). Avoid direct contact of the skin or mucous membranes with Ganciclovir Injection solution. If such contact occurs, wash thoroughly with soap and water; rinse eyes thoroughly with plain water. Wearing disposable gloves is recommended.
Because ganciclovir shares some of the properties of antitumor agents (i.e., carcinogenicity and mutagenicity), consideration should be given to handling and disposal according to guidelines issued for antineoplastic drugs1 [see How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16)].
- 3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
- 4 CONTRAINDICATIONS
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Hematologic Toxicity
Due to the frequency of neutropenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia in patients receiving Ganciclovir Injection [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)], complete blood counts with differential and platelet counts should be performed frequently in all patients, especially in patients with renal impairment and in patients in whom ganciclovir or other nucleoside analogues have previously resulted in leukopenia, or in whom neutrophil counts are less than 1000 cells/mcL at the beginning of treatment [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
5.2 Renal Impairment
Increased serum creatinine levels have been reported in elderly patients and in transplant recipients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic medications (i.e., cyclosporine and amphotericin B). Monitoring renal function during therapy with Ganciclovir Injection is essential, especially for elderly patients and those patients receiving concomitant agents that may cause nephrotoxicity [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Drug Interactions (7), Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
5.3 Impairment of Fertility
Based on animal data and limited human data, Ganciclovir Injection at the recommended human dose (RHD) may cause temporary or permanent inhibition of spermatogenesis in males, and may cause suppression of fertility in females. Advise patients that fertility may be impaired with the use of Ganciclovir Injection [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
5.4 Fetal Toxicity
Ganciclovir Injection may cause fetal toxicity when administered to pregnant women based on findings in animal studies. Systemic exposure of ganciclovir in animals at approximately 2 times the RHD caused fetal growth retardation, embryolethality, teratogenicity, and/or maternal toxicity. Teratogenic changes in animals included cleft palate, anophthalmia/microphthalmia, aplastic organs (kidney and pancreas), hydrocephaly and brachygnathia. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to use effective contraception during treatment and for at least 30 days following treatment with Ganciclovir Injection. Similarly, men should be advised to practice barrier contraception during and for at least 90 days following treatment with Ganciclovir Injection [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Hematologic Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Renal Impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Impairment of Fertility [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Fetal Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
6.1 Clinical Trial Experience in Adult Patients
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect rates observed in practice. The most common adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities reported in at least 20% of patients were pyrexia, diarrhea, leukopenia, nausea, anemia, asthenia, headache, cough, decreased appetite, dyspnea, abdominal pain, sepsis, hyperhidrosis, and blood creatinine increased.
Selected adverse reactions that occurred during clinical trials of Ganciclovir Injection are summarized below, according to the participating study patient population.
Table 2. Pooled Selected Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 5% of Subjects Comparing Ganciclovir Injection to Ganciclovir Capsules for Maintenance Treatment of CMV Retinitis Maintenance Treatment Studies Adverse Reaction Ganciclovir Injection
Pyrexia 48% 38% Diarrhea 44% 41% Leukopenia 41% 29% Anemia 25% 19% Total catheter events 22% 6% Catheter infection 9% 4% Catheter sepsis 8% 1% Other catheter related events 5% 1% Sepsis 15% 4% Decreased appetite 14% 15% Vomiting 13% 13% Infection 13% 9% Hyperhidrosis 12% 11% Chills 10% 7% Neuropathy peripheral 9% 8% Thrombocytopenia 6% 6% Pruritus 5% 6% Table 3. Selected Laboratory Abnormalities in Trials for Treatment of CMV Retinitis CMV Retinitis Treatment* Laboratory Abnormalities Ganciclovir Injection†
Neutropenia with Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) per µL: <500 25% 18% 500 <749 14% 17% 750 <1000 26% 19% Anemia with Hemoglobin (g/dL): <6.5 g/dL 5% 2% 6.5 <8.0 16% 10% 8.0 <9.5 26% 25% Serum Creatinine (mg/dL): 2.5 2% 1% 1.5 <2.5 14% 12%
Adverse Reactions in Transplant Recipients: There have been three controlled clinical trials of Ganciclovir Injection for the prevention of CMV disease in transplant recipients. Selected laboratory abnormalities are summarized in Table 4 and Table 5 below.
