Label: VALGANCICLOVIR- valganciclovir tablet

  • Category: HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL
  • DEA Schedule: None
  • Marketing Status: Abbreviated New Drug Application

Drug Label Information

Updated November 29, 2018

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  • BOXED WARNING(What is this?)

    WARNING: HEMATOLOGIC TOXICITY, IMPAIRMENT OF FERTILITY, FETAL TOXICITY, MUTAGENESIS AND CARCINOGENESIS

    •   Hematologic Toxicity: Severe leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, and bone marrow failure including aplastic anemia have been reported in patients treated with valganciclovir [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
    •   Impairment of Fertility: Based on animal data and limited human data, valganciclovir may cause temporary or permanent inhibition of spermatogenesis in males and suppression of fertility in females [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
    •   Fetal Toxicity: Based on animal data, valganciclovir has the potential to cause birth defects in humans [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
    •   Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis: Based on animal data, valganciclovir has the potential to cause cancers in humans [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
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  • HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
    These highlights do not include all the information needed to use VALGANCICLOVIR TABLETS safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for VALGANCICLOVIR TABLETS.

    VALGANCICLOVIR tablets, for oral use.
    Initial U.S. Approval: 2001

    WARNING: HEMATOLOGIC TOXICITY, IMPAIRMENT OF FERTILITY, FETAL TOXICITY, MUTAGENESIS AND CARCINOGENESIS

    See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning.

    •   Hematologic Toxicity: Severe leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, and bone marrow failure including aplastic anemia have been reported in patients treated with valganciclovir. (5.1)
    •   Impairment of Fertility: Based on animal data and limited human data, valganciclovir may cause temporary or permanent inhibition of spermatogenesis in males and suppression of fertility in females. (5.3)
    •   Fetal Toxicity: Based on animal data, valganciclovir has the potential to cause birth defects in humans. (5.4)
    •   Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis: Based on animal data, valganciclovir has the potential to cause cancers in humans. (5.5)

    RECENT MAJOR CHANGES

    Boxed Warning                                                                   08/2018

    Warnings and Precautions (5.3)                                          08/2018

    INDICATIONS AND USAGE

    Valganciclovir is a deoxynucleoside analogue cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA polymerase inhibitor indicated for:

    Adult Patients (1.1)

    •   Treatment of CMV retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
    •   Prevention of CMV disease in kidney, heart, and kidney-pancreas transplant patients at high risk.

    Pediatric Patients (1.2)

    •   Prevention of CMV disease in kidney and heart transplant patients at high risk.

    DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    Adult Dosage (2.2)
    Treatment of CMV retinitis
    Induction: 900 mg (two 450 mg tablets) twice a day for 21 days
    Maintenance: 900 mg (two 450 mg tablets) once a day
    Prevention of CMV disease in heart or kidney-pancreas transplant patients
    900 mg (two 450 mg tablets) once a day within 10 days of transplantation until 100 days post‑transplantation
    Prevention of CMV disease in kidney transplant patients
    900 mg (two 450 mg tablets) once a day within 10 days of transplantation until 200 days post-transplantation
    Pediatric Dosage (2.3)
    Prevention of CMV disease in kidney transplant patients 4 months to 16 years of age
    Dose once a day within 10 days of transplantation until 200 days post-transplantation according to dosage algorithm (note the calculation of creatinine clearance using a modified Schwartz formula in children)
    Prevention of CMV disease in heart transplant patients 1 month to 16 years of age
    Dose once a day within 10 days of transplantation until 100 days post-transplantation according to dosage algorithm (note the calculation of creatinine clearance using a modified Schwartz formula in children)
    • Valganciclovir tablets should be taken with food. (2.1, 12.3)
    • Valganciclovir tablets should not be broken or crushed. (2.6)
    • Adult patients should use valganciclovir tablets, not valganciclovir for oral solution. (2.1)
    • Adults with renal impairment: Adjust dose based on creatinine clearance. For adult patients receiving hemodialysis a dose recommendation cannot be given. (2.5,8.6, 12.3)

    DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

    •   Tablets: 450 mg. (3)

    CONTRAINDICATIONS

    Hypersensitivity to valganciclovir or ganciclovir. (4)

    WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

    • Acute renal failure: Acute renal failure may occur in elderly patients (with or without reduced renal function), patients who receive concomitant nephrotoxic drugs, or inadequately hydrated patients. Use with caution in elderly patients or those taking nephrotoxic drugs, reduce dosage in patients with renal impairment, and monitor renal function. (2.5,5.2, 8.5, 8.6).

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    •   Adult patients: Most common adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities (reported in at least one indication by greater than or equal to 20% of patients) are diarrhea, pyrexia, fatigue, nausea, tremor, neutropenia, anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, headache, insomnia, urinary tract infection, and vomiting. (6.1)
    •   Pediatric patients: Most common adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities (reported in greater than or equal to 20% of pediatric solid organ transplant recipients) are diarrhea, pyrexia, upper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, vomiting, neutropenia, leukopenia, and headache. (6.1)

    To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Cipla Ltd at 1‑866-604-3268 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    •   Imipenem-cilastatin: Seizures were reported in patients receiving ganciclovir and imipenem-cilastatin. Concomitant use is not recommended unless the potential benefits outweigh the risks. (7).
    •   Cyclosporine or amphotericin B: When coadministered with valganciclovir, the risk of nephrotoxicity may be increased. Monitor renal function. (5.2, 7)
    •   Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF): When coadministered with valganciclovir, the risk of hematological and renal toxicity may be increased. Monitor for ganciclovir and MMF toxicity. (7)
    •   Other drugs associated with myelosuppression or nephrotoxicity: Due to potential for increased toxicity, consider for concomitant use with valganciclovir only if the potential benefits are judged to outweigh the risks. (7)
    •   Didanosine: Ganciclovir coadministered with didanosine may increase didanosine levels. Monitor for didanosine toxicity (e.g., pancreatitis). (7)
    •   Probenecid: May increase ganciclovir levels. Monitor for evidence of ganciclovir toxicity. (7)

    USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

    • Lactation: Breastfeeding is not recommended with use of valganciclovir. (8.2)

    See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION and FDA-approved patient labeling.

    Revised: 11/2018

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  • FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS*
  • 1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

    1.1 Adult Patients

    Treatment of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Retinitis: Valganciclovir is indicated for the treatment of CMV retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].

    Prevention of CMV Disease: Valganciclovir is indicated for the prevention of CMV disease in kidney, heart, and kidney-pancreas transplant patients at high risk (Donor CMV seropositive/Recipient CMV seronegative [D+/R-]) [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].

    1.2 Pediatric Patients

    Prevention of CMV Disease: Valganciclovir is indicated for the prevention of CMV disease in kidney transplant patients (4 months to 16 years of age) and heart transplant patients (1 month to 16 years of age) at high risk [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].

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  • 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    2.1 General Dosing Information

    • Adult patients should use valganciclovir tablets, not valganciclovir for oral solution.
    • Valganciclovir tablets should be taken with food [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    2.2 Recommended Dosage in Adult Patients with Normal Renal Function

    For dosage recommendations in adult patients with renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].

    Treatment of CMV Retinitis:

    • Induction: The recommended dosage is 900 mg (two 450 mg tablets) taken orally twice a day for 21 days.
    • Maintenance: Following induction treatment, or in adult patients with inactive CMV retinitis, the recommended dosage is 900 mg (two 450 mg tablets) taken orally once a day.

    Prevention of CMV Disease:

    • For adult patients who have received a heart or kidney-pancreas transplant, the recommended dosage is 900 mg (two 450 mg tablets) taken orally once a day starting within 10 days of transplantation until 100 days post-transplantation.
    • For adult patients who have received a kidney transplant, the recommended dosage is 900 mg (two 450 mg tablets) taken orally once a day starting within 10 days of transplantation until 200 days post-transplantation.

    2.3 Recommended Dosage in Pediatric Patients

    Prevention of CMV Disease in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Patients: For pediatric kidney transplant patients 4 months to 16 years of age, the recommended once daily mg dose (7 x BSA x CrCl) should start within 10 days of post-transplantation until 200 days post-transplantation.

    Prevention of CMV Disease in Pediatric Heart Transplant Patients: For pediatric heart transplant patients 1 month to 16 years of age, the recommended once daily mg dose (7 x BSA x CrCl) should start within 10 days of transplantation until 100 days post-transplantation.

    The recommended once daily dosage of valganciclovir is based on body surface area (BSA) and creatinine clearance (CrCl) derived from a modified Schwartz formula, and is calculated using the equation below:

    Pediatric Dose (mg) = 7 x BSA x CrCl (calculated using a modified Schwartz formula). If the calculated Schwartz creatinine clearance exceeds 150 mL/min/1.73 m2, then a maximum value of 150 mL/min/1.73 m2should be used in the equation. The k values used in the modified Schwartz formula are based on pediatric patient age, as shown in Table 1.

    Image
    Schwartz Creatinine Clearance (mL/min/1.73m2) =
    k x Height (cm)
    Serum Creatinine (mg/dL)
    Table 1.     k Values According to Pediatric Patient Age*

    *The k values provided are based on the Jaffe method of measuring serum creatinine, and may require correction when enzymatic methods are used1.

    k value
    Pediatric Patient Age
    0.33
    Infants less than 1 year of age with low birth weight for gestational age
    0.45
    Infants less than 1 year of age with birth weight appropriate for gestational age
    0.45
    Children aged 1 to less than 2 years
    0.55
    Boys aged 2 to less than 13 years
    Girls aged 2 to less than 16 years
    0.7
    Boys aged 13 to 16 years

    Monitor serum creatinine levels regularly and consider changes in height and body weight and adapt the dose as appropriate during prophylaxis period.

    All calculated doses should be rounded to the nearest 10 mg increment for the actual deliverable dose. If the calculated dose exceeds 900 mg, a maximum dose of 900 mg should be administered. Valganciclovir for oral solution is the preferred formulation since it provides the ability to administer a dose calculated according to the formula above; however, valganciclovir tablets may be used if the calculated doses are within 10% of available tablet strength (450 mg). For example, if the calculated dose is between 405 mg and 495 mg, one 450 mg tablet may be taken. Before prescribing valganciclovir tablets, pediatric patients should be assessed for the ability to swallow tablets.

