(emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate)
HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
These highlights do not include all the information needed to use TRUVADA safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for TRUVADA.
TRUVADA® (emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) tablets, for oral use
Initial U.S. Approval: 2004
WARNINGS: LACTIC ACIDOSIS/SEVERE HEPATOMEGALY WITH STEATOSIS, POST-TREATMENT ACUTE EXACERBATION OF HEPATITIS B, and RISK OF DRUG RESISTANCE WITH USE OF TRUVADA FOR PrEP IN UNDIAGNOSED HIV-1 INFECTION
See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning.
RECENT MAJOR CHANGES
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
TRUVADA is a combination of EMTRIVA and VIREAD, both nucleoside analog HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
TRUVADA is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older. (1)
TRUVADA is indicated in combination with safer sex practices for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the risk of sexually acquired HIV-1 in adults at high risk. (1)
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Treatment of HIV-1 Infection (2.1)
Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (2.2)
DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Tablets: 200 mg of emtricitabine and 300 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. (3)
Do not use TRUVADA for pre-exposure prophylaxis in individuals with unknown or positive HIV-1 status. TRUVADA should be used in HIV-infected patients only in combination with other antiretroviral agents. (4)
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
In HIV1 infected patients, the most common adverse reactions (incidence greater than or equal to 10%) are diarrhea, nausea, fatigue, headache, dizziness, depression, insomnia, abnormal dreams, and rash. (6.1)
In HIV-1 uninfected individuals in PrEP trials, adverse reactions that were reported by more than 2% of TRUVADA subjects and more frequently than by placebo subjects were headache, abdominal pain and weight decreased. (6.2)
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Gilead Sciences, Inc. at 1-800-445-3235 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION and Medication Guide.
FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
TRUVADA is not approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the safety and efficacy of TRUVADA have not been established in patients coinfected with HBV and HIV-1. Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are coinfected with HBV and HIV-1 and have discontinued TRUVADA. Therefore, hepatic function should be monitored closely with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months in patients who are infected with HBV and discontinue TRUVADA. If appropriate, initiation of anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted [See Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
TRUVADA used for a PrEP indication must only be prescribed to individuals confirmed to be HIV-negative immediately prior to initiating and periodically (at least every 3 months) during use. Drug-resistant HIV-1 variants have been identified with use of TRUVADA for a PrEP indication following undetected acute HIV-1 infection. Do not initiate TRUVADA for a PrEP indication if signs or symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection are present unless negative infection status is confirmed [See Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
1.1 Treatment of HIV-1 Infection
The following points should be considered when initiating therapy with TRUVADA for the treatment of HIV-1 infection:
- It is not recommended that TRUVADA be used as a component of a triple nucleoside regimen.
- TRUVADA should not be coadministered with ATRIPLA®, COMPLERA®, EMTRIVA, VIREAD or lamivudine-containing products [See Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
- In treatment experienced patients, the use of TRUVADA should be guided by laboratory testing and treatment history [See Microbiology (12.4)].
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.3 Dose Adjustment for Renal Impairment
Treatment of HIV-1 infection
Significantly increased drug exposures occurred when EMTRIVA or VIREAD were administered to subjects with moderate to severe renal impairment [see EMTRIVA or VIREAD Package Insert]. Therefore, adjust the dosing interval of TRUVADA in HIV-1 infected adult patients with baseline creatinine clearance 30–49 mL/min using the recommendations in Table 1. These dosing interval recommendations are based on modeling of single-dose pharmacokinetic data in non-HIV infected subjects. The safety and effectiveness of these dosing interval adjustment recommendations have not been clinically evaluated in patients with moderate renal impairment, therefore clinical response to treatment and renal function should be closely monitored in these patients [See Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
No dose adjustment is necessary for HIV-1 infected patients with mild renal impairment (creatinine clearance 50–80 mL/min). No data are available to make dose recommendations in pediatric patients with renal impairment.
|Creatinine Clearance (mL/min)*|
(Including Patients Requiring Hemodialysis)
|Recommended Dosing Interval||Every 24 hours||Every 48 hours||TRUVADA should not be administered.|
Routine monitoring of calculated creatinine clearance and serum phosphorus should be performed in all individuals with mild renal impairment [See Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
TRUVADA is available as tablets. Each tablet contains 200 mg of emtricitabine and 300 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (which is equivalent to 245 mg of tenofovir disoproxil). The tablets are blue, capsule-shaped, film-coated, debossed with "GILEAD" on one side and with "701" on the other side.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Lactic Acidosis/Severe Hepatomegaly with Steatosis
Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogs, including VIREAD, a component of TRUVADA, in combination with other antiretrovirals. A majority of these cases have been in women. Obesity and prolonged nucleoside exposure may be risk factors. Particular caution should be exercised when administering nucleoside analogs to any patient or uninfected individual with known risk factors for liver disease; however, cases have also been reported in HIV-1 infected patients with no known risk factors. Treatment with TRUVADA should be suspended in any patient or uninfected individual who develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (which may include hepatomegaly and steatosis even in the absence of marked transaminase elevations).
5.2 HBV Infection
It is recommended that all individuals be tested for the presence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) before initiating TRUVADA. TRUVADA is not approved for the treatment of chronic HBV infection and the safety and efficacy of TRUVADA have not been established in patients infected with HBV. Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are coinfected with HBV and HIV-1 and have discontinued TRUVADA. In some patients infected with HBV and treated with EMTRIVA, the exacerbations of hepatitis B were associated with liver decompensation and liver failure. Patients who are infected with HBV should be closely monitored with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months after stopping treatment with TRUVADA. If appropriate, initiation of anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted. HBV -uninfected individuals should be offered vaccination.
5.3 New Onset or Worsening Renal Impairment
Emtricitabine and tenofovir are principally eliminated by the kidney. Renal impairment, including cases of acute renal failure and Fanconi syndrome (renal tubular injury with severe hypophosphatemia), has been reported with the use of VIREAD [See Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
It is recommended that creatinine clearance be calculated in all individuals prior to initiating therapy and as clinically appropriate during therapy with TRUVADA.
Routine monitoring of calculated creatinine clearance and serum phosphorus should be performed in all individuals at risk for renal impairment, including individuals who have previously experienced renal events while receiving HEPSERA.
TRUVADA should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent.
Treatment of HIV-1 Infection
Dosing interval adjustment of TRUVADA and close monitoring of renal function are recommended in all patients with creatinine clearance 30–49 mL/min, [See Dosage and Administration (2.3)]. No safety or efficacy data are available in patients with renal impairment who received TRUVADA using these dosing guidelines, so the potential benefit of TRUVADA therapy should be assessed against the potential risk of renal toxicity. TRUVADA should not be administered to patients with creatinine clearance below 30 mL/min or patients requiring hemodialysis.
5.4 Coadministration with Other Products
TRUVADA is a fixed-dose combination of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Do not coadminister TRUVADA with ATRIPLA, COMPLERA, EMTRIVA, or VIREAD. Due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine, do not coadminister TRUVADA with other drugs containing lamivudine, including Combivir (lamivudine/zidovudine), Epivir or Epivir-HBV (lamivudine), Epzicom (abacavir sulfate/lamivudine), or Trizivir (abacavir sulfate/lamivudine/zidovudine).
Do not coadminister TRUVADA with HEPSERA® (adefovir dipivoxil).
5.5 Decreases in Bone Mineral Density
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: In a 144-week trial of treatment-naive HIV-1 infected adult subjects, decreases in BMD were seen at the lumbar spine and hip in both arms of the trial. At Week 144, there was a significantly greater mean percentage decrease from baseline in BMD at the lumbar spine in subjects receiving VIREAD + lamivudine + efavirenz compared with subjects receiving stavudine + lamivudine + efavirenz. Changes in BMD at the hip were similar between the two treatment groups. In both groups, the majority of the reduction in BMD occurred in the first 24–48 weeks of the trial and this reduction was sustained through 144 weeks. Twenty-eight percent of VIREAD-treated subjects vs. 21% of the comparator subjects lost at least 5% of BMD at the spine or 7% of BMD at the hip. Clinically relevant fractures (excluding fingers and toes) were reported in 4 subjects in the VIREAD group and 6 subjects in the comparator group. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was associated with significant increases in biochemical markers of bone metabolism (serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, serum C-telopeptide, and urinary N-telopeptide), suggesting increased bone turnover. Serum parathyroid hormone levels and 1,25 Vitamin D levels were also higher in subjects receiving VIREAD.
The effects of VIREAD-associated changes in BMD and biochemical markers on long-term bone health and future fracture risk are unknown. For additional information, please consult the VIREAD prescribing information.
Cases of osteomalacia (associated with proximal renal tubulopathy and which may contribute to fractures) have been reported in association with the use of VIREAD [See Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
5.6 Fat Redistribution
Redistribution/accumulation of body fat including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement (buffalo hump), peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, and "cushingoid appearance" have been observed in HIV-1 infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. The mechanism and long-term consequences of these events are currently unknown. A causal relationship has not been established.
5.7 Immune Reconstitution Syndrome
Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in HIV-1 infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, including TRUVADA. During the initial phase of combination antiretroviral treatment, HIV-1 infected patients whose immune system responds may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections [such as Mycobacterium avium infection, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), or tuberculosis], which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment.