Table 4. Laboratory Abnormalities in Controlled Trials Transplant Recipients who Received Ganciclovir Injection, Placebo or Control Ganciclovir Injection Heart Allograft* Bone Marrow Allograft† Ganciclovir Injection
Neutropenia Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) per µL <500 4% 3% 12% 6% 500-1000 3% 8% 29% 17% Total ANC 1000/µL 7% 11% 41% 23% Thrombocytopenia Platelet count per µL <25,000 3% 1% 32% 28% 25,000-50,000 5% 3% 25% 37% Total Platelet Count 50,000/µL 8% 4% 57% 65% Table 5. Serum Creatinine Levels in Controlled Trials - Transplant Recipients who Received Ganciclovir Injection or Placebo Serum Creatinine Levels
Bone Marrow Allograft
Bone Marrow Allograft
Placebo Ganciclovir Injection Control Ganciclovir Injection Placebo (n=73) (n=20) (n=20) (n=37) (n=35) 2.5 mg/dL 18% 4% 20% 0% 0% 0% 1.5 - <2.5 58% 69% 50% 35% 43% 44%
Other Adverse Reactions in Clinical Trials in Patients with CMV Retinitis and in Transplant Recipients
Blood and lymphatic disorders: pancytopenia, bone marrow failure
Cardiac disorders: arrhythmia
Ear and labyrinth disorders: tinnitus, ear pain, deafness
Eye disorders: visual impairment, vitreous disorders, eye pain, conjunctivitis, macular edema
Gastrointestinal disorders: nausea, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, flatulence, constipation, mouth ulceration, dysphagia, abdominal distention, pancreatitis, gastrointestinal perforation, eructation, dry mouth
General disorders and administration site conditions: fatigue, injection site inflammation, edema, pain, malaise, asthenia, chest pain, multiple organ failure
Immune system disorders: hypersensitivity
Infections and infestations: candida infections including oral candidiasis, upper respiratory infection, influenza, urinary tract infection, cellulitis
Investigations: blood alkaline phosphatase increased, hepatic function abnormal, aspartate aminotransferase increased, alanine aminotransferase increased, creatinine clearance decreased
Metabolism and nutrition disorders: weight decreased
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: back pain, myalgia, arthralgia, muscle spasms, leg cramps, myasthenia
Nervous system disorders: headache, insomnia, dizziness, paresthesia, hypoesthesia, seizure, somnolence, dysgeusia (taste disturbance), tremor
Psychiatric disorders: depression, confusional state, anxiety, agitation, psychotic disorder, thinking abnormal, abnormal dreams
Renal and urinary disorders: kidney failure, renal function abnormal, urinary frequency, hematuria
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: cough, dyspnea
Skin and subcutaneous tissues disorders: dermatitis, alopecia, dry skin, urticaria, rash
Vascular disorders: hypotension, hypertension, phlebitis, vasodilation
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
Blood and lymphatic disorders: hemolytic anemia, agranulocytosis, granulocytopenia
Cardiac disorders: cardiac arrest, conduction disorder, torsade de pointes, ventricular tachycardia
Congenital, familial and genetic disorders: congenital anomaly
Endocrine disorders: inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion
Eye disorders: cataracts, dry eyes
Gastrointestinal disorders: intestinal ulcer
Hepatobiliary disorders: cholelithiasis, cholestasis, hepatic failure, hepatitis
Immune system disorders: anaphylactic reaction, allergic reaction, vasculitis
Investigations: blood triglycerides increased
Metabolism and nutrition disorders: acidosis, hypercalcemia, hyponatremia
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: arthritis, rhabdomyolysis
Nervous system disorders: dysesthesia, dysphasia, extrapyramidal disorder, facial paralysis, amnesia, anosmia, myelopathy, cerebrovascular accident, third cranial nerve paralysis, aphasia, encephalopathy, intracranial hypertension
Psychiatric disorders: irritability, hallucinations
Renal and urinary disorders: renal tubular disorder, hemolytic uremic syndrome
Reproductive system and breast disorders: infertility, testicular hypotrophy
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: bronchospasm, pulmonary fibrosis
Skin and subcutaneous tissues disorders: exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Vascular disorders: peripheral ischemia
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
Established and other potentially significant drug interactions conducted with ganciclovir are listed in Table 6 [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Table 6. Established and Other Potentially Significant Drug Interactions with Ganciclovir Name of the Concomitant Drug Change in the Concentration of Ganciclovir or Concomitant Drug Clinical Comment Imipenem-cilastatin Unknown Coadministration with imipenem-cilastatin is not recommended because generalized seizures have been reported in patients who received ganciclovir and imipenem-cilastatin. Cyclosporine or amphotericin B Unknown Monitor renal function when Ganciclovir Injection is coadministered with cyclosporine or amphotericin B because of potential increase in serum creatinine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) ↔ Ganciclovir (in patients with normal renal function)