    2.5 Dosage Recommendation for Adult Patients with Renal Impairment

    Serum creatinine levels or estimated creatinine clearance should be monitored regularly during treatment. Dosage recommendations for adult patients with reduced renal function are provided in Table 2. For adult patients on hemodialysis (CrCl less than 10 mL/min), a dose recommendation for valganciclovir cannot be given [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5, 8.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    Table 2 Dosage Recommendations for Adult Patients with Impaired Renal Function
    Valganciclovir 450 mg Tablets
    CrCl* (mL/min)
    Induction Dose
    Maintenance/Prevention Dose
    ≥ 60
    900 mg twice daily
    900 mg once daily
    40 – 59
    450 mg twice daily
    450 mg once daily
    25 – 39
    450 mg once daily
    450 mg every 2 days
    10 – 24
    450 mg every 2 days
    450 mg twice weekly
    < 10
    (on hemodialysis)
    not recommended
    not recommended
    *An estimated creatinine clearance in adults is calculated from serum creatinine by the following formulas:

    For females = 0.85 x male value

    For males =
    (140 – age [years]) x (body weight [kg])
    (72) x (serum creatinine [mg/dL])

    Dosing in pediatric patients with renal impairment can be done using the recommended equations because CrCl is a component in the calculation [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].

    2.6 Handling and Disposal

    Caution should be exercised in the handling of valganciclovir tablets. Tablets should not be broken or crushed. Because valganciclovir is considered a potential teratogen and carcinogen in humans, caution should be observed in handling broken tablets [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4, 5.5)]. Avoid direct contact with broken or crushed tablets with skin or mucous membranes. If such contact occurs, wash thoroughly with soap and water, and rinse eyes thoroughly with plain water.

    Handle and dispose valganciclovir according to guidelines for antineoplastic drugs because ganciclovir shares some of the properties of antitumor agents (i.e., carcinogenicity and mutagenicity).2

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  • 3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

    Valganciclovir tablets, USP 450 mg are pink colored, capsule shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets, debossed with 'C 277' on one side and 'plain' on other side.

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  • 4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

    Valganciclovir is contraindicated in patients who have had a demonstrated clinically significant hypersensitivity reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis) to valganciclovir, ganciclovir, or any component of the formulation [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

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  • 5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

    5.1 Hematologic Toxicity

    Severe leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, and bone marrow failure including aplastic anemia have been reported in patients treated with valganciclovir or ganciclovir. Valganciclovir should be avoided if the absolute neutrophil count is less than 500 cells/mcL, the platelet count is less than 25,000/mcL, or the hemoglobin is less than 8 g/dL. Valganciclovir should also be used with caution in patients with pre-existing cytopenias and in patients receiving myelosuppressive drugs or irradiation. Cytopenia may occur at any time during treatment and may worsen with continued dosing. Cell counts usually begin to recover within 3 to 7 days after discontinuing drug. In patients with severe leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia and/or thrombocytopenia, treatment with hematopoietic growth factors may be considered.

    Due to the frequency of neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia in patients receiving valganciclovir [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)], complete blood counts with differential and platelet counts should be performed frequently, especially in infants, in patients with renal impairment, and in patients in whom ganciclovir or other nucleoside analogues have previously resulted in leukopenia, or in whom neutrophil counts are less than 1000 cells/mcL at the beginning of treatment. Increased monitoring for cytopenias may be warranted if therapy with oral ganciclovir is changed to valganciclovir, because of increased plasma concentrations of ganciclovir after valganciclovir administration [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    5.2 Acute Renal Failure

    Acute renal failure may occur in:

    • Elderly patients with or without reduced renal function. Caution should be exercised when administering valganciclovir to geriatric patients, and dosage reduction is recommended for those with impaired renal function [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Use in Specific Populations (8.5, 8.6)] .
    • Patients receiving potential nephrotoxic drugs. Caution should be exercised when administering valganciclovir to patients receiving potential nephrotoxic drugs.
    • Patients without adequate hydration. Adequate hydration should be maintained for all patients.

    5.3 Impairment of Fertility

    Based on animal data and limited human data, valganciclovir at the recommended human doses may cause temporary or permanent inhibition of spermatogenesis in males, and may cause suppression of fertility in females. Advise patients that fertility may be impaired with use of valganciclovir [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

    5.4 Fetal Toxicity

    Ganciclovir may cause fetal toxicity when administered to pregnant women based on findings in animal studies. When given to pregnant rabbits at dosages resulting in 2 times the human exposure (based on AUC), ganciclovir caused malformations in multiple organs of the fetuses. Maternal and fetal toxicity were also observed in pregnant mice and rabbits. Therefore, valganciclovir has the potential to cause birth defects. Pregnancy should be avoided in female patients taking valganciclovir and in females with male partners taking valganciclovir. Females of reproductive potential should be advised to use effective contraception during treatment and for at least 30 days following treatment with valganciclovir because of the potential risk to the fetus.  Similarly, males should be advised to use condoms during and for at least 90 days following treatment with valganciclovir [see Dosage and Administration (2.6), Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

    5.5 Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis

    Animal data indicate that ganciclovir is mutagenic and carcinogenic. Valganciclovir should therefore be considered a potential carcinogen in humans [see Dosage and Administration (2.6), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

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  • 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

    The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

    •   Hematologic Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
    •   Acute Renal Failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
    •   Impairment of Fertility [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
    •   Fetal Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
    •   Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

    The most common adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities reported in at least one indication by greater than or equal to 20% of adult patients treated with valganciclovir tablets are diarrhea, pyrexia, fatigue, nausea, tremor, neutropenia, anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, headache, insomnia, urinary tract infection, and vomiting. The most common reported adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities reported in greater than or equal to 20% of pediatric solid organ transplant recipients treated with valganciclovir are diarrhea, pyrexia, upper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, vomiting, neutropenia, leukopenia, and headache.

    6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

    Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect rates observed in practice.

    Valganciclovir, a prodrug of ganciclovir, is rapidly converted to ganciclovir after oral administration. Adverse reactions known to be associated with ganciclovir usage can therefore be expected to occur with valganciclovir.

    Adverse Reactions in Adults:

    Treatment of CMV Retinitis in AIDS Patients: In a clinical study for the treatment of CMV retinitis in HIV-infected patients, the adverse reactions reported by patients receiving valganciclovir tablets (n=79) or intravenous ganciclovir (n=79) for 28 days of randomized therapy (21 days induction dose and 7 days maintenance dose), respectively, included diarrhea (16%, 10%), nausea (8%, 14%), and headache (9%, 5%). The incidence of adverse reactions was similar between the group who received valganciclovir tablets and the group who received intravenous ganciclovir. The frequencies of neutropenia (ANC less than 500/mcL) were 11% for patients receiving valganciclovir tablets compared with 13% for patients receiving intravenous ganciclovir. Anemia (Hgb less than 8 g/dL) occurred in 8% of patients in each group. Other laboratory abnormalities occurred with similar frequencies in the two groups.

    Adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities are available for 370 patients who received maintenance therapy with valganciclovir tablets 900 mg once daily in two open-label clinical trials. Approximately 252 (68%) of these patients received valganciclovir tablets for more than nine months (maximum duration was 36 months). Table 3 and Table 4 show pooled selected adverse reactions and abnormal laboratory values from these patients.

    Table 3 Pooled Selected Adverse Reactions Reported in greater than or equal to 5% of Patients who Received Valganciclovir Tablets Maintenance Therapy for CMV Retinitis
    Patients with CMV Retinitis
    Adverse Reactions according to Body System
    Valganciclovir Tablets (N=370) %
    Gastrointestinal system
    Diarrhea
    Nausea
    Vomiting
    Abdominal pain
    41
    30
    21
    15
    General disorders and administrative site conditions
    Pyrexia
    31
    Nervous system disorders
    Headache
    Insomnia
    Neuropathy peripheral
    Paresthesia
    22
    16
    9
    8
    Eye disorders
    Retinal detachment
    15
    Table 4 Pooled Selected Laboratory Abnormalities Reported in Patients Who Received Valganciclovir Tablets Maintenance Therapy for the Treatment of CMV Retinitis
    Patients with CMV Retinitis
    Laboratory Abnormalities
    Valganciclovir Tablets
    (N=370)
    %
    Neutropenia: ANC/mcL
    < 500
    19
    500 – < 750
    17
    750 – < 1000
    17
    Anemia: Hemoglobin g/dL
    < 6.5
    7
    6.5 – < 8.0
    13
    8.0 – < 9.5
    16
    Thrombocytopenia: Platelets/mcL
    < 25000
    4
    25000 – < 50000
    6
    50000 – < 100000
    22
    Serum Creatinine: mg/dL
    > 2.5
    3
    > 1.5 – 2.5
    12

    Prevention of CMV Disease in Solid Organ Transplant Patients: Table 5 shows selected adverse reactions regardless of severity with an incidence of greater than or equal to 5% from a clinical trial (up to 28 days after study treatment) where heart, kidney, kidney‑pancreas and liver transplant patients received valganciclovir tablets (N=244) or oral ganciclovir (N=126) until Day 100 post-transplant. The majority of the adverse reactions were of mild or moderate intensity.

    Table 5 Percentage of Selected Grades 1-4 Adverse Reactions Reported in greater than or equal to 5% of Adult Patients From a Study of Solid Organ Transplant Patients
    Adverse Reactions
    Valganciclovir Tablets (N=244) %
    Oral Ganciclovir (N=126) %
    Gastrointestinal disorders
    Diarrhea
    30
    29
    Nausea
    23
    23
    Vomiting
    16
    14
    Nervous system disorders
    Tremors
    28
    25
    Headache
    22
    27
    Insomnia
    20
    16
    General disorders and
    administration site conditions
    Pyrexia
    13
    14

    Table 6 shows selected adverse reactions regardless of severity with an incidence of greater than or equal to 5% from another clinical trial where kidney transplant patients received either valganciclovir once daily starting within 10 days post-transplant until Day 100 post-transplant followed by 100 days of placebo or valganciclovir once daily until Day 200 post-transplant. The overall safety profile of valganciclovir did not change with the extension of prophylaxis until Day 200 post-transplant in high risk kidney transplant patients.

