INTERARTICULAR JOINT KIT- ammonia, lidocaine hydrochloride anhydrous, triamcinolone acetonide, povidone-iodine   
Asclemed USA, Inc.

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KENALOG®-40 INJECTION
(triamcinolone acetonide injectable suspension, USP)

NOT FOR USE IN NEONATES
CONTAINS BENZYL ALCOHOL

For Intramuscular or Intra-articular Use Only
NOT FOR INTRAVENOUS, INTRADERMAL, INTRAOCULAR, EPIDURAL, OR INTRATHECAL USE

DESCRIPTION

Kenalog®-40 Injection (triamcinolone acetonide injectable suspension, USP) is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory action. THIS FORMULATION IS SUITABLE FOR INTRAMUSCULAR AND INTRA-ARTICULAR USE ONLY. THIS FORMULATION IS NOT FOR INTRADERMAL INJECTION.

Each mL of the sterile aqueous suspension provides 40 mg triamcinolone acetonide, with 0.65% sodium chloride for isotonicity, 0.99% (w/v) benzyl alcohol as a preservative, 0.75% carboxymethylcellulose sodium, and 0.04% polysorbate 80. Sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid may be present to adjust pH to 5.0 to 7.5. At the time of manufacture, the air in the container is replaced by nitrogen.

The chemical name for triamcinolone acetonide is 9-Fluoro-11β,16α,17,21-tetrahydroxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione cyclic 16,17-acetal with acetone. Its structural formula is:

triamcinolone acetonide chemical structure

MW 434.50

Triamcinolone acetonide occurs as a white to cream-colored, crystalline powder having not more than a slight odor and is practically insoluble in water and very soluble in alcohol.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Glucocorticoids, naturally occurring and synthetic, are adrenocortical steroids that are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.

Naturally occurring glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone and cortisone), which also have salt-retaining properties, are used as replacement therapy in adrenocortical deficiency states. Synthetic analogs such as triamcinolone are primarily used for their anti-inflammatory effects in disorders of many organ systems.

Kenalog-40 Injection has an extended duration of effect which may be sustained over a period of several weeks. Studies indicate that following a single intramuscular dose of 60 mg to 100 mg of triamcinolone acetonide, adrenal suppression occurs within 24 to 48 hours and then gradually returns to normal, usually in 30 to 40 days. This finding correlates closely with the extended duration of therapeutic action achieved with the drug.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Intramuscular

Where oral therapy is not feasible, injectable corticosteroid therapy, including Kenalog-40 Injection (triamcinolone acetonide injectable suspension, USP) is indicated for intramuscular use as follows:

Allergic states: Control of severe or incapacitating allergic conditions intractable to adequate trials of conventional treatment in asthma, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, drug hypersensitivity reactions, perennial or seasonal allergic rhinitis, serum sickness, transfusion reactions.

Dermatologic diseases: Bullous dermatitis herpetiformis, exfoliative erythroderma, mycosis fungoides, pemphigus, severe erythema multiforme (Stevens-Johnson syndrome).

Endocrine disorders: Primary or secondary adrenocortical insufficiency (hydrocortisone or cortisone is the drug of choice; synthetic analogs may be used in conjunction with mineralocorticoids where applicable; in infancy, mineralocorticoid supplementation is of particular importance), congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypercalcemia associated with cancer, nonsuppurative thyroiditis.

Gastrointestinal diseases: To tide the patient over a critical period of the disease in regional enteritis and ulcerative colitis.

Hematologic disorders: Acquired (autoimmune) hemolytic anemia, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, pure red cell aplasia, selected cases of secondary thrombocytopenia.

Miscellaneous: Trichinosis with neurologic or myocardial involvement, tuberculous meningitis with subarachnoid block or impending block when used with appropriate antituberculous chemotherapy.

Neoplastic diseases: For the palliative management of leukemias and lymphomas.

Nervous system: Acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis; cerebral edema associated with primary or metastatic brain tumor or craniotomy.

Ophthalmic diseases: Sympathetic ophthalmia, temporal arteritis, uveitis, and ocular inflammatory conditions unresponsive to topical corticosteroids.

Renal diseases: To induce diuresis or remission of proteinuria in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome or that due to lupus erythematosus.

Respiratory diseases: Berylliosis, fulminating or disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis when used concurrently with appropriate antituberculous chemotherapy, idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonias, symptomatic sarcoidosis.

Rheumatic disorders: As adjunctive therapy for short-term administration (to tide the patient over an acute episode or exacerbation) in acute gouty arthritis; acute rheumatic carditis; ankylosing spondylitis; psoriatic arthritis; rheumatoid arthritis, including juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (selected cases may require low-dose maintenance therapy). For the treatment of dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and systemic lupus erythematosus.

Intra-Articular

The intra-articular or soft tissue administration of Kenalog-40 Injection is indicated as adjunctive therapy for short-term administration (to tide the patient over an acute episode or exacerbation) in acute gouty arthritis, acute and subacute bursitis, acute nonspecific tenosynovitis, epicondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis, synovitis, or osteoarthritis.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Kenalog-40 Injection is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to any components of this product (see WARNINGS: General).

Intramuscular corticosteroid preparations are contraindicated for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

WARNINGS

General

Exposure to excessive amounts of benzyl alcohol has been associated with toxicity (hypotension, metabolic acidosis), particularly in neonates, and an increased incidence of kernicterus, particularly in small preterm infants. There have been rare reports of deaths, primarily in preterm infants, associated with exposure to excessive amounts of benzyl alcohol. The amount of benzyl alcohol from medications is usually considered negligible compared to that received in flush solutions containing benzyl alcohol. Administration of high dosages of medications containing this preservative must take into account the total amount of benzyl alcohol administered. The amount of benzyl alcohol at which toxicity may occur is not known. If the patient requires more than the recommended dosages or other medications containing this preservative, the practitioner must consider the daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from these combined sources (see PRECAUTIONS: Pediatric Use).