↔ MMF (in patients with normal renal function)
Based on increased risk, patients should be monitored for hematological and renal toxicity. Other drugs associated with myelosuppresion or nephrotoxicity (e.g., dapsone, doxorubicin, flucytosine, hydroxyurea, pentamidine, tacrolimus, trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, vinblastine, vincristine and zidovudine) Unknown Because of potential for higher toxicity, coadministration with Ganciclovir Injection should be considered only if the potential benefits are judged to outweigh the risks. Didanosine ↔ Ganciclovir
Patients should be closely monitored for didanosine toxicity (e.g., pancreatitis). Probenecid ↑ Ganciclovir Ganciclovir Injection dose may need to be reduced. Monitor for evidence of ganciclovir toxicity.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo-fetal risk
Most maternal CMV infections are asymptomatic or they may be associated with a self-limited mononucleosis-like syndrome. However, in immunocompromised patients (i.e., transplant patients or patients with AIDS), CMV infections may be symptomatic and may result in significant maternal morbidity and mortality. The transmission of CMV to the fetus is a result of maternal viremia and transplacental infection. Perinatal infection can also occur from exposure of the neonate to CMV shedding in the genital tract. Approximately 10% of children with congenital CMV infection are symptomatic at birth. Mortality in symptomatic infants is about 10% and approximately 50-90% of symptomatic surviving newborns experience significant morbidity, including mental retardation, sensorineural hearing loss, microcephaly, seizures, and other medical problems. The risk of congenital CMV infection resulting from primary maternal CMV infection may be higher and of greater severity than that resulting from maternal reactivation of CMV infection.
Daily intravenous doses of ganciclovir were administered to pregnant mice (108 mg/kg/day) and rabbits (60 mg/kg/day), and also to female mice (90 mg/kg) prior to mating, during gestation, and during lactation. Fetal resorptions were present in at least 85% of rabbits and mice. Additional effects observed in rabbits included fetal growth retardation, embryolethality, teratogenicity, and/or maternal toxicity. Teratogenic changes included cleft palate, anophthalmia/microphthalmia, aplastic organs (kidney and pancreas), hydrocephaly, and brachygnathia. In pre/postnatal development studies in mice, there were maternal/fetal toxicity and embryolethality which included fetal effects of hypoplasia of the testes and seminal vesicles in the male offspring, as well as pathologic changes in the nonglandular region of the stomach. The systemic exposure (AUC) of ganciclovir during these studies was approximately 2 times (pregnant mice and rabbits) and 1.7 times (pre/postnatal mice) the exposure in humans at the RHD [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
No data are available regarding the presence of ganciclovir in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. When ganciclovir was administered to lactating rats, ganciclovir was present in milk [see Data]. Advise nursing mothers that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with Ganciclovir Injection because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)]. Furthermore, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that HIV-infected mothers not breastfeed their infants to avoid potential postnatal transmission of HIV.
8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential
In a small, open-label, non-randomized clinical study, adult male renal transplant patients receiving valganciclovir (the prodrug of ganciclovir) for CMV prophylaxis for up to 200 days post-transplantation were compared to an untreated control group. Patients were followed-up for six months after valganciclovir discontinuation. Among 24 evaluable patients in the valganciclovir group, the mean sperm density at the end of treatment visit decreased by 11 million/mL from baseline; whereas, among 14 evaluable patients in the control group the mean sperm density increased by 33 million/mL. However, at the follow-up visit among 20 evaluable patients in the valganciclovir group, the mean sperm density was comparable to that observed among 10 evaluable patients in the untreated control group (the mean sperm density at the end of follow-up visit increased by 41 million/mL from baseline in the valganciclovir group and by 43 million/mL in the untreated group).