     

    Table 6 Percentage of Selected Grades 1-4 Adverse Reactions Reported in greater than or equal to 5% of Adult Patients from a Study of Kidney Transplant Patients
    Adverse Reactions
    Valganciclovir Tablets Day 100 Post-transplant (N=164) %
    Valganciclovir Tablets Day 200 Post-transplant (N=156) %
    Gastrointestinal disorders
    Diarrhea
    26
    31
    Nausea
    11
    11
    Vomiting
    3
    6
    Nervous system disorders
    Tremors
    12
    17
    Headache
    10
    6
    Insomnia
    7
    6
    General disorders and
    administration site conditions
    Pyrexia
    12
    9

    Table 7 and Table 8 show selected laboratory abnormalities reported with valganciclovir tablets in two trials in solid organ transplant patients.

    Table 7 Selected Laboratory Abnormalities Reported in a Study of Adult Solid Organ Transplant Patients*

    *Laboratory abnormalities are those reported by investigators.

    Laboratory Abnormalities
    Valganciclovir Tablets (N=244) %
    Ganciclovir Capsules (N=126) %
    Neutropenia: ANC/mcL
    < 500
    500 – < 750
    750 – < 1000
    5
    3
    5
    3
    2
    2
    Anemia: Hemoglobin g/dL
    < 6.5
    6.5 – < 8.0
    8.0 – < 9.5
    1
    5
    31
    2
    7
    25
    Thrombocytopenia: Platelets/mcL
    < 25000
    25000 – < 50000
    50000 – < 100000
    0
    1
    18
    2
    3
    21
    Serum Creatinine: mg/dL
    > 2.5
    > 1.5 – 2.5
    14
    45
    21
    47
    Table 8 Selected Laboratory Abnormalities Reported in a Study of Adult Kidney Transplant Patients*

    *Laboratory abnormalities are those reported by investigators.

    Laboratory Abnormalities
    Valganciclovir Tablets Day 100 Post-transplant (N=164) %
    Valganciclovir Tablets Day 200 Post-transplant (N=156) %
    Neutropenia: ANC/mcL
    < 500
    500 – < 750
    750 – < 1000
    9
    6
    7
    10
    6
    5
    Anemia: Hemoglobin g/dL
    < 6.5
    6.5 – < 8.0
    8.0 – < 9.5
    0
    5
    17
    1
    1
    15
    Thrombocytopenia: Platelets/mcL
    < 25000
    25000 – < 50000
    50000 – < 100000
    0
    1
    7
    0
    0
    3
    Serum Creatinine: mg/dL
    > 2.5
    > 1.5 – 2.5
    17
    50
    14
    48

    Other adverse drug reactions from valganciclovir in clinical trials in CMV retinitis and solid organ transplant patients

    Other adverse drug reactions with valganciclovir in clinical trials in either patients with CMV retinitis or solid organ transplant patients that occurred in at least 5% of patients are listed below.

    Eye disorders: retinal detachment, eye pain

    Gastrointestinal disorders: dyspepsia, constipation, abdominal distention, mouth ulceration

    General disorders and administration site conditions: fatigue, pain, malaise, asthenia, chills, peripheral edema

    Hepatobiliary disorders: hepatic function abnormal

    Infections and infestations: candida infections including oral candidiasis, upper respiratory tract infection, influenza, urinary tract infection, pharyngitis/nasopharyngitis, postoperative wound infection

    Injury, poisoning, and procedural complications: postoperative complications, wound secretion

    Metabolic and nutrition disorders: decreased appetite, hyperkalemia, hypophosphatemia, weight decreased

    Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: back pain, myalgia, arthralgia, muscle spasms

    Nervous system disorders: insomnia, neuropathy peripheral, dizziness

    Psychiatric disorders: depression, anxiety

    Renal and urinary disorders: renal impairment, creatinine clearance renal decreased, blood creatinine increased, hematuria

    Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: cough, dyspnea

    Skin and subcutaneous tissues disorders: dermatitis, night sweats, pruritus

    Vascular disorders: hypotension

    Other adverse reactions with valganciclovir in clinical trials in either patients with CMV retinitis or solid organ transplant patients that occurred in less than 5% of patients are listed below.

    Blood and lymphatic disorders: febrile neutropenia, pancytopenia, bone marrow failure (including aplastic anemia)

    Cardiovascular disorders: arrhythmia

    Ear and labyrinth disorders: deafness

    Eye disorders: macular edema

    Gastrointestinal disorders: pancreatitis

    Hemorrhage: potentially life-threatening bleeding associated with thrombocytopenia

    Immune system disorders: hypersensitivity

    Infections and infestations: cellulitis, sepsis

    Injury, poisoning, and procedural complications: postoperative pain, wound dehiscence

    Investigations: aspartate aminotransferase increased, alanine aminotransferase increased

    Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: limb pain

    Nervous system disorders: seizure, dysguesia (taste disturbance)

    Psychiatric disorders: confusional state, agitation, psychotic disorder, hallucinations

    Renal and urinary disorders: renal failure

    Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients:

    Valganciclovir have been studied in 179 pediatric solid organ transplant patients who were at risk for developing CMV disease (aged 3 weeks to 16 years) and in 24 neonates with symptomatic congenital CMV disease (aged 8 to 34 days), with duration of ganciclovir exposure ranging from 2 to 200 days [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4), Clinical Studies (14.2)].

    Prevention of CMV Disease in Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Patients: The most frequently reported adverse reactions (greater than 10% of patients), regardless of seriousness, in pediatric solid organ transplant patients taking valganciclovir until Day 100 post‑transplant were diarrhea, pyrexia, upper respiratory tract infection, vomiting, anemia, neutropenia, constipation and nausea. The most frequently reported adverse reactions (greater than 10% of patients) in pediatric kidney transplant patients treated with valganciclovir until Day 200 post-transplant were upper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, diarrhea, leukopenia, neutropenia, headache, abdominal pain, tremor, pyrexia, anemia, blood creatinine increased, vomiting, and hematuria.

    In general, the safety profile was similar in pediatric patients compared to that observed in adult patients. However, the rates of certain adverse reactions, and laboratory abnormalities, such as upper respiratory tract infection, pyrexia, nasopharyngitis, anemia, and abdominal pain were reported more frequently in pediatric patients than in adults [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4), Clinical Studies (14.2)]. Neutropenia was reported at a higher incidence in the two pediatric studies as compared to adults, but there was no correlation between neutropenia and infections observed in the pediatric population.

    The overall safety profile of valganciclovir was similar with the extension of prophylaxis until Day 200 post-transplant in high risk pediatric kidney transplant patients. However, the incidence of severe neutropenia (ANC<500/mcL) was higher in pediatric kidney transplant patients treated with valganciclovir until Day 200 (17/57, 30%) compared to pediatric kidney transplant patients treated until Day 100 (3/63, 5%). There were no differences in the incidence of severe (Grade 4) anemia or thrombocytopenia in patients treated 100 or 200 days with valganciclovir.

    6.2 Postmarketing Experience

    The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of valganciclovir. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. As valganciclovir is rapidly and extensively converted to ganciclovir, any adverse reactions associated with ganciclovir might also occur with valganciclovir.

    -        Anaphylactic reaction

    -        Agranulocytosis

    -        Granulocytopenia

    In general, the adverse reactions reported during the postmarketing use of valganciclovir were similar to those identified during the clinical trials.

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  • 7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

    In vivo drug-drug interaction studies were not conducted with valganciclovir. However, because valganciclovir is rapidly and extensively converted to ganciclovir, drug-drug interactions associated with ganciclovir will be expected for valganciclovir. Drug-drug interaction studies with ganciclovir were conducted in patients with normal renal function. Following concomitant administration of valganciclovir and other renally excreted drugs, patients with impaired renal function may have increased concentrations of ganciclovir and the coadministered drug. Therefore, these patients should be closely monitored for toxicity of ganciclovir and the coadministered drug.

    Established and other potentially significant drug interactions conducted with ganciclovir are listed in Table 9.

    Table 9 Established and Other Potentially Significant Drug Interactions with Ganciclovir
    Name of the Concomitant Drug
    Change in the Concentration of Ganciclovir or Concomitant Drug
    Clinical Comment
    Imipenem-cilastatin
    Unknown
    Coadministration with imipenem-cilastatin is not recommended because generalized seizures have been reported in patients who received ganciclovir and imipenem-cilastatin.
    Cyclosporine or amphotericin B
    Unknown
    Monitor renal function when valganciclovir is coadministered with cyclosporine or amphotericin B because of potential increase in serum creatinine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)
    ↔ Ganciclovir (in patients with normal renal function) ↔ MMF (in patients with normal renal function)
    Based on increased risk, patients should be monitored for hematological and renal toxicity.
    Other drugs associated with myelosuppresion or nephrotoxicity (e.g., adriamycin, dapsone, doxorubicin, flucytosine, hydroxyurea, pentamidine, tacrolimus, trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, vinblastine, vincristine, and zidovudine)
    Unknown
    Because of potential for higher toxicity, coadministration with valganciclovir should be considered only if the potential benefits are judged to outweigh the risks.
    Didanosine
    ↔ Ganciclovir ↑ Didanosine
    Patients should be closely monitored for didanosine toxicity (e.g., pancreatitis).
    Probenecid
    ↑ Ganciclovir
    Valganciclovir dose may need to be reduced. Monitor for evidence of ganciclovir toxicity.
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  • 8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

    8.1 Pregnancy

    Risk Summary

    After oral administration, valganciclovir (prodrug) is converted to ganciclovir (active drug) and, therefore, valganciclovir is expected to have reproductive toxicity effects similar to ganciclovir. In animal studies, ganciclovir caused maternal and fetal toxicity and embryo-fetal mortality in pregnant mice and rabbits as well as teratogenicity in rabbits at exposures two-times the human exposure. There are no available human data on use of valganciclovir or ganciclovir in pregnant women to establish the presence or absence of drug-associated risk. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. However, the background risk in the U.S. general population of major birth defects is 2-4% and the risk of miscarriage is 15‑20% of clinically recognized pregnancies. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to the fetus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].