5.8 Early Virologic Failure
Clinical trials in HIV-1 infected subjects have demonstrated that certain regimens that only contain three nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) are generally less effective than triple drug regimens containing two NRTIs in combination with either a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or a HIV-1 protease inhibitor. In particular, early virological failure and high rates of resistance substitutions have been reported. Triple nucleoside regimens should therefore be used with caution. Patients on a therapy utilizing a triple nucleoside-only regimen should be carefully monitored and considered for treatment modification.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following adverse reactions are discussed in other sections of the labeling:
- Lactic Acidosis/Severe Hepatomegaly with Steatosis [See Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
- Severe Acute Exacerbations of hepatitis B [See Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
- New Onset or Worsening Renal Impairment [See Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
- Decreases in Bone Mineral Density [See Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
- Immune Reconstitution Syndrome [See Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
6.1 Adverse Reactions from Clinical Trials Experience in HIV-1 Infected Subjects
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Clinical Trials in Adult Subjects
The most common adverse reactions (incidence greater than or equal to 10%, any severity) occurring in Study 934, an active-controlled clinical trial of efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, include diarrhea, nausea, fatigue, headache, dizziness, depression, insomnia, abnormal dreams, and rash. See also Table 2 for the frequency of treatment-emergent adverse reactions (Grade 2–4) occurring in greater than or equal to 5% of subjects treated in any treatment group in this trial.
Skin discoloration, manifested by hyperpigmentation on the palms and/or soles, was generally mild and asymptomatic. The mechanism and clinical significance are unknown.
Study 934 - Treatment Emergent Adverse Reactions: In Study 934, 511 antiretroviral-naive subjects received either VIREAD + EMTRIVA administered in combination with efavirenz (N=257) or zidovudine/lamivudine administered in combination with efavirenz (N=254) for 144 weeks. Subjects had a mean age of 40 years (range 20 to 73 years) and were predominantly male (88%). Overall, 65% were White, 17% were Black, and 13% were Hispanic. Adverse reactions observed in this trial were generally consistent with those seen in other trials in treatment-experienced or treatment-naive subjects receiving VIREAD and/or EMTRIVA (Table 2).
|FTC + TDF + EFV†||AZT/3TC + EFV|
|General Disorders and Administration Site Condition|
|Infections and Infestations|
|Upper respiratory tract infections||8%||5%|
|Nervous System Disorders|
|Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders|
Laboratory Abnormalities: Laboratory abnormalities observed in this trial were generally consistent with those seen in other trials of VIREAD and/or EMTRIVA (Table 3).
|FTC + TDF + EFV*||AZT/3TC + EFV|
|Any ≥ Grade 3 Laboratory Abnormality||30%||26%|
|Fasting Cholesterol (>240 mg/dL)||22%||24%|
(M: >990 U/L)
(F: >845 U/L)
|Serum Amylase (>175 U/L)||8%||4%|
|Alkaline Phosphatase (>550 U/L)||1%||0%|
(M: >180 U/L)
(F: >170 U/L)
(M: >215 U/L)
(F: >170 U/L)
|Hemoglobin (<8.0 mg/dL)||0%||4%|
|Hyperglycemia (>250 mg/dL)||2%||1%|
|Hematuria (>75 RBC/HPF)||3%||2%|
|Fasting Triglycerides (>750 mg/dL)||4%||2%|
In addition to the events described above for Study 934, other adverse reactions that occurred in at least 5% of subjects receiving EMTRIVA or VIREAD with other antiretroviral agents in clinical trials include anxiety, arthralgia, increased cough, dyspepsia, fever, myalgia, pain, abdominal pain, back pain, paresthesia, peripheral neuropathy (including peripheral neuritis and neuropathy), pneumonia, and rhinitis.
In addition to the laboratory abnormalities described above for Study 934, Grade 3/4 laboratory abnormalities of increased bilirubin (>2.5 × ULN), increased pancreatic amylase (>2.0 × ULN), increased or decreased serum glucose (<40 or >250 mg/dL), and increased serum lipase (>2.0 × ULN) occurred in up to 3% of subjects treated with EMTRIVA or VIREAD with other antiretroviral agents in clinical trials.
Clinical Trials in Pediatric Subjects 12 Years of Age and Older
Emtricitabine: In addition to the adverse reactions reported in adults, anemia and hyperpigmentation were observed in 7% and 32%, respectively, of pediatric subjects (3 months to less than 18 years of age) who received treatment with EMTRIVA in the larger of two open-label, uncontrolled pediatric trials (N=116). For additional information, please consult the EMTRIVA prescribing information.
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: In a pediatric clinical trial conducted in subjects 12 to less than 18 years of age, the adverse reactions observed in pediatric subjects who received treatment with VIREAD were consistent with those observed in clinical trials of VIREAD in adults [See Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
6.2 Adverse Reactions from Clinical Trial Experience in HIV-1 Uninfected Adult Subjects
No new adverse reactions to TRUVADA were identified from two randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials (iPrEx, Partners PrEP) in which 2830 HIV-1 uninfected adults received TRUVADA once daily for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Subjects were followed for a median of 71 weeks and 87 weeks, respectively. These trials enrolled HIV-negative individuals ranging in age from 18 to 67 years. The iPrEx trial enrolled only males or transgender females of Hispanic/Latino (72%), White (18%), Black (9%) and Asian (5%) race. The Partners PrEP trial enrolled both males (61–64% across treatment groups) and females in Kenya and Uganda. Table 4 provides a list of all adverse events that occurred ≥2% of subjects in any treatment group in the iPrEx and Partners PrEP trials.
Laboratory Abnormalities: Table 5 provides a list of laboratory abnormalities observed in both trials. Six subjects in the TDF-containing arms of the Partners PrEP trial discontinued participation in the study due to an increase in blood creatinine compared with no discontinuations in the placebo group. One subject in the TRUVADA arm of the iPrEx trial discontinued from the study due to an increase in blood creatinine and another due to low phosphorous.
In addition to the laboratory abnormalities described above, Grade 1 proteinuria (1+) occurred in 6% of subjects receiving TRUVADA in the iPrEx trial. Grade 2–3 proteinuria (2–4+) and glycosuria (3+) occurred in less than 1% of subjects treated with TRUVADA in the iPrEx trial and Partners PrEP trial.
|iPrEx Trial||Partners PrEP Trial|
|Infections and Infestations|
|Urinary tract infection||2%||2%||5%||7%|
|Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders|
|Nervous System Disorders|
|Reproductive System and Breast Disorders|
|iPrEx Trial||Partners PrEP Trial|
|Creatinine||1||(1.1–1.3 × ULN)||27 (2%)||21 (2%)||18 (1%)||12 (<1%)|
|2–4||(> 1.4 × ULN)||5 (<1%)||3 (<1%)||2 (<1%)||1 (<1%)|
|Phosphorus||1||(2.5 – <LLN mg/dL)||81 (7%)||110 (9%)||NR †||NR †|
|2–4||(<2.0 mg/dL)||123 (10%)||101 (8%)||140 (9%)||136 (9%)|
|AST||1||(1.25–<2.5 × ULN)||175 (14%)||175 (14%)||20 (1%)||25 (2%)|
|2–4||(> 2.6 × ULN)||57 (5%)||61 (5%)||10 (<1%)||4 (<1%)|
|ALT||1||(1.25–<2.–5 × ULN)||178 (14%)||194 (16%)||21 (1%)||13 (<1%)|
|2–4||(> 2.6 × ULN)||84 (7%)||82 (7%)||4 (<1%)||6 (<1%)|
|Hemoglobin||1||(8.5 – 10 mg/dL)||49 (4%)||62 (5%)||56 (4%)||39 (2%)|
|2–4||(<9.4 mg/dL)||13 (1%)||19 (2%)||28 (2%)||39 (2%)|
|Neutrophils||1||(1000–1300/mm3)||23 (2%)||25 (2%)||208 (13%)||163 (10%)|
|2–4||(<750/mm3)||7 (<1%)||7 (<1%)||73 (5%)||56 (3%)|
6.3 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of VIREAD. No additional adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of EMTRIVA. Because postmarketing reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Immune System Disorders
allergic reaction, including angioedema
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders
lactic acidosis, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia
Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders
pancreatitis, increased amylase, abdominal pain
hepatic steatosis, hepatitis, increased liver enzymes (most commonly AST, ALT gamma GT)
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders
rhabdomyolysis, osteomalacia (manifested as bone pain and which may contribute to fractures), muscular weakness, myopathy
Renal and Urinary Disorders
acute renal failure, renal failure, acute tubular necrosis, Fanconi syndrome, proximal renal tubulopathy, interstitial nephritis (including acute cases), nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, renal insufficiency, increased creatinine, proteinuria, polyuria
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions
The following adverse reactions, listed under the body system headings above, may occur as a consequence of proximal renal tubulopathy: rhabdomyolysis, osteomalacia, hypokalemia, muscular weakness, myopathy, hypophosphatemia.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
No drug interaction trials have been conducted using TRUVADA tablets. Drug interaction trials have been conducted with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, the components of TRUVADA. This section describes clinically relevant drug interactions observed with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Coadministration of TRUVADA and didanosine should be undertaken with caution and patients receiving this combination should be monitored closely for didanosine-associated adverse reactions. Didanosine should be discontinued in patients who develop didanosine-associated adverse reactions.
When tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was administered with didanosine the Cmax and AUC of didanosine administered as either the buffered or enteric-coated formulation increased significantly [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. The mechanism of this interaction is unknown. Higher didanosine concentrations could potentiate didanosine-associated adverse reactions, including pancreatitis, and neuropathy. Suppression of CD4+ cell counts has been observed in patients receiving tenofovir DF with didanosine 400 mg daily.
In patients weighing greater than 60 kg, the didanosine dose should be reduced to 250 mg when it is coadministered with TRUVADA. Data are not available to recommend a dose adjustment of didanosine for adult or pediatric patients weighing less than 60 kg. When coadministered, TRUVADA and Videx EC may be taken under fasted conditions or with a light meal (less than 400 kcal, 20% fat). Coadministration of didanosine buffered tablet formulation with TRUVADA should be under fasted conditions.
Atazanavir has been shown to increase tenofovir concentrations [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. The mechanism of this interaction is unknown. Patients receiving atazanavir and TRUVADA should be monitored for TRUVADA-associated adverse reactions. TRUVADA should be discontinued in patients who develop TRUVADA-associated adverse reactions.
Tenofovir decreases the AUC and Cmin of atazanavir [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. When coadministered with TRUVADA, it is recommended that atazanavir 300 mg is given with ritonavir 100 mg. Atazanavir without ritonavir should not be coadministered with TRUVADA.
Lopinavir/ritonavir has been shown to increase tenofovir concentrations [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. The mechanism of this interaction is unknown. Patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir and TRUVADA should be monitored for TRUVADA-associated adverse reactions. TRUVADA should be discontinued in patients who develop TRUVADA-associated adverse reactions.
7.4 Drugs Affecting Renal Function
Emtricitabine and tenofovir are primarily excreted by the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. No drug-drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed; however, coadministration of TRUVADA with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of emtricitabine, tenofovir, and/or the coadministered drug. Some examples include, but are not limited to acyclovir, adefovir dipivoxil, cidofovir, ganciclovir, valacyclovir, and valganciclovir. Drugs that decrease renal function may increase concentrations of emtricitabine and/or tenofovir.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category B
Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry: To monitor fetal outcomes of pregnant women exposed to TRUVADA, an Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR) has been established. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling 1-800-258-4263.
TRUVADA has been evaluated in a limited number of women during pregnancy and postpartum. Available human and animal data suggest that TRUVADA does not increase the risk of major birth defects overall compared to the background rate. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled trials in pregnant women. Because the studies in humans cannot rule out the possibility of harm, TRUVADA should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. If an uninfected individual becomes pregnant while taking TRUVADA for a PrEP indication, careful consideration should be given to whether use of TRUVADA should be continued, taking into account the potential increased risk of HIV-1 infection during pregnancy.
As of July 2011, the APR has received prospective reports of 764 and 1219 exposures to emtricitabine- and tenofovir- containing regimens, respectively in the first trimester, 321 and 455 exposures, respectively, in second trimester, and 140 and 257 exposures, respectively, in the third trimester. Birth defects occurred in 18 of 764 (2.4%) live births for emtricitabine-containing regimens and 27 of 1219 (2.2%) live births for tenofovir-containing regimens (first trimester exposure) and 10 of 461 (2.2%) live births for emtricitabine-containing regimens and 15 of 714 (2.1%) live births for tenofovir-containing regimens (second/third trimester exposure). Among pregnant women in the U.S. reference population, the background rate of birth defects is 2.7%. There was no association between emtricitabine or tenofovir and overall birth defects observed in the APR.
The incidence of fetal variations and malformations was not increased in embryofetal toxicity studies performed with emtricitabine in mice at exposures (AUC) approximately 60-fold higher and in rabbits at approximately 120-fold higher than human exposures at the recommended daily dose.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
Nursing Mothers: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-1 infected mothers not breast-feed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1.
Studies in humans have shown that both tenofovir and emtricitabine are excreted in human milk. Because the risks of low level exposure to emtricitabine and tenofovir to infants are unknown, mothers should be instructed not to breast-feed if they are receiving TRUVADA, whether they are taking TRUVADA for treatment or to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV-1.
Samples of breast milk obtained from five HIV-1 infected mothers show that emtricitabine is secreted in human milk. Breastfeeding infants whose mothers are being treated with emtricitabine may be at risk for developing viral resistance to emtricitabine. Other emtricitabine-associated risks in infants breastfed by mothers being treated with emtricitabine are unknown.
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate
Samples of breast milk obtained from five HIV-1 infected mothers show that tenofovir is secreted in human milk. Tenofovir-associated risks, including the risk of viral resistance to tenofovir, in infants breastfed by mothers being treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate are unknown.
8.4 Pediatric Use
TRUVADA should only be administered to HIV-1 infected pediatric patients 12 years of age and older with body weight greater than or equal to 35 kg (greater than or equal to 77 lb) because it is a fixed-dose combination tablet containing a component, VIREAD, for which safety and efficacy have not been established in pediatric patients less than 12 years of age or weighing less than 35 kg (less than 77 lb) [See Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
8.5 Geriatric Use
Clinical trials of EMTRIVA or VIREAD did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for the elderly patients should be cautious, keeping in mind the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
8.6 Patients with Impaired Renal Function
Treatment of HIV-1 infection
The dosing interval for TRUVADA should be modified in HIV-infected adult patients with creatinine clearance of 30–49 mL/min. TRUVADA should not be used in patients with creatinine clearance below 30 mL/min and in patients with end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. [See Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
TRUVADA for a PrEP indication should not be used in HIV-1 uninfected individuals with creatinine clearance below 60 mL/min. If a decrease in creatinine clearance is observed in uninfected individuals while using TRUVADA for PrEP, evaluate potential causes and re-assess potential risks and benefits of continued use [See Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
If overdose occurs, the patient must be monitored for evidence of toxicity, and standard supportive treatment applied as necessary.
Emtricitabine: Limited clinical experience is available at doses higher than the therapeutic dose of EMTRIVA. In one clinical pharmacology trial, single doses of emtricitabine 1200 mg were administered to 11 subjects. No severe adverse reactions were reported.
Hemodialysis treatment removes approximately 30% of the emtricitabine dose over a 3-hour dialysis period starting within 1.5 hours of emtricitabine dosing (blood flow rate of 400 mL/min and a dialysate flow rate of 600 mL/min). It is not known whether emtricitabine can be removed by peritoneal dialysis.
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: Limited clinical experience at doses higher than the therapeutic dose of VIREAD 300 mg is available. In one trial, 600 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was administered to 8 subjects orally for 28 days, and no severe adverse reactions were reported. The effects of higher doses are not known.
Tenofovir is efficiently removed by hemodialysis with an extraction coefficient of approximately 54%. Following a single 300 mg dose of VIREAD, a four-hour hemodialysis session removed approximately 10% of the administered tenofovir dose.
TRUVADA tablets are fixed dose combination tablets containing emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. EMTRIVA is the brand name for emtricitabine, a synthetic nucleoside analog of cytidine. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir DF) is converted in vivo to tenofovir, an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate (nucleotide) analog of adenosine 5'-monophosphate. Both emtricitabine and tenofovir exhibit inhibitory activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
Emtricitabine: The chemical name of emtricitabine is 5-fluoro-1-(2R,5S)-[2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl]cytosine. Emtricitabine is the (-) enantiomer of a thio analog of cytidine, which differs from other cytidine analogs in that it has a fluorine in the 5-position.
It has a molecular formula of C8H10FN3O3S and a molecular weight of 247.24. It has the following structural formula:
Emtricitabine is a white to off-white crystalline powder with a solubility of approximately 112 mg/mL in water at 25 °C. The partition coefficient (log p) for emtricitabine is -0.43 and the pKa is 2.65.
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a fumaric acid salt of the bis-isopropoxycarbonyloxymethyl ester derivative of tenofovir. The chemical name of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is 9-[(R)-2 [[bis[[(isopropoxycarbonyl)oxy]- methoxy]phosphinyl]methoxy]propyl]adenine fumarate (1:1). It has a molecular formula of C19H30N5O10P ∙ C4H4O4 and a molecular weight of 635.52. It has the following structural formula:
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a white to off-white crystalline powder with a solubility of 13.4 mg/mL in water at 25 °C. The partition coefficient (log p) for tenofovir disoproxil is 1.25 and the pKa is 3.75. All dosages are expressed in terms of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate except where otherwise noted.
TRUVADA tablets are for oral administration. Each film-coated tablet contains 200 mg of emtricitabine and 300 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, (which is equivalent to 245 mg of tenofovir disoproxil), as active ingredients. The tablets also include the following inactive ingredients: croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and pregelatinized starch (gluten free). The tablets are coated with Opadry II Blue Y-30-10701, which contains FD&C Blue #2 aluminum lake, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 2910, lactose monohydrate, titanium dioxide, and triacetin.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
For additional information on Mechanism of Action, Antiviral Activity, Resistance and Cross Resistance, please consult the EMTRIVA and VIREAD prescribing information.
12.1 Mechanism of Action
TRUVADA is a fixed-dose combination of antiviral drugs emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate [See Microbiology (12.4)].
TRUVADA: One TRUVADA tablet was bioequivalent to one EMTRIVA capsule (200 mg) plus one VIREAD tablet (300 mg) following single-dose administration to fasting healthy subjects (N=39).