8.4 Pediatric Use
A total of 120 pediatric patients with serious CMV infections participated in clinical trials. Granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia were the most common adverse reactions. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of ganciclovir after administration of Ganciclovir Injection were studied in 27 neonates (aged 2 to 49 days) and 10 pediatric patients, aged 9 months to 12 years. In neonates, the pharmacokinetic parameters after ganciclovir intravenous doses of 4 mg/kg (n=14) and 6 mg/kg (n=13) were Cmax 5.5 ± 1.6 and 7.0 ± 1.6 mcg/mL, systemic clearance 3.14 ± 1.75 and 3.56 ± 1.27 mL/min/kg, and t1/2 of 2.4 hours (harmonic mean) for both doses, respectively.
In pediatric patients 9 months to 12 years of age, the pharmacokinetic characteristics of ganciclovir were the same after single and multiple (every 12 hours) intravenous doses (5 mg/kg). The steady-state volume of distribution was 0.64 ± 0.22 L/kg, Cmax was 7.9 ± 3.9 mcg/mL, systemic clearance was 4.7 ± 2.2 mL/min/kg, and t1/2 was 2.4 ± 0.7 hours.
Although the pharmacokinetics of Ganciclovir Injection in pediatric patients were similar to those observed in adults, the safety and efficacy of ganciclovir at these exposures in pediatric patients have not been established.
Hematological toxicity: myelosuppression including pancytopenia, leukopenia, neutropenia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, bone marrow failure
Hepatotoxicity: hepatitis, liver function disorder
Renal toxicity: worsening of hematuria in a patient with pre-existing renal impairment, acute kidney injury, elevated creatinine
Gastrointestinal toxicity: abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting
Since ganciclovir is dialyzable, dialysis may be useful in reducing serum concentrations in patients who have received an overdose of Ganciclovir Injection [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Adequate hydration should be maintained. The use of hematopoietic growth factors should be considered in patients with cytopenias [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Chemically, ganciclovir is 9-[[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-ethoxy]methyl]guanine and ganciclovir sodium is 9-[[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-ethoxy]methyl]guanine, monosodium salt. The chemical structures of ganciclovir sodium and ganciclovir are:
Ganciclovir is a white to off-white crystalline powder. Ganciclovir is a polar hydrophilic compound with a solubility of 2.6 mg/mL in water at 25°C and an n-octanol/water partition coefficient of 0.022. The pKas for ganciclovir are 2.2 and 9.4.
Ganciclovir Injection (ganciclovir), formulated as monosodium salt, using sodium hydroxide as a salt forming agent, is a sterile solution. At physiological pH, ganciclovir sodium exists as the un-ionized form with a solubility of approximately 6 mg/mL at 37°C.
Each vial contains ganciclovir sodium equivalent to 500 mg ganciclovir.
Inactive ingredients may include hydrochloric acid (QS) and sodium hydroxide (QS) added to adjust the pH.
All doses in this package insert are specified in terms of ganciclovir.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Ganciclovir is an antiviral drug with activity against CMV [see Microbiology (12.4)].
At the end of a 1-hour intravenous infusion of 5 mg/kg ganciclovir, total AUC ranged between 22.1 ± 3.2 (n=16) and 26.8 ± 6.1 mcg∙hr/mL (n=16) and Cmax ranged between 8.27 ± 1.02 (n=16) and 9.0 ± 1.4 mcg/mL (n=16).
The steady-state volume of distribution of ganciclovir after intravenous administration was 0.74 ± 0.15 L/kg (n=98). Ganciclovir diffuses across the placenta. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations obtained 0.25 to 5.67 hours post-dose in 3 patients who received 2.5 mg/kg ganciclovir intravenously every 8 hours or every 12 hours ranged from 0.31 to 0.68 mcg/mL, representing 24% to 70% of the respective plasma concentrations. Binding to plasma proteins was 1% to 2% over ganciclovir concentrations of 0.5 and 51 mcg/mL.