    Clinical Considerations

    Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk

    Most maternal CMV infections are asymptomatic or they may be associated with a self-limited mononucleosis-like syndrome. However, in immunocompromised patients (i.e., transplant patients or patients with AIDS) CMV infections may be symptomatic and may result in significant maternal morbidity and mortality. The transmission of CMV to the fetus is a result of maternal viremia and transplacental infection. Perinatal infection can also occur from exposure of the neonate to CMV shedding in the genital tract. Approximately 10% of children with congenital CMV infection are symptomatic at birth. Mortality in these infants is about 10% and approximately 50-90% of symptomatic surviving newborns experience significant morbidity, including mental retardation, sensorineural hearing loss, microcephaly, seizures, and other medical problems. The risk of congenital CMV infection resulting from primary maternal CMV infection may be higher and of greater severity than that resulting from maternal reactivation of CMV infection.

    Data

    Animal Data

    Doses resulting in two-times the human exposure of ganciclovir (based on the human AUC following a single intravenous infusion of 5 mg per kg of ganciclovir) resulted in maternal and embryo-fetal toxicity in pregnant mice and rabbits as well as teratogenicity in the rabbits. Fetal resorptions were present in at least 85% of rabbits and mice. Rabbits showed increased embryo-fetal mortality, growth retardation of the fetuses and structural abnormalities of multiple organs of the fetuses including the palate (cleft palate), eyes (anophthalmia/microphthalmia), brain (hydrocephalus), jaw (brachygnathia), kidneys and pancreas (aplastic organs). Increased embryo-fetal mortality was also seen in mice. Daily intravenous doses of approximately 1.7 times the human exposure (based on AUC) administered to female mice prior to mating, during gestation, and during lactation caused hypoplasia of the testes and seminal vesicles in the male offspring, as well as pathologic changes in the nonglandular region of the stomach.

    Data from an ex-vivo human placental model showed that ganciclovir crosses the human placenta. The transfer occurred by passive diffusion and was not saturable over a concentration range of 1 to 10 mg/mL.

    8.2 Lactation

    Risk Summary

    No data are available regarding the presence of valganciclovir (prodrug) or ganciclovir (active drug) in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Animal data indicate that ganciclovir is excreted in the milk of  lactating rats. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-infected mothers not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV. Advise nursing mothers that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with valganciclovir because of the potential for serious adverse events in nursing infants and because of the potential for transmission of HIV [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

    8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

    Pregnancy Testing

    Females of reproductive potential should undergo pregnancy testing before initiation of valganciclovir [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

    Contraception

    Females

    Because of the mutagenic and teratogenic potential of valganciclovir, females of reproductive potential should be advised to use effective contraception during treatment and for at least 30 days following treatment with valganciclovir [see Dosage and Administration (2.6), Warnings and Precautions (5.4, 5.5), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

    Males

    Because of its mutagenic potential, males should be advised to use condoms during and for at least 90 days following, treatment with valganciclovir [see Dosage and Administration (2.6), Warnings and Precautions (5.3, 5.5), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

    Infertility

    Valganciclovir at the recommended doses may cause temporary or permanent female and male infertility [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

    Data

    Human Data

    In a small, open-label, non-randomized clinical study, adult male renal transplant patients receiving valganciclovir for CMV prophylaxis for up to 200 days post-transplantation were compared to an untreated control group. Patients were followed-up for six months after valganciclovir discontinuation. Among 24 evaluable patients in the valganciclovir group, the mean sperm density at the end of treatment visit decreased by 11 million/mL from baseline; whereas, among 14 evaluable patients in the control group the mean sperm density increased by 33 million/mL. However, at the follow-up visit among 20 evaluable patients in the valganciclovir group the mean sperm density was comparable to that observed among 10 evaluable patients in the untreated control group (the mean sperm density at the end of follow-up visit increased by 41 million/mL from baseline in the valganciclovir group and by 43 million/mL in the untreated group).

    8.4 Pediatric Use

    Valganciclovir is indicated for the prevention of CMV disease in pediatric kidney transplant patients 4 months to 16 years of age and in pediatric heart transplant patients 1 month to 16 years of age at risk for developing CMV disease [see Indications and Usage (1.2), Dosage and Administration (2.3)].

    The use of valganciclovir for the prevention of CMV disease in pediatric kidney transplant patients 4 months to 16 years of age is based on two single-arm, open-label, non-comparative studies in patients 4 months to 16 years of age. Study 1 was a safety and pharmacokinetic study in pediatric solid organ transplant patients (kidney, liver, heart, and kidney/pancreas). Valganciclovir was administered once daily within 10 days of transplantation for a maximum of 100 days post-transplantation. Study 2 was a safety and tolerability study where valganciclovir was administered once daily within 10 days of transplantation for a maximum of 200 days post-transplantation in pediatric kidney transplant patients. The results of these studies were supported by previous demonstration of efficacy in adult patients [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), Clinical Studies (14.2)].

    The use of valganciclovir for the prevention of CMV disease in pediatric heart transplant patients 1 month to 16 years of age is based on two studies (Study 1 described above and Study 3) and was supported by previous demonstration of efficacy in adult patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), Clinical Studies (14.2)]. Study 3 was a pharmacokinetic and safety study of valganciclovir in pediatric heart transplant patients less than 4 months of age who received a single dose of valganciclovir oral solution on each of two consecutive days. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed based on the available pharmacokinetic data from pediatric and adult patients to support dosing in heart transplant patients less than 1 month of age. However, due to uncertainty in model predictions for neonates, valganciclovir is not indicated for prophylaxis in this age group.

    The safety and efficacy of valganciclovir have not been established in children for prevention of CMV disease in pediatric liver transplant patients, in kidney transplant patients less than 4 months of age, in heart transplant patients less than 1 month of age, in pediatric AIDS patients with CMV retinitis, and in infants with congenital CMV infection.

    A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of valganciclovir for oral solution was performed in 24 neonates with congenital CMV infection involving the central nervous system. All patients were treated for 6 weeks with a combination of intravenous ganciclovir 6 mg per kg twice daily or valganciclovir for oral solution at doses ranging from 14 mg per kg to 20 mg per kg twice daily. The pharmacokinetic results showed that in infants greater than 7 days to 3 months of age, a dose of 16 mg per kg twice daily of valganciclovir for oral solution provided ganciclovir systemic exposures (median AUC0-12h = 23.6 [range 16.8 – 35.5] mcgh/mL; n = 6) comparable to those obtained in infants up to 3 months of age from a 6 mg per kg dose of intravenous ganciclovir twice daily (AUC0-12h = 25.3 [range 2.4 – 89.7] mcgh/mL; n = 18) or to the ganciclovir systemic exposures obtained in adults from a 900 mg dose of valganciclovir tablets twice daily. However, the efficacy and safety of intravenous ganciclovir and of valganciclovir have not been established for the treatment of congenital CMV infection in infants and no similar disease occurs in adults; therefore, efficacy cannot be extrapolated from intravenous ganciclovir use in adults.

    8.5 Geriatric Use

    Studies of valganciclovir have not been conducted in adults older than 65 years of age. Clinical studies of valganciclovir did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Valganciclovir is known to be substantially excreted by the kidneys, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because renal clearance decreases with age, valganciclovir should be administered with consideration of their renal status. Renal function should be monitored and dosage adjustments should be made accordingly [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    8.6 Renal Impairment

    Dose reduction is recommended when administering valganciclovir to patients with renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    For adult patients on hemodialysis (CrCl less than 10 mL/min), valganciclovir tablets should not be used. Adult hemodialysis patients should use ganciclovir in accordance with the dose-reduction algorithm cited in the  CYTOVENE®-IV complete product information section on DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: Renal Impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    8.7 Hepatic Impairment

    The safety and efficacy of valganciclovir have not been studied in patients with hepatic impairment.

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  • 10 OVERDOSAGE

    Experience with Valganciclovir Tablets: An overdose of valganciclovir could possibly result in increased renal toxicity [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Use in Specific Populations (8.6)]. Because ganciclovir is dialyzable, dialysis may be useful in reducing serum concentrations in patients who have received an overdose of valganciclovir [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Adequate hydration should be maintained. The use of hematopoietic growth factors should be considered [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    Reports of adverse reactions after overdoses with valganciclovir, some with fatal outcomes, have been received from clinical trials and during postmarketing experience. The majority of patients experienced one or more of the following adverse events:

    Hematological toxicity: myelosuppression including pancytopenia, bone marrow failure, leukopenia, neutropenia, granulocytopenia

    Hepatotoxicity: hepatitis, liver function disorder

    Renal toxicity: worsening of hematuria in a patient with pre-existing renal impairment, acute kidney injury, elevated creatinine

    Gastrointestinal toxicity: abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting

    Neurotoxicity: generalized tremor, seizure

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  • 11 DESCRIPTION

    Valganciclovir tablets, USP contains valganciclovir hydrochloride (valganciclovir HCl), USP a hydrochloride salt of the L-valyl ester of ganciclovir that exists as a mixture of two diastereomers. Ganciclovir is a synthetic guanine derivative active against CMV.

    Valganciclovir tablets, USP is available as a 450 mg tablet for oral administration. Each tablet contains 496.3 mg of valganciclovir HCl, USP (corresponding to 450 mg of valganciclovir), and the inactive ingredients microcrystalline cellulose, crospovidone, povidone, and stearic acid. The tablets are coated with Opadry Pink which contains hypromellose, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol and iron oxide red

    Valganciclovir HCl, USP is a white to off-white powder with a molecular formula of C14H22N6O5·HCl and a molecular weight of 390.82. The chemical name for valganciclovir HCl is L-Valine, 2-[(2-amino-1,6-dihydro-6-oxo-9H-purin-9-yl)methoxy]-3-hydroxypropyl ester, monohydrochloride. Valganciclovir HCl is a polar hydrophilic compound with a solubility of 70 mg/mL in water at 25°C at a pH of 7.0 and an n-octanol/water partition coefficient of 0.0095 at pH 7.0. The pKa for valganciclovir HCl is 7.6.