Emtricitabine: The pharmacokinetic properties of emtricitabine are summarized in Table 4. Following oral administration of EMTRIVA, emtricitabine is rapidly absorbed with peak plasma concentrations occurring at 1–2 hours post-dose. Less than 4% of emtricitabine binds to human plasma proteins in vitro and the binding is independent of concentration over the range of 0.02–200 μg/mL. Following administration of radiolabelled emtricitabine, approximately 86% is recovered in the urine and 13% is recovered as metabolites. The metabolites of emtricitabine include 3'-sulfoxide diastereomers and their glucuronic acid conjugate. Emtricitabine is eliminated by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Following a single oral dose of EMTRIVA, the plasma emtricitabine half-life is approximately 10 hours.
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: The pharmacokinetic properties of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate are summarized in Table 6. Following oral administration of VIREAD, maximum tenofovir serum concentrations are achieved in 1.0 ± 0.4 hour. Less than 0.7% of tenofovir binds to human plasma proteins in vitro and the binding is independent of concentration over the range of 0.01–25 µg/mL. Approximately 70–80% of the intravenous dose of tenofovir is recovered as unchanged drug in the urine. Tenofovir is eliminated by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Following a single oral dose of VIREAD, the terminal elimination half-life of tenofovir is approximately 17 hours.
|Fasted Oral Bioavailability† (%)||92 (83.1–106.4)||25 (NC–45.0)|
|Plasma Terminal Elimination Half-Life† (hr)||10 (7.4–18.0)||17 (12.0–25.7)|
|Cmax‡ (μg/mL)||1.8 ± 0.72§||0.30 ± 0.09|
|AUC‡ (μg∙hr/mL)||10.0 ± 3.12§||2.29 ± 0.69|
|CL/F‡ (mL/min)||302 ± 94||1043 ± 115|
|CLrenal‡ (mL/min)||213 ± 89||243 ± 33|
Effects of Food on Oral Absorption
TRUVADA may be administered with or without food. Administration of TRUVADA following a high fat meal (784 kcal; 49 grams of fat) or a light meal (373 kcal; 8 grams of fat) delayed the time of tenofovir Cmax by approximately 0.75 hour. The mean increases in tenofovir AUC and Cmax were approximately 35% and 15%, respectively, when administered with a high fat or light meal, compared to administration in the fasted state. In previous safety and efficacy trials, VIREAD (tenofovir) was taken under fed conditions. Emtricitabine systemic exposures (AUC and Cmax) were unaffected when TRUVADA was administered with either a high fat or a light meal.
Emtricitabine: No pharmacokinetic differences due to race have been identified following the administration of EMTRIVA.
TRUVADA should not be administered to HIV-1 infected pediatric patients less than 12 years of age or weighing less than 35 kg (less than 77 lb).
Emtricitabine: The pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine at steady state were determined in 27 HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects 13 to 17 years of age receiving a daily dose of 6 mg/kg up to a maximum dose of 240 mg oral solution or a 200 mg capsule; 26 of 27 subjects in this age group received the 200 mg EMTRIVA capsule. Mean (± SD) Cmax and AUC were 2.7 ± 0.9 μg/mL and 12.6 ± 5.4 μg•hr/mL, respectively. Exposures achieved in pediatric subjects 12 to less than 18 years of age were similar to those achieved in adults receiving a once daily dose of 200 mg.
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: Steady-state pharmacokinetics of tenofovir were evaluated in 8 HIV-1 infected pediatric subjects (12 to less than 18 years). Mean (± SD) Cmax and AUCtau are 0.38 ± 0.13 μg/mL and 3.39 ± 1.22 μg•hr/mL, respectively. Tenofovir exposure achieved in these pediatric subjects receiving oral daily doses of VIREAD 300 mg was similar to exposures achieved in adults receiving once-daily doses of VIREAD 300 mg.
Pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine and tenofovir have not been fully evaluated in the elderly (65 years of age and older).
Patients with Impaired Renal Function
The pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine and tenofovir are altered in subjects with renal impairment [See Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. In adult subjects with creatinine clearance below 50 mL/min, Cmax, and AUC0–∞ of emtricitabine and tenofovir were increased. It is recommended that the dosing interval for TRUVADA be modified in HIV-infected adult patients with creatinine clearance 30–49 mL/min. No data are available to make dose recommendations in pediatric patients with renal impairment. TRUVADA should not be used in patients with creatinine clearance below 30 mL/min and in patients with end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis [See Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
TRUVADA for a PrEP indication should not be used in HIV-1 uninfected individuals with creatinine clearance below 60 mL/min. If a decrease in creatinine clearance is observed in uninfected individuals while using TRUVADA for PrEP, evaluate potential causes and re-assess potential risks and benefits of continued use [See Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
Patients with Hepatic Impairment
The pharmacokinetics of tenofovir following a 300 mg dose of VIREAD have been studied in non-HIV infected subjects with moderate to severe hepatic impairment. There were no substantial alterations in tenofovir pharmacokinetics in subjects with hepatic impairment compared with unimpaired subjects. The pharmacokinetics of TRUVADA or emtricitabine have not been studied in subjects with hepatic impairment; however, emtricitabine is not significantly metabolized by liver enzymes, so the impact of liver impairment should be limited.
Assessment of Drug Interactions
The steady state pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine and tenofovir were unaffected when emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate were administered together versus each agent dosed alone.
In vitro studies and clinical pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction trials have shown that the potential for CYP mediated interactions involving emtricitabine and tenofovir with other medicinal products is low.
No clinically significant drug interactions have been observed between emtricitabine and famciclovir, indinavir, stavudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, and zidovudine (see Tables 7 and 8). Similarly, no clinically significant drug interactions have been observed between tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and abacavir, efavirenz, emtricitabine, entecavir, indinavir, lamivudine, lopinavir/ritonavir, methadone, nelfinavir, oral contraceptives, ribavirin, saquinavir/ritonavir, and tacrolimus in trials conducted in healthy volunteers (see Tables 9 and 10).
|Coadministered Drug||Dose of Coadministered Drug (mg)||Emtricitabine Dose (mg)||N||% Change of Emtricitabine Pharmacokinetic
Parameters† (90% CI)
|Tenofovir DF||300 once daily × 7 days||200 once daily × 7 days||17||⇔||⇔||↑ 20
(↑ 12 to ↑ 29)
|Zidovudine||300 twice daily × 7 days||200 once daily × 7 days||27||⇔||⇔||⇔|
|Indinavir||800 × 1||200 × 1||12||⇔||⇔||NA|
|Famciclovir||500 × 1||200 × 1||12||⇔||⇔||NA|
|Stavudine||40 × 1||200 × 1||6||⇔||⇔||NA|
|Coadministered Drug||Dose of Coadministered|
|Emtricitabine Dose (mg)||N||% Change of Coadministered Drug Pharmacokinetic Parameters† (90% CI)|
|Tenofovir DF||300 once daily × 7 days||200 once daily × 7 days||17||⇔||⇔||⇔|
|Zidovudine||300 twice daily × 7 days||200 once daily × 7 days||27||↑ 17|
(↑ 0 to ↑ 38)
(↑ 5 to ↑ 20)
|Indinavir||800 × 1||200 × 1||12||⇔||⇔||NA|
|Famciclovir||500 × 1||200 × 1||12||⇔||⇔||NA|
|Stavudine||40 × 1||200 × 1||6||⇔||⇔||NA|
|Coadministered Drug||Dose of Coadministered Drug (mg)||N||% Change of Tenofovir Pharmacokinetic Parameters†
|Atazanavir‡||400 once daily × 14 days||33||↑ 14|
(↑ 8 to ↑ 20)
(↑ 21 to ↑ 28)
(↑ 15 to ↑ 30)
|Didanosine (enteric-coated)||400 once||25||⇔||⇔||⇔|
|Didanosine (buffered)||250 or 400 once daily × 7 days||14||⇔||⇔||⇔|
|Efavirenz||600 once daily × 14 days||29||⇔||⇔||⇔|
|Emtricitabine||200 once daily × 7 days||17||⇔||⇔||⇔|
|Entecavir||1 mg once daily × 10 days||28|
|Indinavir||800 three times daily × 7 days||13||↑ 14|
(↓ 3 to ↑ 33)
|Lamivudine||150 twice daily × 7 days||15||⇔||⇔||⇔|
|Lopinavir/ Ritonavir||400/100 twice daily × 14 days||24||⇔||↑ 32|
(↑ 25 to ↑ 38)
(↑ 37 to ↑ 66)
|Nelfinavir||1250 twice daily × 14 days||29||⇔||⇔||⇔|
|Saquinavir/ Ritonavir||1000/100 twice daily × 14 days||35||⇔||⇔||↑ 23
(↑ 16 to ↑ 30)
|Tacrolimus||0.05 mg/kg twice daily × 7 days||21||↑ 13|
(↑ 1 to ↑ 27)
|Coadministered Drug||Dose of Coadministered Drug (mg)||N||% Change of Coadministered Drug Pharmacokinetic Parameters*
|Abacavir||300 once||8||↑ 12|
(↓ 1 to ↑ 26)
|Atazanavir†||400 once daily × 14 days||34||↓ 21|
(↓ 27 to ↓ 14)
(↓ 30 to ↓ 19)
(↓ 48 to ↓ 32)
300/100 once daily
× 42 days
(↓ 50 to ↑ 5)
(↓ 42 to ↓ 3)
(↓ 46 to ↑ 10)
|Efavirenz||600 once daily × 14 days||30||⇔||⇔||⇔|
|Emtricitabine||200 once daily × 7 days||17||⇔||⇔||↑ 20
(↑ 12 to ↑ 29)
|Indinavir||800 three times daily × 7 days||12||↓ 11|
(↓ 30 to ↑ 12)
|Entecavir||1 mg once daily × 10 days||28||⇔||↑ 13|
(↑ 11 to ↑ 15)
|Lamivudine||150 twice daily × 7 days||15||↓ 24|
(↓ 34 to ↓ 12)
|Lopinavir/Ritonavir 400/100 twice daily × 14 days||24||⇔|
|Methadone§||40–110 once daily|
× 14 days¶
|1250 twice daily × 14 days||29||⇔|
|Oral Contraceptives#||Ethinyl Estradiol/|
Once daily × 7 days
|Saquinavir||Saquinavir/Ritonavir 1000/100 twice daily × 14 days||32||↑ 22|
(↑ 6 to ↑41)
(↑ 12 to ↑ 48)
(↑ 23 to ↑ 76)
(↑ 3 to ↑ 46)
|Tacrolimus||0.05 mg/kg twice daily × 7 days||21||⇔||⇔||⇔|
Following multiple dosing to HIV-negative subjects receiving either chronic methadone maintenance therapy or oral contraceptives, or single doses of ribavirin, steady state tenofovir pharmacokinetics were similar to those observed in previous trials, indicating lack of clinically significant drug interactions between these agents and VIREAD.