When administered intravenously, ganciclovir exhibits linear pharmacokinetics over the range of 1.6 to 5.0 mg/kg. Renal excretion of unchanged drug by glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion is the major route of elimination of ganciclovir. In patients with normal renal function, 91.3 ± 5.0% (n=4) of intravenously administered ganciclovir was recovered unmetabolized in the urine. Systemic clearance of intravenously administered ganciclovir was 3.52 ± 0.80 mL/min/kg (n=98) while renal clearance was 3.20 ± 0.80 mL/min/kg (n=47), accounting for 91 ± 11% of the systemic clearance (n=47). Half-life was 3.5 ± 0.9 hours (n=98) following intravenous administration.
Pharmacokinetics in Patients with Renal Impairment
The pharmacokinetics following intravenous administration of Ganciclovir Injection solution were evaluated in 10 immunocompromised patients with renal impairment who received doses ranging from 1.25 to 5.0 mg/kg. Decreased renal function results in decreased clearance of ganciclovir (Table 7).
Table 7. Ganciclovir Pharmacokinetics in Patients with Renal Impairment Estimated Creatinine Clearance
n Dose Clearance
Mean ± SD
Mean ± SD
50-79 4 3.2-5 mg/kg 128 ± 63 4.6 ± 1.4 25-49 3 3-5 mg/kg 57 ± 8 4.4 ± 0.4 <25 3 1.25-5 mg/kg 30 ± 13 10.7 ± 5.7
Plasma concentrations of ganciclovir are reduced by about 50% during a 4 hour hemodialysis session.
Pharmacokinetics in Geriatric Patients
The pharmacokinetic profiles of Ganciclovir Injection in patients 65 years of age and older have not been established. As ganciclovir is mainly renally excreted and since renal clearance decreases with age, a decrease in ganciclovir total body clearance and a prolongation of ganciclovir half-life can be anticipated in patients 65 years of age and older [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
Drug Interaction Studies
Table 8 and Table 9 provide a listing of established drug interaction studies with ganciclovir. Table 8 provides the effects of coadministered drug on ganciclovir plasma pharmacokinetic parameters, whereas Table 9 provides the effects of ganciclovir on plasma pharmacokinetic parameters of coadministered drug.
Table 8. Results of Drug Interaction Studies with Ganciclovir: Effects of Coadministered Drug on Ganciclovir Pharmacokinetic Parameters Coadministered Drug Ganciclovir Dosage N Ganciclovir Pharmacokinetic (PK) Parameter Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) 1.5 g single dose 5 mg/kg IV single dose 12 No effect on ganciclovir PK parameters observed (patients with normal renal function) Trimethoprim 200 mg once daily 1000 mg orally every 8 hours 12 No effect on ganciclovir PK parameters observed. Didanosine 200 mg every 12 hours simultaneously administered with ganciclovir 5 mg/kg IV twice daily 11 No effect on ganciclovir PK parameters observed 5 mg/kg IV once daily 11 No effect on ganciclovir PK parameters observed Probenecid 500 mg every 6 hours 1000 mg orally every 8 hours 10 AUC ↑ 53 ± 91%
(range: -14% to 299%)
Ganciclovir renal clearance ↓ 22 ± 20%
(range: -54% to -4%)
Table 9. Results of Drug Interaction Studies with Ganciclovir: Effects of Ganciclovir on Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Coadministered Drug Coadministered Drug Ganciclovir Dosage N Coadministered Drug Pharmacokinetic (PK) Parameter Oral cyclosporine at therapeutic doses 5 mg/kg infused over 1 hour every 12 hours 93 In a retrospective analysis of liver allograft recipients, there was no evidence of an effect on cyclosporine whole blood concentrations. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) 1.5 g single dose 5 mg/kg IV single dose 12 No PK interaction observed (patients with normal renal function) Trimethoprim 200 mg once daily 1000 mg orally every 8 hours 12 No effect on trimethoprim PK parameters observed. Didanosine 200 mg every 12 hours 5 mg/kg IV twice daily 11 AUC0-12 ↑70 ± 40%
(range: 3% to 121%)
Cmax↑49 ± 48%
(range: -28% to 125%)
Didanosine 200 mg every 12 hours 5 mg/kg IV once daily 11 AUC0-12 ↑50 ± 26%
(range: 22% to 110%)
Cmax ↑36 ± 36%
(range: -27% to 94%)
Mechanism of Action
Ganciclovir is a synthetic analogue of 2'-deoxyguanosine, which inhibits replication of human CMV in cell culture and in vivo. In CMV-infected cells, ganciclovir is initially phosphorylated to ganciclovir monophosphate by the viral protein kinase, pUL97. Further phosphorylation occurs by cellular kinases to produce ganciclovir triphosphate, which is then slowly metabolized intracellularly. As the phosphorylation is largely dependent on the viral kinase, phosphorylation of ganciclovir occurs preferentially in virus-infected cells. The virustatic activity of ganciclovir is due to inhibition of the viral DNA polymerase, pUL54, by ganciclovir triphosphate.