    The chemical structure of valganciclovir HCl is:

    Image

    All doses in this insert are specified in terms of valganciclovir.

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  • 12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

    12.1 Mechanism of Action

    Valganciclovir is an antiviral drug with activity against CMV [see Microbiology (12.4)].

    12.3 Pharmacokinetics

    Valganciclovir is a prodrug of ganciclovir. Valganciclovir Cmax and AUC are approximately 1% and 3% of those of ganciclovir, respectively.

    Pharmacokinetics in Adults: The pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir after administration of valganciclovir tablets have been evaluated in HIV- and CMV-seropositive patients, patients with AIDS and CMV retinitis, and in solid organ transplant patients (Table 10).

    Table 10 Ganciclovir Pharmacokinetics* in Healthy Volunteers and HIV‑positive/CMV-positive Adults Administered Valganciclovir Tablets 900 mg Once Daily with Food

    *Data were obtained from single and multiple dose studies in healthy volunteers, HIV-positive patients, and HIV-positive/CMV-positive patients with and without retinitis. Patients with CMV retinitis tended to have higher ganciclovir plasma concentrations than patients without CMV retinitis.

    PK parameter
    N
    Value (Mean ± SD)
    AUC0-24h (mcg h/mL)
    57
    29.1 ± 9.7
    Cmax (mcg/mL)
    58
    5.61 ± 1.52
    Absolute oral bioavailability (%)
    32
    59.4 ± 6.1
    Elimination half-life (hr)
    73
    4.08 ± 0.76
    Renal clearance (mL/min/kg)
    20
    3.21 ± 0.75
    (1 study, n=20)

    The systemic ganciclovir exposures attained following administration of 900 mg valganciclovir tablets once daily were comparable across kidney, heart and liver transplant recipients (Table 11).

    Table 11 Ganciclovir Pharmacokinetics in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients Administered Valganciclovir Tablets 900 mg Once Daily with Food.

    * Includes kidney-pancreas

    Parameter
    Value (Mean ± SD)
    Heart Transplant Recipients
    (N=17)
    Liver Transplant Recipients
    (N=75)
    Kidney Transplant Recipients*
    (N=68)
    AUC0-24h (mcg h/mL)
    40.2 ± 11.8
    46.0 ± 16.1
    48.2 ± 14.6
    Cmax (mcg/mL)
    4.9 ± 1.1
    5.4 ± 1.5
    5.3 ± 1.5
    Elimination half-life (hr)
    6.58 ± 1.50
    6.18 ± 1.42
    6.77 ± 1.25

    The pharmacokinetic parameters of ganciclovir following 200 days of valganciclovir administration in high-risk kidney transplant patients were similar to those in solid organ transplant patients who received valganciclovir for 100 days.

    Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion

    The pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of valganciclovir are provided in Table 12.

    Table 12 Pharmacokinetic Properties of Ganciclovir and Valganciclovir Associated with Valganciclovir

    a Steady state ganciclovir PK was assessed after administration of valganciclovir tablets (875 mg once daily) with a high fat meal containing approximately 600 total calories (31.1 g fat, 51.6 g carbohydrates and 22.2 g protein) to 16 HIV-positive subjects.


    Valganciclovir
    Ganciclovir
    Absorption
    Tmax (h)
    median (min-max) (fed conditions)
    2.18
    1.7h to 3.0h
    Food effect (high fat meal/fasting): PK parameter ratio and 90% confidence intervala
    Cmax:
    1.14 (0.95, 1.36)
    AUC:
    1.30 (1.07, 1.51)a
    Tmax: ↔
    Distribution
    % Bound to human plasma proteins (ex vivo)
    Unknown
    1-2% over 0.5-51 mcg/mL
    Cerebrospinal fluid penetration
    Unknown
    Yes
    Metabolism

    Hydrolyzed by intestinal and liver esterases
    No significant metabolism
    Elimination
    Dose proportionality
    AUC was dose proportional under fed conditions across a valganciclovir dose range of 450 to 2625 mg
    Major route of elimination
    Metabolism to ganciclovir
    Glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion
    t1/2 (h)
    see Tables 10 and 11
    % Of dose excreted in urine
    Unknown
    % Of dose excreted in feces
    Unknown

    Specific Populations:

    Renal Impairment: The pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir from a single oral dose of 900 mg valganciclovir tablets were evaluated in 24 otherwise healthy individuals with renal impairment. Decreased renal function results in decreased clearance of ganciclovir and increased terminal half-life (Table 13).

    Table 13 Pharmacokinetics of Ganciclovir from a Single Oral Dose of 900 mg Valganciclovir Tablets

    *Creatinine clearance calculated from 24-hour urine collection

    Estimated Creatinine Clearance * (mL/min)
    N
    Apparent Clearance (mL/min) Mean ± SD
    AUClast(mcg∙h/mL) Mean ± SD
    Half-life (hours) Mean ± SD
    51-70
    6
    249 ± 99
    49.5 ± 22.4
    4.85 ± 1.4
    21-50
    6
    136 ± 64
    91.9 ± 43.9
    10.2 ± 4.4
    11-20
    6
    45 ± 11
    223 ± 46
    21.8 ± 5.2
    ≤10
    6
    12.8 ± 8
    366 ± 66
    67.5 ± 34

    Hemodialysis reduces plasma concentrations of ganciclovir by about 50% following valganciclovir administration. Adult patients receiving hemodialysis (CrCl less than 10 mL/min) cannot use valganciclovir tablets because the daily dose of valganciclovir tablets required for these patients is less than 450 mg [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].

    Pharmacokinetics in Pediatric Patients: The pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir were evaluated following the administration of valganciclovir in 63 pediatric solid organ transplant patients aged 4 months to 16 years, and in 16 pediatric heart transplant patients less than 4 months of age. In these studies, patients received oral doses of valganciclovir (either valganciclovir for oral solution or tablets) to produce exposure equivalent to an adult 900 mg dose [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Adverse Reactions (6.1), Use in Specific Populations (8.4), Clinical Studies (14.2)].

    In studies using the pediatric valganciclovir dosing algorithm, the pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir were similar across organ types and age ranges (Table 14). Relative to adult transplant patients (Table 11), AUC values in pediatric patients were somewhat increased, but were within the range considered safe and effective in adults.

    Table 14 Ganciclovir Pharmacokinetics by Age in Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Patients Administered Valganciclovir

    N= number of patients, NA=not applicable

    a Ages ranged from 26 to 124 days.

    PK Parameter mean (SD)
    Age Group
    Organ
    < 4 months
    4 months to ≤ 2 years
    > 2 to < 12 years
    ≥ 12 years
    N
    14a
    6
    2
    4
    Heart
    AUC0-24h (mcg∙h/mL)
    66.3 (20.5)
    55.4 (22.8)
    59.6 (21.0)
    60.6 (25.0)
    (N=26)
    Cmax (mcg/mL)
    10.8 (3.30)
    8.2 (2.5)
    12.5 (1.2)
    9.5 (3.3)
    t1/2 (h)
    3.5 (0.87)
    3.8 (1.7)
    2.8 (0.9)
    4.9 (0.8)

    N
    2
    10
    19
    Kidney
    AUC0-24h (mcg∙h/mL)
    67.6 (13.0)
    55.9 (12.1)
    47.8 (12.4)
    (N=31)
    Cmax (mcg/mL)
    NA
    10.4 (0.4)
    8.7 (2.1)
    7.7 (2.1)
    t1/2 (h)
    4.5 (1.5)
    4.8 (1.0)
    6.0 (1.3)
    N
    9
    6
    2
    Liver
    AUC0-24h (mcg∙h/mL)
    69.9 (37.0)
    59.4 (8.1)
    35.4 (2.8)
    (N=17)
    Cmax (mcg/mL)
    NA
    11.9 (3.7)
    9.5 (2.3)
    5.5 (1.1)
    t1/2 (h)
    2.8 (1.5)
    3.8 (0.7)
    4.4 (0.2)

    Pharmacokinetics in Geriatric Patients: The pharmacokinetic characteristics of valganciclovir in elderly patients have not been established.

    Drug Interactions: In vivo drug-drug interaction studies were not conducted with valganciclovir. However, because valganciclovir is rapidly and extensively converted to ganciclovir, interactions associated with ganciclovir will be expected for valganciclovir [see Drug Interactions (7)].

    Table 15 and Table 16 provide a listing of established drug interaction studies with ganciclovir. Table 15 provides the effects of coadministered drug on ganciclovir plasma pharmacokinetic parameters, whereas Table 16 provides the effects of ganciclovir on plasma pharmacokinetic parameters of coadministered drug.