Coadministration of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with didanosine results in changes in the pharmacokinetics of didanosine that may be of clinical significance. Table 11 summarizes the effects of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate on the pharmacokinetics of didanosine. Concomitant dosing of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with didanosine buffered tablets or enteric-coated capsules significantly increases the Cmax and AUC of didanosine. When didanosine 250 mg enteric-coated capsules were administered with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, systemic exposures of didanosine were similar to those seen with the 400 mg enteric-coated capsules alone under fasted conditions. The mechanism of this interaction is unknown. See Drug Interactions (7.1) regarding use of didanosine with VIREAD.
|Didanosine* Dose (mg)/Method of Administration*||VIREAD Method of Administration*||N||% Difference (90% CI) vs. Didanosine 400 mg Alone, Fasted†|
|400 once daily‡ × 7 days||Fasted 1 hour after didanosine||14||↑ 28|
(↑ 11 to ↑ 48)
(↑ 31 to ↑ 59)
|Enteric coated capsules|
|400 once, fasted||With food, 2 hours after didanosine||26||↑ 48|
(↑ 25 to ↑ 76)
(↑ 31 to ↑ 67)
|400 once, with food||Simultaneously with didanosine||26||↑ 64|
(↑ 41 to ↑ 89)
(↑ 44 to ↑ 79)
|250 once, fasted||With food, 2 hours after didanosine||28||↓ 10|
(↓ 22 to ↑ 3)
|250 once, fasted||Simultaneously with didanosine||28||⇔||↑ 14
(0 to ↑ 31)
|250 once, with food||Simultaneously with didanosine||28||↓ 29|
(↓ 39 to ↓ 18)
(↓ 23 to ↑ 2)
Mechanism of Action
Emtricitabine: Emtricitabine, a synthetic nucleoside analog of cytidine, is phosphorylated by cellular enzymes to form emtricitabine 5'-triphosphate. Emtricitabine 5'-triphosphate inhibits the activity of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) by competing with the natural substrate deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate and by being incorporated into nascent viral DNA which results in chain termination.Emtricitabine 5'-triphosphate is a weak inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerase α, β, ε and mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ.
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate diester analog of adenosine monophosphate. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate requires initial diester hydrolysis for conversion to tenofovir and subsequent phosphorylations by cellular enzymes to form tenofovir diphosphate. Tenofovir diphosphate inhibits the activity of HIV-1 RT by competing with the natural substrate deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate and, after incorporation into DNA, by DNA chain termination. Tenofovir diphosphate is a weak inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerases α, β, and mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ.
Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: In combination studies evaluating the cell culture antiviral activity of emtricitabine and tenofovir together, synergistic antiviral effects were observed.
Emtricitabine: The antiviral activity of emtricitabine against laboratory and clinical isolates of HIV-1 was assessed in lymphoblastoid cell lines, the MAGI-CCR5 cell line, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values for emtricitabine were in the range of 0.0013–0.64 µM (0.0003–0.158 µg/mL). In drug combination studies of emtricitabine with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (abacavir, lamivudine, stavudine, zalcitabine, zidovudine), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (delavirdine, efavirenz, nevirapine), and protease inhibitors (amprenavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir), additive to synergistic effects were observed. Emtricitabine displayed antiviral activity in cell culture against HIV-1 clades A, B, C, D, E, F, and G (EC50 values ranged from 0.007–0.075 µM) and showed strain specific activity against HIV-2 (EC50 values ranged from 0.007–1.5 µM).
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: The antiviral activity of tenofovir against laboratory and clinical isolates of HIV-1 was assessed in lymphoblastoid cell lines, primary monocyte/macrophage cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes. The EC50 values for tenofovir were in the range of 0.04–8.5 µM. In drug combination studies of tenofovir with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (abacavir, didanosine, lamivudine, stavudine, zalcitabine, zidovudine), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (delavirdine, efavirenz, nevirapine), and protease inhibitors (amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir), additive to synergistic effects were observed. Tenofovir displayed antiviral activity in cell culture against HIV-1 clades A, B, C, D, E, F, G and O (EC50 values ranged from 0.5–2.2 µM) and showed strain specific activity against HIV-2 (EC50 values ranged from 1.6 µM to 5.5 µM).
Prophylactic Activity in a Nonhuman Primate Model of HIV Transmission
Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: The prophylactic activity of the combination of daily oral emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) was evaluated in a controlled study of macaques inoculated once weekly for 14 weeks with SIV/HIV-1 chimeric virus (SHIV) applied to the rectal surface. Of the 18 control animals, 17 became infected after a median of 2 weeks. In contrast, 4 of the 6 animals treated daily with oral FTC and TDF remained uninfected and the two infections that did occur were significantly delayed until 9 and 12 weeks and exhibited reduced viremia. An M184I-expressing FTC-resistant variant emerged in 1 of the 2 macaques after 3 weeks of continued drug exposure.
Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: HIV-1 isolates with reduced susceptibility to the combination of emtricitabine and tenofovir have been selected in cell culture. Genotypic analysis of these isolates identified the M184V/I and/or K65R amino acid substitutions in the viral RT.
In a clinical trial of treatment-naive subjects [Study 934, see Clinical Studies (14.1)], resistance analysis was performed on HIV-1 isolates from all confirmed virologic failure subjects with greater than 400 copies/mL of HIV-1 RNA at Week 144 or early discontinuation. Development of efavirenz resistance-associated substitutions occurred most frequently and was similar between the treatment arms. The M184V amino acid substitution, associated with resistance to EMTRIVA and lamivudine, was observed in 2/19 analyzed subject isolates in the EMTRIVA + VIREAD group and in 10/29 analyzed subject isolates in the zidovudine/lamivudine group. Through 144 weeks of Study 934, no subjects have developed a detectable K65R substitution in their HIV-1 as analyzed through standard genotypic analysis.
Emtricitabine: Emtricitabine-resistant isolates of HIV-1 have been selected in cell culture and in vivo. Genotypic analysis of these isolates showed that the reduced susceptibility to emtricitabine was associated with a substitution in the HIV-1 RT gene at codon 184 which resulted in an amino acid substitution of methionine by valine or isoleucine (M184V/I).
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: HIV-1 isolates with reduced susceptibility to tenofovir have been selected in cell culture. These viruses expressed a K65R substitution in RT and showed a 2–4 fold reduction in susceptibility to tenofovir.
In treatment-naive subjects, isolates from 8/47 (17%) analyzed subjects developed the K65R substitution in the VIREAD arm through 144 weeks; 7 occurred in the first 48 weeks of treatment and 1 at Week 96. In treatment-experienced subjects, 14/304 (5%) isolates from subjects failing VIREAD through Week 96 showed greater than 1.4 fold (median 2.7) reduced susceptibility to tenofovir. Genotypic analysis of the resistant isolates showed a substitution in the HIV-1 RT gene resulting in the K65R amino acid substitution.
iPrEx Trial: In a clinical study of HIV-1 seronegative subjects [iPrEx Trial, see Clinical Studies (14.2)], no amino acid substitutions associated with resistance to emtricitabine or tenofovir were detected at the time of seroconversion among 48 subjects in the TRUVADA group and 83 subjects in the placebo group who became infected with HIV-1 during the trial. Ten subjects were observed to be HIV-1 infected at time of enrollment. The M184V/I substitutions associated with resistance to emtricitabine were observed in 3 of the 10 subjects (2 of 2 in the TRUVADA group and 1 of 8 in the placebo group). One of the two subjects in the TRUVADA group harbored wild type virus at enrollment and developed the M184V substitution 4 weeks after enrollment. The other subject had indeterminate resistance at enrollment but was found to have the M184I substitution 4 weeks after enrollment.