The quantitative relationship between the cell culture susceptibility of human herpes viruses to antivirals and clinical response to antiviral therapy has not been established, and virus sensitivity testing has not been standardized. Sensitivity test results, expressed as the concentration of drug required to inhibit the growth of virus in cell culture by 50% (EC50), vary greatly depending upon a number of factors including the assay used. Thus the median concentration of ganciclovir that inhibits CMV replication (EC50 value) in cell culture (laboratory strains or clinical isolates) has ranged from 0.08 to 13.6 µM (0.02 to 3.48 mcg/mL). Ganciclovir inhibits mammalian cell proliferation (CC50 value) in cell culture at higher concentrations ranging from 118 to 2840 µM (30 to 725 mcg/mL). Bone marrow-derived colony-forming cells are more sensitive [CC50 value = 0.1 to 2.7 µM (0.028 to 0.7 mcg/mL)]. The relationship between the antiviral activity in cell culture and clinical response has not been established.
Cell Culture: CMV isolates with reduced susceptibility to ganciclovir have been selected in cell culture. Growth of CMV strains in the presence of ganciclovir resulted in the selection of amino acid substitutions in the viral protein kinase pUL97 and the viral DNA polymerase pUL54.
In vivo: Viruses resistant to ganciclovir can arise after prolonged treatment or prophylaxis with ganciclovir by selection of substitutions in pUL97 and/or pUL54. Limited clinical data are available on the development of clinical resistance to ganciclovir and many pathways to resistance likely exist. In clinical isolates, seven canonical pUL97 substitutions, (M460V/I, H520Q, C592G, A594V, L595S, C603W) are the most frequently reported ganciclovir resistance-associated substitutions. These and other substitutions less frequently reported in the literature, or observed in clinical trials, are listed in Table 10.
Table 10. Summary of Resistance-associated Amino Acid Substitutions Observed in the CMV of Patients Failing Ganciclovir Treatment or Prophylaxis Note: Many additional pathways to ganciclovir resistance likely exist pUL97 L405P, A440V, M460I/V/T/L, V466G/M, C518Y, H520Q, P521L, del 590-593, A591D/V, C592G, A594E/G/T/V/P, L595F/S/T/W, del 595, del 595-603, E596D/G/Y, K599E/M, del 600-601, del 597-600, del 601-603, C603W/R/S/Y, C607F/S/Y, I610T, A613V pUL54 E315D, N408D/K/S, F412C/L/S, D413A/E/N, L501F/I, T503I, K513E/N/R, D515E, L516W, I521T, P522A/L/S, V526L, C539G, L545S/W, Q578H/L, D588E/N, G629S, S695T, I726T/V, E756K, L773V, V781I, V787L, L802M, A809V, T813S, T821I, A834P, G841A/S, D879G, A972V, del 981-982, A987G
CMV resistance to ganciclovir has been observed in individuals with AIDS and CMV retinitis who have never received ganciclovir therapy. Viral resistance has also been observed in patients receiving prolonged treatment for CMV retinitis with Ganciclovir Injection. In a controlled study of oral ganciclovir for prevention of AIDS-associated CMV disease, 364 individuals had one or more cultures performed after at least 90 days of ganciclovir treatment. Of these, 113 had at least one positive culture. The last available isolate from each subject was tested for reduced sensitivity, and 2 of 40 were found to be resistant to ganciclovir. These resistant isolates were associated with subsequent treatment failure for retinitis.
The possibility of viral resistance should be considered in patients who show poor clinical response or experience persistent viral excretion during therapy.