    Table 15 Results of Drug Interaction Studies with Ganciclovir: Effects of Coadministered Drug on Ganciclovir Pharmacokinetic Parameters
    Coadministered Drug
    Ganciclovir Dosage
    N
    Ganciclovir Pharmacokinetic (PK) Parameter
    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) 1.5 g single dose
    5 mg/kg IV single dose
    12
    No effect on ganciclovir PK parameters observed (patients with normal renal function)
    Trimethoprim 200 mg once daily
    1000 mg every 8 hours
    12
    No effect on ganciclovir PK parameters observed
    Didanosine 200 mg every 12 hours simultaneously administered with ganciclovir
    5 mg/kg IV twice daily
    11
    No effect on ganciclovir PK parameters observed
    5 mg/kg IV once daily
    11
    No effect on ganciclovir PK parameters observed
    Probenecid 500 mg every 6 hours
    1000 mg every 8 hours
    10
    AUC ↑ 53 ± 91%
    (range: -14% to 299%)
    Ganciclovir renal clearance
    ↓ 22 ± 20%
    (range: -54% to -4%)
    Table 16 Results of Drug Interaction Studies with Ganciclovir: Effects of Ganciclovir on Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Coadministered Drug
    Coadministered Drug
    Ganciclovir Dosage
    N
    Coadministered Drug Pharmacokinetic (PK) Parameter
    Oral cyclosporine at therapeutic doses
    5 mg/kg infused over 1 hour every 12 hours
    93
    In a retrospective analysis of liver allograft recipients, there was no evidence of an effect on cyclosporine whole blood concentrations.
    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) 1.5 g single dose
    5 mg/kg IV single dose
    12
    No PK interaction observed (patients with normal renal function)
    Trimethoprim 200 mg once daily
    1000 mg every 8 hours
    12
    No effect on trimethoprim PK parameters observed
    Didanosine 200 mg every 12 hours
    5 mg/kg IV twice daily
    11
    AUC0-12 ↑70 ± 40% (range: 3% to 121%)
    Cmax↑49 ± 48% (range: -28% to 125%)
    Didanosine 200 mg every 12 hours
    5 mg/kg IV once daily
    11
    AUC0-12 ↑50 ± 26% (range: 22% to 110%)
    Cmax ↑36 ± 36% (range: -27% to 94%)

    12.4 Microbiology

    Mechanism of Action: Valganciclovir is an L-valyl ester (prodrug) of ganciclovir that exists as a mixture of two diastereomers. After oral administration, both diastereomers are rapidly converted to ganciclovir by intestinal and hepatic esterases. Ganciclovir is a synthetic analogue of 2'‑deoxyguanosine, which inhibits replication of human CMV in cell culture and in vivo.

    In CMV-infected cells, ganciclovir is initially phosphorylated to ganciclovir monophosphate by the viral protein kinase, pUL97. Further phosphorylation occurs by cellular kinases to produce ganciclovir triphosphate, which is then slowly metabolized intracellularly (half-life 18 hours). As the phosphorylation is largely dependent on the viral kinase, phosphorylation of ganciclovir occurs preferentially in virus-infected cells. The virustatic activity of ganciclovir is due to inhibition of the viral DNA polymerase, pUL54, synthesis by ganciclovir triphosphate.

    Antiviral Activity: The quantitative relationship between the cell culture susceptibility of human herpes viruses to antivirals and clinical response to antiviral therapy has not been established, and virus sensitivity testing has not been standardized. Sensitivity test results, expressed as the concentration of drug required to inhibit the growth of virus in cell culture by 50% (EC50), vary greatly depending upon a number of factors including the assay used. Thus, the reported EC50 values of ganciclovir that inhibit human CMV replication in cell culture (laboratory and clinical isolates) have ranged from 0.08 to 22.94 mcM (0.02 to 5.75 mcg/mL). The distribution and range in susceptibility observed in one assay evaluating 130 clinical isolates was 0 to 1 mcM (35%), 1.1 to 2 mcM (20%), 2.1 to 3 mcM (27%), 3.1 to 4 mcM (13%), 4.1 to 5 mcM (5%), less than 5 mcM (less than 1%). Ganciclovir inhibits mammalian cell proliferation (CC50) in cell culture at higher concentrations ranging from 40 to greater than 1,000 mcM (10.21 to greater than 250 mcg/mL). Bone marrow-derived colony-forming cells are more sensitive [CC50 value = 2.7 to 12 mcM (0.69 to 3.06 mcg/mL)].

    Viral Resistance:

    Cell culture: CMV isolates with reduced susceptibility to ganciclovir have been selected in cell culture. Growth of CMV strains in the presence of ganciclovir resulted in the selection of amino acid substitutions in the viral protein kinase pUL97 (M460I/V, L595S, G598D, and K599T) and the viral DNA polymerase pUL54 (D301N, N410K, F412V, P488R, L516R, C539R, L545S, F595I, V812L, P829S, L862F, D879G, and V946L).

    In vivo: Viruses resistant to ganciclovir can arise after prolonged treatment or prophylaxis with valganciclovir by selection of substitutions in pUL97 and/or pUL54. Limited clinical data are available on the development of clinical resistance to ganciclovir and many pathways to resistance likely exist. In clinical isolates, seven canonical pUL97 substitutions, (M460V/I, H520Q, C592G, A594V, L595S, and C603W) are the most frequently reported ganciclovir resistance-associated substitutions. These and other substitutions less frequently reported in the literature, or observed in clinical trials, are listed in Table 17.

    Table 17 Summary of Resistance-associated Amino Acid Substitutions Observed in the CMV of Patients Failing Ganciclovir Treatment or Prophylaxis

    Note: Many additional pathways to ganciclovir resistance likely exist

    pUL97
    L405P, A440V, M460I/V/T/L, V466G/M, C518Y, H520Q, P521L, del 590-593, A591D/V, C592G, A594E/G/T/V/P, L595F/S/T/W, del 595, del 595-603, E596D/G/Y, K599E/M, del 600-601, del 597-600, del 601-603, C603W/R/S/Y, C607F/S/Y, I610T, A613V
    pUL54
    E315D, N408D/K/S, F412C/L/S, D413A/E/N, L501F/I, T503I, K513E/N/R, D515E, L516W, I521T, P522A/L/S, V526L, C539G, L545S/W, Q578H/L, D588E/N, G629S, S695T, I726T/V, E756K, L773V, V781I, V787L, L802M, A809V, T813S, T821I, A834P, G841A/S, D879G, A972V, del 981-982, A987G

    The presence of known ganciclovir resistance-associated amino acid substitutions was evaluated in a study that extended valganciclovir CMV prophylaxis from 100 days to 200 days post‑transplant in adult kidney transplant patients at high risk for CMV disease (D+/R-) [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Five subjects from the 100 day group and four subjects from the 200 day group meeting the resistance analysis criteria had known ganciclovir resistance-associated amino acid substitutions detected. In six subjects, the following resistance-associated amino acid substitutions were detected within pUL97: 100 day group: A440V, M460V, C592G; 200 day group: M460V, C603W. In three subjects, the following resistance-associated amino acid substitutions were detected within pUL54: 100 day group: E315D; 200 day group: E315D, P522S. Overall, the detection of known ganciclovir resistance-associated amino acid substitutions was observed more frequently in patients during prophylaxis therapy than after the completion of prophylaxis therapy (during therapy: 5/12 [42%] versus after therapy: 4/58 [7%]). The possibility of viral resistance should be considered in patients who show poor clinical response or experience persistent viral excretion during therapy.

    Cross-Resistance: Cross-resistance has been reported for amino acid substitutions selected in cell culture by ganciclovir, cidofovir or foscarnet. In general, amino acid substitutions in pUL54 conferring cross-resistance to ganciclovir and cidofovir are located within the exonuclease domains and region V of the viral DNA polymerase. Whereas, amino acid substitutions conferring cross-resistance to foscarnet are diverse, but concentrate at and between regions II (codon 696-742) and III (codon 805-845). The amino acid substitutions that resulted in reduced susceptibility to ganciclovir and either cidofovir and/or foscarnet are summarized in Table 18.

    Substitutions at amino acid positions pUL97 340-400 have been found to confer resistance to ganciclovir. Resistance data based on assays that do not include this region should be interpreted cautiously.

    Table 18 Summary of pUL54 Amino Acid Substitutions with Cross-Resistance between Ganciclovir, Cidofovir, and/or Foscarnet
    Cross-resistant to cidofovir
    D301N, N408D/K, N410K, F412C/L/S/V, D413E/N, P488R, L501I, T503I, K513E/N, L516R/W, I521T, P522S/A, V526L, C539G/R, L545S/W, Q578H, D588N, I726T/V, E756K, L733V, V812L, T813S, A834P, G841A, del 981-982, A987G
    Cross-resistant to foscarnet
    F412C, Q578H/L, D588N, V715A/M, E756K, L733V, V781I, V787L, L802M, A809V, V812L, T813S, T821I, A834P, G841A/S, del 981-982
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  • 13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

    13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

    Long-term carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted with valganciclovir. However, upon oral administration, valganciclovir is rapidly and extensively converted to ganciclovir. Therefore, like ganciclovir, valganciclovir is a potential carcinogen.

    Ganciclovir was carcinogenic in the mouse at oral doses that produced exposures approximately 0.1x and 1.4x, respectively, the mean drug exposure in humans following the recommended intravenous dose of 5 mg/kg, based on area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC) comparisons. At the higher dose, there was a significant increase in the incidence of tumors of the preputial gland in males, forestomach (nonglandular mucosa) in males and females, and reproductive tissues (ovaries, uterus, mammary gland, clitoral gland and vagina) and liver in females. At the lower dose, a slightly increased incidence of tumors was noted in the preputial and harderian glands in males, forestomach in males and females, and liver in females. Ganciclovir should be considered a potential carcinogen in humans.

    Valganciclovir increases mutations in mouse lymphoma cells. In the mouse micronucleus assay, valganciclovir was clastogenic. Valganciclovir was not mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella assay. Ganciclovir increased mutations in mouse lymphoma cells and DNA damage in human lymphocytes in vitro. In the mouse micronucleus assay, ganciclovir was clastogenic. Ganciclovir was not mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella assay.

    Valganciclovir is converted to ganciclovir and therefore is expected to have similar reproductive toxicity effects as ganciclovir [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Ganciclovir caused decreased mating behavior, decreased fertility, and an increased incidence of embryolethality in female mice following intravenous doses that produced an exposure approximately 1.7x the mean drug exposure in humans following the dose of 5 mg per kg, based on AUC comparisons. Ganciclovir caused decreased fertility in male mice and hypospermatogenesis in mice and dogs following daily oral or intravenous administration. Systemic drug exposure (AUC) at the lowest dose showing toxicity in each species ranged from 0.03 to 0.1x the AUC of the recommended human intravenous dose. Valganciclovir caused similar effects on spermatogenesis in mice, rats, and dogs. These effects were reversible at lower doses but irreversible at higher doses. It is considered likely that ganciclovir (and valganciclovir) could cause temporary or permanent inhibition of human spermatogenesis.