Partners PrEP Trial: In a clinical study of HIV-1 seronegative subjects [Partners PrEP Trial, see Clinical Studies (14.3)], no variants expressing amino acid substitutions associated with resistance to emtricitabine or tenofovir were detected at the time of seroconversion among 12 subjects in the TRUVADA group, 15 subjects in the VIREAD group, and 51 subjects in the placebo group. Fourteen subjects were observed to be HIV-1 infected at the time of enrollment (3 in the TRUVADA group, 5 in the VIREAD group, and 6 in the placebo group). One of the three subjects in the TRUVADA group who was infected with wild type virus at enrollment selected an M184V expressing virus by week 12. Two of the five subjects in the VIREAD group had tenofovir-resistant viruses at the time of seroconversion; one subject infected with wild type virus at enrollment developed a K65R substitution by week 16, while the second subject had virus expressing the combination of D67N and K70R substitutions upon seroconversion at week 60, although baseline virus was not genotyped and it is unclear if the resistance emerged or was transmitted. Following enrollment, 4 subjects (2 in the VIREAD group, 1 in the TRUVADA group, and 1 in the placebo group) had virus expressing K103N or V106A substitutions, which confer high-level resistance to NNRTIs but have not been associated with tenofovir or emtricitabine and may have been present in the infecting virus.
Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: Cross-resistance among certain nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) has been recognized. The M184V/I and/or K65R substitutions selected in cell culture by the combination of emtricitabine and tenofovir are also observed in some HIV-1 isolates from subjects failing treatment with tenofovir in combination with either lamivudine or emtricitabine, and either abacavir or didanosine. Therefore, cross-resistance among these drugs may occur in patients whose virus harbors either or both of these amino acid substitutions.
Emtricitabine: Emtricitabine-resistant isolates (M184V/I) were cross-resistant to lamivudine and zalcitabine but retained susceptibility in cell culture to didanosine, stavudine, tenofovir, zidovudine, and NNRTIs (delavirdine, efavirenz, and nevirapine). HIV-1 isolates containing the K65R substitution, selected in vivo by abacavir, didanosine, tenofovir, and zalcitabine, demonstrated reduced susceptibility to inhibition by emtricitabine. Viruses harboring substitutions conferring reduced susceptibility to stavudine and zidovudine (M41L, D67N, K70R, L210W, T215Y/F, K219Q/E), or didanosine (L74V) remained sensitive to emtricitabine. HIV-1 containing the K103N substitution associated with resistance to NNRTIs was susceptible to emtricitabine.
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: HIV-1 isolates from subjects (N=20) whose HIV-1 expressed a mean of 3 zidovudine-associated RT amino acid substitutions (M41L, D67N, K70R, L210W, T215Y/F, or K219Q/E/N) showed a 3.1-fold decrease in the susceptibility to tenofovir. Subjects whose virus expressed an L74V substitution without zidovudine resistance associated substitutions (N=8) had reduced response to VIREAD. Limited data are available for patients whose virus expressed a Y115F substitution (N=3), Q151M substitution (N=2), or T69 insertion (N=4), all of whom had a reduced response.
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Emtricitabine: In long-term oral carcinogenicity studies of emtricitabine, no drug-related increases in tumor incidence were found in mice at doses up to 750 mg/kg/day (26 times the human systemic exposure at the therapeutic dose of 200 mg/day) or in rats at doses up to 600 mg/kg/day (31 times the human systemic exposure at the therapeutic dose).
Emtricitabine was not genotoxic in the reverse mutation bacterial test (Ames test), mouse lymphoma or mouse micronucleus assays.
Emtricitabine did not affect fertility in male rats at approximately 140-fold or in male and female mice at approximately 60-fold higher exposures (AUC) than in humans given the recommended 200 mg daily dose. Fertility was normal in the offspring of mice exposed daily from before birth (in utero) through sexual maturity at daily exposures (AUC) of approximately 60-fold higher than human exposures at the recommended 200 mg daily dose.
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: Long-term oral carcinogenicity studies of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in mice and rats were carried out at exposures up to approximately 16 times (mice) and 5 times (rats) those observed in humans at the therapeutic dose for HIV-1 infection. At the high dose in female mice, liver adenomas were increased at exposures 16 times that in humans. In rats, the study was negative for carcinogenic findings at exposures up to 5 times that observed in humans at the therapeutic dose.
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was mutagenic in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay and negative in an in vitro bacterial mutagenicity test (Ames test). In an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was negative when administered to male mice.
There were no effects on fertility, mating performance or early embryonic development when tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was administered to male rats at a dose equivalent to 10 times the human dose based on body surface area comparisons for 28 days prior to mating and to female rats for 15 days prior to mating through day seven of gestation. There was, however, an alteration of the estrous cycle in female rats.
13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology
Tenofovir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate administered in toxicology studies to rats, dogs and monkeys at exposures (based on AUCs) greater than or equal to 6-fold those observed in humans caused bone toxicity. In monkeys the bone toxicity was diagnosed as osteomalacia. Osteomalacia observed in monkeys appeared to be reversible upon dose reduction or discontinuation of tenofovir. In rats and dogs, the bone toxicity manifested as reduced bone mineral density. The mechanism(s) underlying bone toxicity is unknown.
Evidence of renal toxicity was noted in 4 animal species. Increases in serum creatinine, BUN, glycosuria, proteinuria, phosphaturia, and/or calciuria and decreases in serum phosphate were observed to varying degrees in these animals. These toxicities were noted at exposures (based on AUCs) 2–20 times higher than those observed in humans. The relationship of the renal abnormalities, particularly the phosphaturia, to the bone toxicity is not known.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
Clinical Study 934 supports the use of TRUVADA tablets for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Additional data in support of the use of TRUVADA are derived from clinical Study 903, in which lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir DF) were used in combination in treatment-naive adults, and clinical Study 303 in which emtricitabine and lamivudine demonstrated comparable efficacy, safety and resistance patterns as part of multidrug regimens. For additional information about these trials, please consult the prescribing information for tenofovir DF and emtricitabine. The iPrEx study and Partners PrEP study support the use of TRUVADA to help reduce the risk of acquiring HIV-1.
14.1 Study 934
Data through 144 weeks are reported for Study 934, a randomized, open-label, active-controlled multicenter trial comparing emtricitabine + tenofovir DF administered in combination with efavirenz versus zidovudine/lamivudine fixed-dose combination administered in combination with efavirenz in 511 antiretroviral-naive subjects. From Weeks 96 to 144 of the trial, subjects received TRUVADA with efavirenz in place of emtricitabine + tenofovir DF with efavirenz. Subjects had a mean age of 38 years (range 18–80), 86% were male, 59% were Caucasian and 23% were Black. The mean baseline CD4+ cell count was 245 cells/mm3 (range 2–1191) and median baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA was 5.01 log10 copies/mL (range 3.56–6.54). Subjects were stratified by baseline CD4+ cell count (< or ≥200 cells/mm3); 41% had CD4+ cell counts <200 cells/mm3 and 51% of subjects had baseline viral loads >100,000 copies/mL. Treatment outcomes through 48 and 144 weeks for those subjects who did not have efavirenz resistance at baseline are presented in Table 12.
|Outcomes||At Week 48||At Week 144|
|FTC + TDF + EFV|
|AZT/3TC + EFV|
|FTC + TDF + EFV|
|AZT/3TC + EFV
|Change in antiretroviral regimen||1%||1%||1%||1%|
|Discontinued due to adverse event||4%||9%||5%||12%|
|Discontinued for other reasons§||10%||14%||20%||22%|
Through Week 48, 84% and 73% of subjects in the emtricitabine + tenofovir DF group and the zidovudine/lamivudine group, respectively, achieved and maintained HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL (71% and 58% through Week 144). The difference in the proportion of subjects who achieved and maintained HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL through 48 weeks largely results from the higher number of discontinuations due to adverse events and other reasons in the zidovudine/lamivudine group in this open-label trial. In addition, 80% and 70% of subjects in the emtricitabine + tenofovir DF group and the zidovudine/lamivudine group, respectively, achieved and maintained HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL through Week 48 (64% and 56% through Week 144). The mean increase from baseline in CD4+ cell count was 190 cells/mm3 in the emtricitabine + tenofovir DF group and 158 cells/mm3 in the zidovudine/lamivudine group at Week 48 (312 and 271 cells/mm3 at Week 144).
Through 48 weeks, 7 subjects in the emtricitabine + tenofovir DF group and 5 subjects in the zidovudine/lamivudine group experienced a new CDC Class C event (10 and 6 subjects through 144 weeks).
14.2 iPrEx Trial
The iPrEx trial was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multinational study evaluating TRUVADA in 2499 HIV-seronegative men or transgender women who have sex with men and with evidence of high risk behavior for HIV-1 infection. Evidence of high risk behavior included any one of the following reported to have occurred up to six months prior to study screening: no condom use during anal intercourse with an HIV-1 positive partner or a partner of unknown HIV status; anal intercourse with more than 3 sex partners; exchange of money, gifts, shelter or drugs for anal sex; sex with male partner and diagnosis of sexually transmitted infection; no consistent use of condoms with sex partner known to be HIV-1 positive.
All subjects received monthly HIV-1 testing, risk-reduction counseling, condoms and management of sexually transmitted infections. Of the 2499 enrolled, 1251 received TRUVADA and 1248 received placebo. The mean age of subjects was 27 years, 5% were Asian, 9% Black, 18% White, and 72% Hispanic/Latino.