Cross-resistance has been reported for amino acid substitutions selected in cell culture by ganciclovir, cidofovir or foscarnet. In general, amino acid substitutions in pUL54 conferring cross-resistance to ganciclovir and cidofovir are located within the exonuclease domains and region V of the viral DNA polymerase. Whereas, amino acid substitutions conferring cross-resistance to foscarnet are diverse, but concentrate at and between regions II (codons 696-742) and III (codons 805-845). The amino acid substitutions that resulted in reduced susceptibility to ganciclovir and either cidofovir and/or foscarnet are summarized in Table 11.
Table 11. Summary of pUL54 Amino Acid Substitutions with Cross-resistance between Ganciclovir, Cidofovir, and/or Foscarnet Cross-resistant to cidofovir D301N, N408D/K, N410K, F412C/L/S/V, D413E/N, P488R, L501I, T503I, K513E/N, L516R/W, I521T, P522S/A, V526L, C539G/R, L545S/W, Q578H, D588N, I726T/V, E756K, L773V, V812L, T813S, A834P, G841A, del 981-982, A987G Cross-resistant to foscarnet F412C, Q578H/L, D588N, V715A/M, E756K, L773V, V781I, V787L, L802M, A809V, V812L, T813S, T821I, A834P, G841A/S, del 981-982
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Ganciclovir was carcinogenic in mice at the same mean drug exposure in humans as at the RHD (5 mg/kg). At the dose of 1000 mg/kg/day (1.4 times the exposure at the RHD), there was a significant increase in the incidence of tumors of the preputial gland in males, forestomach (nonglandular mucosa) in males and females, and reproductive tissues (ovaries, uterus, mammary gland, clitoral gland and vagina) and liver in females. At the dose of 20 mg/kg/day (0.1 times the exposure at the RHD), a slightly increased incidence of tumors was noted in the preputial and harderian glands in males, forestomach in males and females, and liver in females. No carcinogenic effect was observed in mice administered ganciclovir at 1 mg/kg/day (exposure estimated as 0.01 times the RHD). Except for histiocytic sarcoma of the liver, ganciclovir-induced tumors were generally of epithelial or vascular origin. Although the preputial and clitoral glands, forestomach and harderian glands of mice do not have human counterparts, ganciclovir should be considered a potential carcinogen in humans.
Ganciclovir increased mutations in mouse lymphoma cells and DNA damage in human lymphocytes in vitro at concentrations between 50 to 500 and 250 to 2000 mcg/mL, respectively. In the mouse micronucleus assay, ganciclovir was clastogenic at doses of 150 and 500 mg/kg (2.8 to 10 times the exposure at the RHD) but not at doses of 50 mg/kg (exposure approximately comparable to the RHD). Ganciclovir was not mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella assay at concentrations of 500 to 5000 mcg/mL.
Impairment of Fertility
Ganciclovir caused decreased mating behavior, decreased fertility, and an increased incidence of embryolethality in female mice following doses of 90 mg/kg/day (exposures approximately 1.7 times the RHD). Ganciclovir caused decreased fertility in male mice and hypospermatogenesis in mice and dogs following daily oral or intravenous administration of doses ranging from 0.2 to 10 mg/kg. Systemic drug exposure (AUC) at the lowest dose showing toxicity in each species ranged from 0.03 to 0.1 times the exposure at the RHD.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
14.1 Treatment of CMV Retinitis
In a controlled, randomized study conducted between February 1989 and December 1990, immediate treatment with Ganciclovir Injection was compared to delayed treatment in 42 patients with AIDS and peripheral CMV retinitis; 35 of 42 patients (13 in the immediate-treatment group and 22 in the delayed-treatment group) were included in the analysis of time to retinitis progression. Based on masked assessment of fundus photographs, the mean [95% CI] and median [95% CI] times to progression of retinitis were 66 days [39, 94] and 50 days [40, 84], respectively, in the immediate-treatment group compared to 19 days [11, 27] and 13.5 days [8, 18], respectively, in the delayed-treatment group.
Data from trials ICM 1653, ICM 1774, and AVI 034, which were performed comparing Ganciclovir Injection to oral ganciclovir for treatment of CMV retinitis in patients with AIDS, are shown in Table 12 and Figures 1, 2, and 3, and are discussed below.