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  • 14 CLINICAL STUDIES

    14.1 Adult Patients

    Induction Therapy of CMV Retinitis: In one randomized open-label controlled study, 160 patients with AIDS and newly diagnosed CMV retinitis were randomized to receive treatment with either valganciclovir tablets (900 mg twice daily for 21 days, then 900 mg once daily for 7 days) or with intravenous ganciclovir solution (5 mg per kg twice daily for 21 days, then 5 mg per kg once daily for 7 days). Study participants were: male (91%), White (53%), Hispanic (31%), and Black (11%). The median age was 39 years, the median baseline HIV-1 RNA was 4.9 log10, and the median CD4 cell count was 23 cells/mm3. A determination of CMV retinitis progression by the masked review of retinal photographs taken at baseline and Week 4 was the primary outcome measurement of the 3-week induction therapy. Table 19 provides the outcomes at 4 weeks.

    Table 19 Week 4 Masked Review of Retinal Photographs in CMV Retinitis Study
    Intravenous Ganciclovir
    Valganciclovir Tablets
    Determination of CMV retinitis progression at Week 4
    N=80
    N=80
    Progressor
    7
    7
    Non-progressor
    63
    64
    Death
    2
    1
    Discontinuations due to Adverse Events
    1
    2
    Failed to return
    1
    1
    CMV not confirmed at baseline or no interpretable baseline photos
    6
    5

    Maintenance Therapy of CMV Retinitis: No comparative clinical data are available on the efficacy of valganciclovir tablets for the maintenance therapy of CMV retinitis because all patients in the CMV retinitis study received open-label valganciclovir tablets after Week 4. However, the AUC for ganciclovir is similar following administration of 900 mg valganciclovir tablets once daily and 5 mg per kg intravenous ganciclovir once daily. Although the ganciclovir Cmax is lower following valganciclovir tablets administration compared to intravenous ganciclovir, it is higher than the Cmax obtained following oral ganciclovir administration . Therefore, use of valganciclovir tablets as maintenance therapy is supported by a plasma concentration-time profile similar to that of two approved products for maintenance therapy of CMV retinitis.

    Prevention of CMV Disease in Heart, Kidney, Kidney-Pancreas, or Liver Transplantation: A double blind, double-dummy active comparator study was conducted in 372 heart, liver, kidney, or kidney-pancreas transplant patients at high risk for CMV disease (D+/R-). Patients were randomized (2 valganciclovir: 1 oral ganciclovir) to receive either valganciclovir tablets (900 mg once daily) or oral ganciclovir (1000 mg three times a day) starting within 10 days of transplantation until Day 100 post-transplant. The proportion of patients who developed CMV disease, including CMV syndrome and/or tissue-invasive disease during the first 6 months post-transplant was similar between the valganciclovir tablets arm (12.1%, N=239) and the oral ganciclovir arm (15.2%, N=125). However, in liver transplant patients, the incidence of tissue-invasive CMV disease was significantly higher in the valganciclovir group compared with the ganciclovir group. These results are summarized in Table 20.

    Mortality at six months was 3.7% (9/244) in the valganciclovir group and 1.6% (2/126) in the oral ganciclovir group.

    Table 20 Percentage of Patients with CMV Disease, Tissue-Invasive CMV Disease or CMV Syndrome by Organ Type: Endpoint Committee, 6 Month ITT Population

    GCV = oral ganciclovir; VGCV = valganciclovir

    1Number of patients with CMV disease = Number of patients with tissue-invasive CMV disease or CMV syndrome

    2CMV syndrome was defined as evidence of CMV viremia accompanied with fever greater than or equal to 38°C on two or more occasions separated by at least 24 hours within a 7-day period and one or more of the following: malaise, leukopenia, atypical lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and elevation of hepatic transaminases

    CMV Disease1
    Tissue-Invasive CMV Disease
    CMV Syndrome2
    Organ
    VGCV (N=239)
    GCV (N=125)
    VGCV (N=239)
    GCV (N=125)
    VGCV (N=239)
    GCV (N=125)
    Liver (n=177)
    19% (22/118)
    12% (7/59)
    14% (16/118)
    3% (2/59)
    5% (6/118)
    8% (5/59)
    Kidney (n=120)
    6% (5/81)
    23% (9/39)
    1% (1/81)
    5% (2/39)
    5% (4/81)
    18% (7/39)
    Heart (n=56)
    6% (2/35)
    10% (2/21)
    0% (0/35)
    5% (1/21)
    6% (2/35)
    5% (1/21)
    Kidney/ Pancreas (n=11)
    0% (0/5)
    17% (1/6)
    0% (0/5)
    17% (1/6)
    0% (0/5)
    0% (0/6)

    Prevention of CMV Disease in Kidney Transplantation: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 326 kidney transplant patients at high risk for CMV disease (D+/R-) to assess the efficacy and safety of extending valganciclovir CMV prophylaxis from 100 to 200 days post‑transplant. Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive valganciclovir tablets (900 mg once daily) within 10 days of transplantation either until Day 200 post-transplant or until Day 100 post‑transplant followed by 100 days of placebo. Extending CMV prophylaxis with valganciclovir until Day 200 post-transplant demonstrated superiority in preventing CMV disease within the first 12 months post-transplant in high risk kidney transplant patients compared to the 100 day dosing regimen (primary endpoint). These results are summarized in Table 21.

    Table 21 Percentage of Kidney Transplant Patients with CMV Disease, Tissue-Invasive CMV Disease or CMV Syndrome, 12 Month ITT Population

    VGCV = valganciclovir.

    1Number of patients with CMV disease = Number of patients with tissue-invasive CMV disease or CMV syndrome

    2CMV syndrome was defined as evidence of CMV viremia accompanied with at least one of the following: fever (greater than or equal to 38°C), severe malaise, leukopenia, atypical lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and elevation of hepatic transaminases

    3Two patients in the 100 day group had both tissue-invasive CMV disease and CMV syndrome; however, these patients are counted as having only tissue-invasive CMV disease.

    CMV Disease1
    Tissue-Invasive CMV Disease
    CMV Syndrome2
    100 Days VGCV (N=163)
    200 Days VGCV (N=155)
    100 Days VGCV (N=163)
    200 Days VGCV (N=155)
    100 Days VGCV (N=163)
    200 Days VGCV (N=155)
    Cases
    36.8% (60/163)
    16.8% (26/155)
    1.8% (3/163)3
    0.6% (1/155)
    35. 0% (57/163)
    16.1% (25/155)

    The percentage of kidney transplant patients with CMV disease at 24 months post-transplant was 38.7% (63/163) for the 100 day dosing regimen and 21.3% (33/155) for the 200 day dosing regimen.

    14.2 Pediatric Patients

    Prevention of CMV in Pediatric Heart, Kidney, or Liver Transplantation: Sixty-three children, 4 months to 16 years of age, who had a solid organ transplant (kidney 33, liver 17, heart 12, and kidney/liver 1) and were at risk for developing CMV disease, were enrolled in an open-label, safety, and pharmacokinetic study of oral valganciclovir. Patients received valganciclovir once daily within 10 days after transplant until a maximum of 100 days post-transplant. The daily doses of valganciclovir were calculated at each study visit based on body surface area and a modified creatinine clearance [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].

    The pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir were similar across organ transplant types and age ranges. The mean daily ganciclovir exposures in pediatric patients were somewhat increased relative to those observed in adult solid organ transplant patients receiving valganciclovir 900 mg once daily, but were within the range considered safe and effective in adults [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. No case of CMV syndrome or tissue-invasive CMV disease was reported within the first six months post-transplantation.

    Prevention of CMV in Pediatric Kidney Transplantation: Fifty-seven children, 1 to 16 years of age, who had a renal transplant and were at risk for developing CMV disease, were enrolled in an open-label tolerability study of oral valganciclovir. Patients received valganciclovir once daily within 10 days after transplant until a maximum of 200 days post-transplant. The daily doses of valganciclovir were calculated at each study visit based on body surface area and a modified creatinine clearance [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)]. No case of CMV syndrome or tissue-invasive CMV disease was reported within the first 12 months post-transplantation.

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  • 15 REFERENCES

    1. Brion LP, Fleischman AR, McCarton C, Schwartz GJ. A simple estimate of glomerular filtration rate in low birth weight infants during the first year of life: noninvasive assessment of body composition and growth. J of Ped 1986: 109(4): 698-707.
    2. NIOSH [2014]. NIOSH list of antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in healthcare settings. By Connor TH, MacKenzie BA, DeBord DG, Trout DB, O'Callaghan JP, Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2014-138 (Supersedes 2012-150).
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  • 16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

    Valganciclovir tablets, USP, 450 mg are pink colored, capsule shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets, debossed with 'C 277' on one side and 'plain' on other side. Each film-coated tablet contains 496.3 mg of valganciclovir hydrochloride, USP equivalent to 450 mg of valganciclovir. Valganciclovir tablet is supplied in bottles of 60 tablets (NDC 69097-277-03).

    Store valganciclovir tablets at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions are permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].

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  • 17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

    Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Patient Information).

    Serious Adverse Reactions

    Inform patients that valganciclovir may cause granulocytopenia (neutropenia), anemia, thrombocytopenia and elevated creatinine levels and that dose modification or discontinuation of dosing may be required. Complete blood counts, platelet counts, and creatinine levels should be monitored frequently during treatment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

    Pregnancy and Contraception

    Inform females of reproductive potential that valganciclovir causes birth defects in animals. Advise them to use effective contraception during and for at least 30 days following treatment with valganciclovir. Similarly, advise males to use condoms during and for at least 90 days following treatment with valganciclovir [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3)].

    Carcinogenicity

    Advise patients that valganciclovir is considered a potential carcinogen [see Nonclinical Toxicity (13.1)].

    Lactation

    Advise mothers not to breast-feed if they are receiving valganciclovir because of the potential for hematologic toxicity and cancer in nursing infants, and because HIV can be passed to the baby in breast milk [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].

    Infertility

    Advise patients that valganciclovir may cause temporary or permanent female and male infertility [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].