Subjects were followed for 4237 person-years. The primary outcome measure for the study was the incidence of documented HIV seroconversion. At the end of treatment, emergent HIV-1 seroconversion was observed in 131 subjects, of which 48 occurred in the TRUVADA group and 83 occurred in the placebo group, indicating a 42% (95% CI: 18% to 60%) reduction in risk. Risk reduction was found to be higher (53%; 95% CI: 34% to 72%) among subjects who reported previous unprotected anal intercourse (URAI) at screening (732 and 753 subjects reported URAI within the last 12 weeks at screening in the TRUVADA and placebo groups, respectively). In a post-hoc case control study of plasma and intracellular drug levels in about 10% of study subjects, risk reduction appeared to be the greatest in subjects with detectable intracellular tenofovir. Efficacy was therefore strongly correlated with adherence.
14.3 Partners PrEP Trial
The Partners PrEP trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 3 arm trial conducted in 4758 serodiscordant heterosexual couples in Kenya and Uganda to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TDF (N=1589) and FTC/TDF (N=1583) versus (parallel comparison) placebo (N=1586), in preventing HIV-1 acquisition by the uninfected partner.
All subjects received monthly HIV-1 testing, evaluation of adherence, assessment of sexual behavior, and safety evaluations. Women were also tested monthly for pregnancy. Women who became pregnant during the trial had study drug interrupted for the duration of the pregnancy and while breastfeeding. The uninfected partner subjects were predominantly male (61–64% across study drug groups), and had a mean age of 33–34 years.
Following 7827 person-years of follow up, 82 emergent HIV-1 seroconversions were reported, with an overall observed seroincidence rate of 1.05 per 100 person-years. Of the 82 seroconversions, 13 and 52 occurred in partner subjects randomized to TRUVADA and placebo, respectively. Two of the 13 seroconversions in the TRUVADA arm and 3 of the 52 seroconversions in the placebo arm occurred in women during treatment interruptions for pregnancy. The risk reduction for TRUVADA relative to placebo was 75% (95% CI: 55% to 87%). In a post-hoc case control study of plasma drug levels in about 10% of study subjects, risk reduction appeared to be the greatest in subjects with detectable plasma tenofovir. Efficacy was therefore strongly correlated with adherence.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
The blue, capsule-shaped, film-coated, tablets contain 200 mg of emtricitabine and 300 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (which is equivalent to 245 mg of tenofovir disoproxil), are debossed with "GILEAD" on one side and with "701" on the other side, and are available in unit of use bottles [containing a dessicant (silica gel canister or sachet) and closed with a child-resistant closure] of:
- 30 tablets (NDC 61958-0701-1)
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
As a part of patient counseling, healthcare providers must review the TRUVADA Medication Guide with every uninfected individual taking TRUVADA to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV.
17.1 Important Information for All Patients and Uninfected Individuals
Advise patients and uninfected individuals that:
- The long term effects of TRUVADA are unknown.
- TRUVADA tablets are for oral ingestion only.
- Patients and uninfected individuals should not discontinue TRUVADA without first informing their physicians.
- Patients and uninfected individuals should remain under the care of a physician when using TRUVADA.
- It is important to take TRUVADA on a regular dosing schedule to avoid missing doses.
- Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported. Treatment with TRUVADA should be suspended in patients or uninfected individuals who develop clinical symptoms suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (including nausea, vomiting, unusual or unexpected stomach discomfort, and weakness) [See Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
- Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV-1 and have discontinued TRUVADA. Before initiating TRUVADA, test all patients and uninfected individuals for HBV. All patients who are infected with HBV need close medical follow-up for several months after stopping TRUVADA to monitor for exacerbations of hepatitis [See Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
- Renal impairment, including cases of acute renal failure and Fanconi syndrome, has been reported in association with the use of VIREAD. TRUVADA should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent [See Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Dosing interval of TRUVADA may need adjustment in HIV-1 infected patients with renal impairment. TRUVADA for a PrEP indication should not be used in HIV-1 uninfected individuals if creatinine clearance is less than 60 mL/min. If a decrease in creatinine clearance is observed in uninfected individuals while using TRUVADA for PrEP, evaluate potential causes and re-assess potential risks and benefits of continued use [See Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
- Do not administer TRUVADA with ATRIPLA, COMPLERA, EMTRIVA, or VIREAD; or with drugs containing lamivudine, including Combivir (lamivudine/zidovudine), Epivir or Epivir-HBV (lamivudine), Epzicom (abacavir sulfate/lamivudine), or Trizivir (abacavir sulfate/lamivudine/zidovudine) [See Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
- Do not administer TRUVADA with HEPSERA [See Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
- Decreases in bone mineral density have been observed with the use of VIREAD or TRUVADA. Consider bone monitoring in patients and uninfected individuals who have a history of pathologic bone fracture or at risk for osteopenia [See Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
- Patients and uninfected individuals should avoid doing things that can spread HIV-1 or HBV infection.
17.2 Treatment of HIV-1 Infection
When TRUVADA is used in the treatment of HIV-infection, advise patients that:
- TRUVADA is not a cure for HIV-1 infection and patients may continue to experience illnesses associated with HIV-1 infection, including opportunistic infections.
- It is important to take TRUVADA in a regular dosing schedule with combination therapy to avoid missing doses.
- All patients with HIV-1 should be tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) before initiating and monitored after discontinuing taking TRUVADA.
17.3 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis
When TRUVADA is used to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV-1, advise uninfected individuals about the importance of the following:
- Confirming that they are HIV-negative before starting to take TRUVADA to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV-1.
- TRUVADA should only be used as part of a complete prevention strategy including other prevention measures. In clinical trials, TRUVADA only protected some subjects from acquiring HIV-1.
- Using condoms consistently and correctly to lower the chance of sexual contact with any body fluids such as semen, vaginal secretions, or blood.
- Knowing their HIV status and the status of their partner(s).
- Getting tested regularly (at least every 3 months) for HIV-1 and ask their partner(s) to get tested as well.
- HIV-1 resistance substitutions may emerge in individuals with undetected HIV-1 infection who are taking TRUVADA, because TRUVADA alone does not constitute a complete regimen for HIV-1 treatment [See Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]
- Reporting any symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection (flu-like symptoms) to their healthcare provider immediately.
- Signs and symptoms of acute infection include: fever, headache, fatigue, arthralgia, vomiting, myalgia, diarrhea, pharyngitis, rash, night sweats, and adenopathy (cervical and inguinal).
- Getting tested for other sexually transmitted infections such as syphilis and gonorrhea that may facilitate HIV-1 transmission.
- Learning about sexual risk behavior and getting support to help reduce sexual risk behavior.
- Taking TRUVADA on a regular dosing schedule and strictly adhere to the recommended dosing schedule to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV-1. Uninfected individuals who miss doses are at greater risk of acquiring HIV-1 than those who do not miss doses. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].
- Women who are pregnant should learn about the risks and benefits of TRUVADA to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV-1 during their pregnancy.
- Encourage use of the Agreement Form for Initiating TRUVADA for PrEP of Sexually Acquired HIV-1 Infection.
TRUVADA, COMPLERA, EMTRIVA, HEPSERA and VIREAD are registered trademarks of Gilead Sciences, Inc. ATRIPLA is a trademark of Bristol-Myers Squibb & Gilead Sciences, LLC. All other trademarks referenced herein are the property of their respective owners.
Manufactured for and distributed by:
Gilead Sciences, Inc.
Foster City, CA 94404
TRUVADA ® (tru-VAH-dah)
(emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate)
Read this Medication Guide before you start taking TRUVADA and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This information does not take the place of talking to your healthcare provider about your medical condition or your treatment.
What is the most important information I should know about TRUVADA?
TRUVADA can cause serious side effects, including:
1. Build-up of an acid in your blood (lactic acidosis). Lactic acidosis is a serious medical emergency that can lead to death.
Lactic acidosis can be hard to identify early, because the symptoms could seem like symptoms of other health problems. Call your healthcare provider right away if you get the following symptoms which could be signs of lactic acidosis:
- feeling very weak or tired
- unusual muscle pain
- trouble breathing
- stomach pain with
- feel cold, especially in your arms and legs
- feel dizzy or lightheaded
- have a fast or irregular heartbeat
2. Severe liver problems. Severe liver problems can happen in people who take TRUVADA. In some cases these liver problems can lead to death. Your liver may become large (hepatomegaly) and you may develop fat in your liver (steatosis) when you take TRUVADA. Call your healthcare provider right away if you get the following symptoms:
- your skin or the white part of your eyes turns yellow (jaundice)
- dark "tea-colored" urine
- light-colored bowel movements (stools)
- loss of appetite for several days or longer
- stomach pain
You may be more likely to get lactic acidosis or severe liver problems if you are female, very overweight (obese), or have been taking TRUVADA for a long time.
3. Worsening of your hepatitis B infection. If you have hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection it may become worse (flare-up) if you take TRUVADA and then stop it. A "flare-up" is when your HBV infection suddenly returns in a worse way than before.
- Do not run out of TRUVADA. Refill your prescription or talk to your healthcare provider before your TRUVADA is all gone.
- Do not stop taking TRUVADA without first talking to your healthcare provider.
- If you stop taking TRUVADA, your healthcare provider will need to check your health often and do blood tests regularly for several months to check your HBV infection. Tell your healthcare provider about any new or unusual symptoms you may have after you stop taking TRUVADA.
For more information about side effects, see the section "What are the possible side effects of TRUVADA?"
Before taking TRUVADA to help prevent you from getting HIV:
- You must get tested to be sure you are HIV-negative. It is important that you also get tested at least every 3 months as recommended by your healthcare provider while taking TRUVADA. Do not take TRUVADA to reduce the risk of getting HIV unless you are confirmed to be HIV-negative.