Table 12. Population Characteristics in Studies ICM 1653, ICM 1774 and AVI 034 Demographics ICM 1653
Median age (years) 38 37 39 Range 24-62 22-56 23-62 Sex Males 116 (96%) 222 (99%) 148 (93%) Females 5 (4%) 3 (1%) 10 (6%) Ethnicity Asian 3 (3%) 5 (2%) 7 (4%) Black 11 (9%) 9 (4%) 3 (2%) Caucasian 98 (81%) 186 (83%) 140 (88%) Other 9 (7%) 25 (11%) 8 (5%) Median CD4 Count 9.5 7.0 10.0 Range 0-141 0-80 0-320 Mean (SD)
Observation Time (days)
107.9 (43.0) 97.6 (42.5) 80.9 (47.0)
Comparison of other CMV retinitis outcomes between oral and intravenous formulations (development of bilateral retinitis, progression into Zone 1, and deterioration of visual acuity), while not definitive, showed no marked differences between treatment groups in these studies. Because of low event rates among these endpoints, these studies are underpowered to rule out significant differences in these endpoints.
- 15 REFERENCES
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
Ganciclovir Injection is a clear solution supplied in 10 mL sterile vials, each containing ganciclovir sodium equivalent to 500 mg of ganciclovir. Ganciclovir Injection is supplied in cartons of 25 vials (NDC 51817-171-01).
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
Inform patients that Ganciclovir Injection may cause hematologic toxicity, including granulocytopenia (neutropenia), anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Inform patients that their blood counts and platelet counts should be closely monitored while on treatment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Impairment of Renal Function
Inform patients that Ganciclovir Injection has been associated with decreased renal function and that serum creatinine or creatinine clearance should be monitored while on treatment to allow for dosage adjustment in patients with renal impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Impairment of Fertility
Inform patients that Ganciclovir Injection should be considered a potential carcinogen [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
Inform patients that Ganciclovir Injection may interact with other drugs. Advise patients to report to their healthcare provider the use of any other medication [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Impairment of Cognitive Ability
Based on the adverse reaction profile, ganciclovir may affect cognitive abilities, including on the ability to drive and operate machinery, as seizures, dizziness, and/or confusion have been reported with the use of Ganciclovir Injection [see Adverse Reaction (6.1)].
Advise nursing mothers not to breastfeed if they are receiving Ganciclovir Injection because of the potential for serious adverse events in nursing infants and because HIV can be passed to the baby in breast milk [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].
- SPL UNCLASSIFIED SECTION
- PACKAGE LABEL - PRINCIPAL DISPLAY - 500 mg Carton Label
PACKAGE LABEL - 10mL Vial Label
Rx only NDC 51817-171-01
500mg/10mL (50 mg/mL)
Sterile solution equivalent to 500mg ganciclovir
FOR INTRAVENOUS INFUSION ONLY.
10 mL Single-dose vial
CAUTION: Cytotoxic Agent
Handle this product with great care because it is a potent cytotoxic agent and suspected carcinogen
Usual dosage: See package insert
Store at 25°C (77°F): excursions permitted to 15°C-30°C (59°-86°F)
INGREDIENTS AND APPEARANCE
ganciclovir sodium injection, solution
Product Information Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG Item Code (Source) NDC:51817-171 Route of Administration INTRAVENOUS Active Ingredient/Active Moiety Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength GANCICLOVIR SODIUM (UNII: 02L083W284) (GANCICLOVIR - UNII:P9G3CKZ4P5) GANCICLOVIR 500 mg in 10 mL Inactive Ingredients Ingredient Name Strength water (UNII: 059QF0KO0R) HYDROCHLORIC ACID (UNII: QTT17582CB) SODIUM HYDROXIDE (UNII: 55X04QC32I) Packaging # Item Code Package Description Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date 1 NDC:51817-171-01 25 in 1 CARTON 04/24/2018 1 10 mL in 1 VIAL; Type 0: Not a Combination Product Marketing Information Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date ANDA ANDA207645 04/24/2018 Labeler - Pharmascience Inc. (244596946) Registrant - Pharmascience Inc. (244596946) Establishment Name Address ID/FEI Business Operations Pharmascience Inc. 202657094 manufacture(51817-171)