    Impairment of Cognitive Ability

    Inform patients that tasks requiring alertness may be affected including the patient's ability to drive and operate machinery as seizures, dizziness, and/or confusion have been reported with the use of valganciclovir [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

    Use in Patients with CMV Retinitis

    Inform patients that valganciclovir is not a cure for CMV retinitis, and they may continue to experience progression of retinitis during or following treatment. Advise patients to have ophthalmologic follow-up examinations at a minimum of every 4 to 6 weeks while being treated with valganciclovir. Some patients will require more frequent follow-up.

    Administration

    Inform adult patients that they should use valganciclovir tablets, not valganciclovir for oral solution [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].

    Inform patients to take valganciclovir with food to maximize bioavailability.

    For more information, go to www.ciplausa.com or call 1-866-604-3268.

    Disclaimer: Other brands listed are the registered trademarks of their respective owners and are not trademarks of Cipla Limited.

    Manufactured by:

    Cipla Ltd.,

    MIDC Patalganga, India

    Manufactured for:

    Cipla USA, Inc.

    1560 Sawgrass Corporate Parkway,

    Suite 130, Sunrise, FL 33323

    Revised: 8/2018

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  • PATIENT INFORMATION

    Valganciclovir (val'gan-si'klo-vir) tablets, USP

    What is the most important information I should know about valganciclovir tablets?

    Valganciclovir tablets can cause serious side effects, including:

    • Blood and bone marrow problems. Valganciclovir tablets can affect the bone marrow lowering the amount of your white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets and may cause serious and life-threatening problems.
    • Kidney failure. Kidney failure may happen in people who are elderly, people who take valganciclovir tablets with certain other medicines, or people who are not adequately hydrated.
    • Fertility problems. Valganciclovir tablets may lower sperm count in males and cause fertility problems. Valganciclovir tablets may also cause fertility problems in women. Talk to your healthcare provider if this is a concern for you.
    • Birth defects. Valganciclovir tablet causes birth defects in animals. It is not known if valganciclovir tablet causes birth defects in people. If you are a female who can become pregnant, you should use effective birth control during treatment with valganciclovir tablets and for at least 30 days after treatment. If you are pregnant, talk to your healthcare provider before starting treatment with valganciclovir tablets. If you are a female who can become pregnant, you should have a pregnancy test done before starting valganciclovir tablets.
    • Tell your healthcare provider right away if you become pregnant during treatment with valganciclovir tablets.
    • Males should use condoms during treatment with valganciclovir tablets, and for at least 90 days after treatment, if their female sexual partner can become pregnant. Talk to your healthcare provider if you have questions about birth control.
    • Cancer. Valganciclovir causes cancer in animals and may potentially cause cancer in people.

    Your healthcare provider will do regular blood test during treatment with valganciclovir tablets to check you for side effects.

    Your healthcare provider may change your dose or stop treatment with valganciclovir tablets if you have serious side effects.

    What are valganciclovir tablets?

    Valganciclovir tablet is a prescription antiviral medicine.

    In adults, valganciclovir tablets are used:

    •   to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in people who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). When CMV virus infects the eyes, it is called CMV retinitis. If CMV retinitis is not treated, it can cause blindness.
    •   to prevent CMV disease in people who have received a kidney,heart, or kidney-pancreas transplant and who have a high risk for getting CMV disease.

    Valganciclovir tablets does not cure CMV retinitis. You may still get retinitis or worsening of retinitis during or after treatment with valganciclovir tablets. It is important to stay under a healthcare provider's care and have your eyes checked at least every 4 to 6 weeks during treatment with valganciclovir tablets.

    In children, valganciclovir tablets are used:

    •   to prevent CMV disease in children 4 months to 16 years of age who have received a kidney transplant and have a high risk for getting CMV disease.
    •   to prevent CMV disease in children 1 month to 16 years of age who have received a heart transplant and have a high risk for getting CMV disease.

    It is not known if valganciclovir tablets are safe and effective in children for prevention of CMV disease in liver transplant, in kidney transplant in infants less than 4 months of age, in heart transplant in infants less than 1 month of age, in children with AIDS who have CMV retinitis, and in infants with congenital CMV infection.

    Do not take valganciclovir tablets if you have had a serious allergic reaction to valganciclovir, ganciclovir or any of the ingredients of valganciclovir tablets. See the end of this leaflet for a list of the ingredients in valganciclovir tablets.

    Before you take valganciclovir tablets, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:

    • have low blood cell counts
    • have kidney problems
    • are receiving hemodialysis
    • are receiving radiation treatment
    • are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. See "What is the most important information I should know about valganciclovir tablets?"
    • are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if valganciclovir passes into your breast milk. You should not breastfeed if you take valganciclovir tablets.
      • You should not breastfeed if you have Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) because of the risk of passing HIV-1 to your baby.
      • Talk to your healthcare provider about the best way to feed your baby.

    Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over‑the-counter medicines, vitamins and herbal supplements. Valganciclovir tablets and other medicines may affect each other and cause serious side effects. Keep a list of your medicines to show your healthcare provider and pharmacist.

    •   You can ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for a list of medicines that interact with valganciclovir tablets.
    •   Do not start taking a new medicine without telling your healthcare provider. Your healthcare provider can tell you if it is safe to take valganciclovir tablets with other medicines.

    How should I take valganciclovir tablets?

    •   Take valganciclovir tablets exactly as your healthcare provider tells you. Your dose of valganciclovir tablets will depend on your medical condition.
    •   Adults should only take valganciclovir tablets. Children may take valganciclovir tablets.
    •   Take valganciclovir tablets with food.
    •   Do not break or crush valganciclovir tablets. Avoid contact with your skin or eyes. If you come in contact with the contents of the tablet, wash your skin well with soap and water or rinse your eyes well with plain water.
    •   If you take too much valganciclovir tablets, call your healthcare provider or go to the nearest hospital emergency room right away.

    What should I avoid during treatment with valganciclovir tablets?

    Valganciclovir tablets can cause seizures, dizziness, and confusion. You should not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how valganciclovir tablet affects you.

    What are the possible side effects of valganciclovir tablets?

    Valganciclovir tablets may cause serious side effects, including:

    See "What is the most important information I should know about valganciclovir tablets?"

    The most common side effects of valganciclovir tablets in adults include:

    •   diarrhea
    •   fever
    •   fatigue
    •   nausea
    •   shaky movements (tremors)
    •   low white cell, red cell and platelet cell counts in blood tests
    •   headache
    •   sleeplessness
    •   urinary tract infection
    •   vomiting

    The most common side effects of valganciclovir tablets in children include:

    •   diarrhea
    •   fever
    •   upper respiratory tract infection
    •   urinary tract infection
    •   vomiting
    •   low white blood cell counts in blood tests
    •   headache

    These are not all the possible side effects of valganciclovir tablets.

    Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

    How should I store valganciclovir tablets?

    • Store valganciclovir tablets at room temperature between 68°F to 77°F (20°C to 25°C).
    • Do not keep valganciclovir tablets that is out of date or that you no longer need.

    Keep valganciclovir tablets and all medicines out of the reach of children.

    General information about the safe and effective use of valganciclovir tablets

    Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Patient Information leaflet. Do not use valganciclovir tablets for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give valganciclovir tablets to other people, even if they have the same symptoms you have. It may harm them. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about valganciclovir tablets that is written for health professionals.

    What are the ingredients in valganciclovir tablets?

    Active ingredient: valganciclovir hydrochloride, USP

    Inactive ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, crospovidone, povidone, stearic acid, hypromellose, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol and, iron oxide red

    This Patient Information have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

    Disclaimer: Other brands listed are the registered trademarks of their respective owners and are not trademarks of Cipla Limited.

    Manufactured by:

    Cipla Ltd.,

    MIDC Patalganga, India

    Manufactured for:

    Cipla USA, Inc.

    1560 Sawgrass Corporate Parkway,

    Suite 130, Sunrise, FL 33323

    Revised: 8/2018

    For more information, go to www.ciplausa.com or call 1‑866-604-3268.

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  • PACKAGE LABEL.PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL

    Rx Only

    NDC 69097-277-03

    Valganciclovir Tablets, USP 450 mg

    DO NOT BREAK OR CRUSH TABLETS

    CAUTION: Strict adherence

    to dosage recommendation is

    essential to avoid overdose.

    60 Tablets

    Cipla

    Valganciclovir Tablets, USP 450mg label 60s CiplaUSA
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  • INGREDIENTS AND APPEARANCE
    VALGANCICLOVIR 
    valganciclovir tablet
    Product Information
    Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG Item Code (Source) NDC:69097-277
    Route of Administration ORAL
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
    VALGANCICLOVIR HYDROCHLORIDE (UNII: 4P3T9QF9NZ) (GANCICLOVIR - UNII:P9G3CKZ4P5) VALGANCICLOVIR HYDROCHLORIDE 450 mg
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient Name Strength
    CELLULOSE, MICROCRYSTALLINE (UNII: OP1R32D61U)  
    CROSPOVIDONE (15 MPA.S AT 5%) (UNII: 68401960MK)  
    STEARIC ACID (UNII: 4ELV7Z65AP)  
    HYPROMELLOSE 2910 (15 MPA.S) (UNII: 36SFW2JZ0W)  
    POVIDONE K30 (UNII: U725QWY32X)  
    TITANIUM DIOXIDE (UNII: 15FIX9V2JP)  
    POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 6000 (UNII: 30IQX730WE)  
    FERRIC OXIDE RED (UNII: 1K09F3G675)  
    Product Characteristics
    Color PINK Score no score
    Shape CAPSULE ((Biconvex)) Size 17mm
    Flavor Imprint Code C277
    Contains     
    Packaging
    # Item Code Package Description Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    1 NDC:69097-277-03 60 in 1 BOTTLE; Type 0: Not a Combination Product 11/12/2018
    Marketing Information
    Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    ANDA ANDA209672 11/12/2018
    Labeler - Cipla USA Inc. (078719707)
    Registrant - Cipla USA Inc. (078719707)
    Establishment
    Name Address ID/FEI Business Operations
    Cipla Kurkumbh 917066446 API MANUFACTURE(69097-277) , MANUFACTURE(69097-277)
    Establishment
    Name Address ID/FEI Business Operations
    Cipla Patalganga 916940208 MANUFACTURE(69097-277)
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