- Tell your healthcare provider if you have any of the following symptoms within the last month before you start taking TRUVADA or at any time while taking TRUVADA:These may be signs of HIV infection and you may need to have a different kind of test to diagnose HIV. Also, tell your healthcare provider if you think you were exposed to the HIV virus. If you are already taking TRUVADA to prevent HIV-1 infection, your healthcare provider may tell you to stop taking TRUVADA until an HIV test confirms that you do not have HIV-1 infection.
- sweating a lot (especially at night)
- joint or muscle aches
- sore throat
- enlarged lymph nodes in the neck or groin
- TRUVADA by itself is not a complete treatment for HIV. If you already have HIV or get HIV and take TRUVADA by itself without other medicines, you may develop resistance to TRUVADA. This means that the HIV virus may become harder to treat.
- Just taking TRUVADA may not keep you from getting HIV. TRUVADA does not always prevent HIV.
- You must still practice safer sex at all times. Do not have any kind of sex without protection. Always practice safer sex by using a latex or polyurethane condom to lower the chance of sexual contact with semen, vaginal secretions, or blood.
You must also use other prevention methods to keep from getting HIV.
- Know your HIV status and the HIV status of your partners. While taking TRUVADA, get tested at least every 3 months for HIV, as recommended by your healthcare provider. Ask your partners to get tested.
- Get tested for other sexually transmitted infections such as syphilis and gonorrhea. These infections make it easier for HIV to infect you.
- Get information and support to help reduce risky sexual behavior.
- Have fewer sex partners.
- Do not miss any doses of TRUVADA. Missing doses increases your risk of getting HIV.
- See the section "What is TRUVADA?" and talk to your healthcare provider for more information about how to prevent HIV infection.
What is TRUVADA?
TRUVADA contains the prescription medicines emtricitabine (EMTRIVA®) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (VIREAD®). TRUVADA is used:
- with other antiviral medicines to treat Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) in adults and children age 12 years and older. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).
- with safer sex practices at all times, to reduce the risk of getting HIV-1 in men who have sex with men who are at high risk of getting infected with HIV-1 through sex, and heterosexual couples where one partner has HIV-1 and the other does not. This is called Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis or PrEP.
It is not known if TRUVADA is safe and effective in children with HIV-1 infection who are under 12 years of age or who weigh less than 77 pounds.
When used with other HIV medicines to treat HIV-1 infection, TRUVADA may help:
- Reduce the amount of HIV in your blood. This is called "viral load."
- Increase the number of CD4+ (T) cells in your blood that help fight off other infections.
- Reducing the amount of HIV and increasing the CD4+ (T) cells in your blood may help improve your immune system. This may reduce your risk of death or infections that can happen when your immune system is weak (opportunistic infections).
TRUVADA does not cure HIV infection or AIDS. If you have HIV infection, you must stay on continuous HIV therapy to control HIV infection and decrease HIV-related illnesses.
Avoid doing things that can increase your risk of getting HIV infection or spreading HIV infection to other people:
- Do not share or re-use needles or other injection equipment.
- Do not share personal items that can have blood or body fluids on them, like toothbrushes and razor blades.
- Do not have any kind of sex without protection. Always practice safer sex by using a latex or polyurethane condom to lower the chance of sexual contact with semen, vaginal secretions, or blood.
Ask your healthcare provider if you have any questions on how to prevent getting HIV infection or spreading HIV infection to other people.
Who should not take TRUVADA?
Do not take TRUVADA to prevent HIV infection if you are HIV positive or if your HIV status is not known.
What should I tell my healthcare provider before taking TRUVADA?
Before taking TRUVADA, tell your healthcare provider if you:
- have liver problems including hepatitis B virus infection
- have kidney problems or receive kidney dialysis treatment
- have bone problems
- have any other medical conditions
- are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. It is not known if TRUVADA can harm your unborn baby.
If you are a female who is taking TRUVADA to prevent HIV infection and you become pregnant while taking TRUVADA, talk to your healthcare provider about whether you will continue taking TRUVADA.
Pregnancy Registry. There is a pregnancy registry for women who take antiviral medicines during pregnancy. The purpose of this registry is to collect information about the health of you and your baby. Talk to your healthcare provider about how you can take part in this registry.
- are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. Do not breastfeed if you take TRUVADA.Talk with your healthcare provider about the best way to feed your baby.
- You should not breastfeed if you have HIV because of the risk of passing HIV to your baby.
- TRUVADA can pass to your baby in your breast milk.
Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. TRUVADA may affect the way other medicines work, and other medicines may affect how TRUVADA works.
Do not take TRUVADA if you also take:
- other medicines that contain tenofovir or emtricitabine (ATRIPLA, COMPLERA, EMTRIVA, VIREAD)
- medicines that contain lamivudine (Combivir, Epivir, Epivir-HBV, Epzicom, Trizivir)
- adefovir (HEPSERA)
Especially tell your healthcare provider if you take:
- didanosine (VIDEX EC)
- atazanavir (REYATAZ)
- lopinavir with ritonavir (KALETRA)
Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them to show your healthcare provider or pharmacist when you get a new medicine.
How should I take TRUVADA?
- Take TRUVADA exactly as prescribed.
- Do not change your dose or stop taking TRUVADA without first talking with your healthcare provider. Stay under a healthcare provider's care when taking TRUVADA.
- TRUVADA is usually taken 1 time each day. If you have kidney problems, your healthcare provider may tell you to take TRUVADA less often.
- When used to treat HIV-1 infection, TRUVADA is always used with other HIV-1 medicines.
- If you take TRUVADA to reduce the risk of getting HIV-1, you must also use other methods to reduce your risk of getting HIV. See "What is the most important information I should know about TRUVADA?"
- Take TRUVADA by mouth, with or without food.
- Take TRUVADA at the same time each day.
- If you miss a dose of TRUVADA, take it as soon as you remember that day. Do not take more than 1 dose of TRUVADA in a day. Do not take 2 doses at the same time to make up for a missed dose. Call your healthcare provider or pharmacist if you are not sure what to do.
- It is important that you do not miss any doses of TRUVADA or your other HIV-1 medicines.
- When your TRUVADA supply starts to run low, get more from your healthcare provider or pharmacy. This is very important because the amount of virus in your blood may increase if the medicine is stopped for even a short time. The virus may develop resistance to TRUVADA and become harder to treat.
- If you take too much TRUVADA, call your healthcare provider or go to the nearest hospital emergency room right away.
What are the possible side effects of TRUVADA?
TRUVADA may cause the following serious side effects, including:
- See "What is the most important information I should know about TRUVADA?"
- New or worse kidney problems, including kidney failure. If you have had kidney problems in the past or need to take another medicine that can cause kidney problems, your healthcare provider may need to do blood tests to check your kidneys before you start and while you are taking TRUVADA. Your healthcare provider may tell you to take TRUVADA less often, or to stop taking TRUVADA if you have kidney problems.
- Bone problems can happen in some people who take TRUVADA. Bone problems include bone pain, softening or thinning (which may lead to fractures). Your healthcare provider may need to do tests to check your bones.
- Changes in body fat can happen in people who take HIV medicines. These changes may include increased amount of fat in the upper back and neck ("buffalo hump"), breast, and around the middle of your body (trunk). Loss of fat from the legs, arms, and face may also happen. The exact cause and long-term health effects of these problems are not known.
- Changes in your immune system (Immune Reconstitution Syndrome) can happen when an HIV-infected person starts taking HIV medicines. Your immune system may get stronger and begin to fight infections that have been hidden in your body for a long time. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you start having any new symptoms after starting your HIV medicine.
The most common side effects of TRUVADA in people with HIV-1 infection include:
Common side effects in people who take TRUVADA to prevent HIV-1 infection include:
- stomach-area (abdomen) pain
- decreased weight
Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.
These are not all the possible side effects of TRUVADA. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
How should I store TRUVADA?
- Store TRUVADA at room temperature between 68°F to 77°F (20°C to 25°C).
- Keep TRUVADA in its original container and keep the container tightly closed.
- Do not use TRUVADA if seal over bottle opening is broken or missing.
Keep TRUVADA and all other medicines out of reach of children.
General information about TRUVADA.
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use TRUVADA for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give TRUVADA to other people, even if they have the same symptoms you have. It may harm them.
This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about TRUVADA. If you would like more information, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for information about TRUVADA that is written for health professionals. For more information, call 1-800-445-3235 or go to www.TRUVADA.com.
What are the ingredients in TRUVADA?
Active ingredients: emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
Inactive ingredients: Croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and pregelatinized starch (gluten free). The tablets are coated with Opadry II Blue Y-30-10701 which contains FD&C Blue #2 aluminum lake, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 2910, lactose monohydrate, titanium dioxide, and triacetin.
This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Manufactured for and distributed by:
Gilead Sciences, Inc.
Foster City, CA 94404
Issued July 2012
TRUVADA tablets are available from Cardinal Health in unit dose packages of 30 tablets.
Unit dose package of 30 tablets, NDC 55154-4425-4
TRUVADA tablets are available from Cardinal Health in cards of 14 tablets and in cards of 30 tablets.
Zanesville, OH 43701
PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - Representative Bottle Label
(emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) tablets
200 mg/ 300 mg
emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablet
|Labeler - Cardinal Health (188557102)|