Rare instances of anaphylaxis have occurred in patients receiving corticosteroid therapy (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Cases of serious anaphylaxis, including death, have been reported in individuals receiving triamcinolone acetonide injection, regardless of the route of administration.

Because Kenalog-40 Injection (triamcinolone acetonide injectable suspension, USP) is a suspension, it should not be administered intravenously.

Unless a deep intramuscular injection is given, local atrophy is likely to occur. (For recommendations on injection techniques, see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.) Due to the significantly higher incidence of local atrophy when the material is injected into the deltoid area, this injection site should be avoided in favor of the gluteal area.

Increased dosage of rapidly acting corticosteroids is indicated in patients on corticosteroid therapy subjected to any unusual stress before, during, and after the stressful situation. Kenalog-40 Injection is a long-acting preparation, and is not suitable for use in acute stress situations. To avoid drug-induced adrenal insufficiency, supportive dosage may be required in times of stress (such as trauma, surgery, or severe illness) both during treatment with Kenalog-40 Injection and for a year afterwards.

Results from one multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled study with methylprednisolone hemisuccinate, an intravenous corticosteroid, showed an increase in early (at 2 weeks) and late (at 6 months) mortality in patients with cranial trauma who were determined not to have other clear indications for corticosteroid treatment. High doses of systemic corticosteroids, including Kenalog-40 Injection, should not be used for the treatment of traumatic brain injury.

Cardio-Renal

Average and large doses of corticosteroids can cause elevation of blood pressure, salt and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium. These effects are less likely to occur with the synthetic derivatives except when they are used in large doses. Dietary salt restriction and potassium supplementation may be necessary (see PRECAUTIONS). All corticosteroids increase calcium excretion.

Literature reports suggest an apparent association between use of corticosteroids and left ventricular free wall rupture after a recent myocardial infarction; therefore, therapy with corticosteroids should be used with great caution in these patients.

Endocrine

Corticosteroids can produce reversible hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression with the potential for glucocorticosteroid insufficiency after withdrawal of treatment.

Metabolic clearance of corticosteroids is decreased in hypothyroid patients and increased in hyperthyroid patients. Changes in thyroid status of the patient may necessitate adjustment in dosage.

Infections

General

Patients who are on corticosteroids are more susceptible to infections than are healthy individuals. There may be decreased resistance and inability to localize infection when corticosteroids are used. Infection with any pathogen (viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoan, or helminthic) in any location of the body may be associated with the use of corticosteroids alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents. These infections may be mild to severe. With increasing doses of corticosteroids, the rate of occurrence of infectious complications increases. Corticosteroids may also mask some signs of current infection.

Fungal Infections

Corticosteroids may exacerbate systemic fungal infections and therefore should not be used in the presence of such infections unless they are needed to control drug reactions. There have been cases reported in which concomitant use of amphotericin B and hydrocortisone was followed by cardiac enlargement and congestive heart failure (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions: Amphotericin B injection and potassium-depleting agents).

Special Pathogens

Latent disease may be activated or there may be an exacerbation of intercurrent infections due to pathogens, including those caused by Amoeba, Candida, Cryptococcus, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Pneumocystis, or Toxoplasma.

It is recommended that latent amebiasis or active amebiasis be ruled out before initiating corticosteroid therapy in any patient who has spent time in the tropics or in any patient with unexplained diarrhea.

Similarly, corticosteroids should be used with great care in patients with known or suspected Strongyloides (threadworm) infestation. In such patients, corticosteroid-induced immunosuppression may lead to Strongyloides hyperinfection and dissemination with widespread larval migration, often accompanied by severe enterocolitis and potentially fatal gram-negative septicemia.

Corticosteroids should not be used in cerebral malaria.

Tuberculosis

The use of corticosteroids in patients with active tuberculosis should be restricted to those cases of fulminating or disseminated tuberculosis in which the corticosteroid is used for the management of the disease in conjunction with an appropriate anti-tuberculosis regimen. If corticosteroids are indicated in patients with latent tuberculosis or tuberculin reactivity, close observation is necessary as reactivation of the disease may occur. During prolonged corticosteroid therapy, these patients should receive chemoprophylaxis.

Vaccination

Administration of live or live, attenuated vaccines is contraindicated in patients receiving immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids. Killed or inactivated vaccines may be administered. However, the response to such vaccines cannot be predicted. Immunization procedures may be undertaken in patients who are receiving corticosteroids as replacement therapy, eg, for Addison’s disease.

Viral Infections

Chicken pox and measles can have a more serious or even fatal course in pediatric and adult patients on corticosteroids. In pediatric and adult patients who have not had these diseases, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known. If exposed to chicken pox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If exposed to measles, prophylaxis with immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated. (See the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information.) If chicken pox develops, treatment with antiviral agents should be considered.

Neurologic

Epidural and intrathecal administration of this product is not recommended. Reports of serious medical events, including death, have been associated with epidural and intrathecal routes of corticosteroid administration (see ADVERSE REACTIONS: Gastrointestinal and Neurologic/Psychiatric).

Ophthalmic

Use of corticosteroids may produce posterior subcapsular cataracts, glaucoma with possible damage to the optic nerves, and may enhance the establishment of secondary ocular infections due to bacteria, fungi, or viruses. The use of oral corticosteroids is not recommended in the treatment of optic neuritis and may lead to an increase in the risk of new episodes. Corticosteroids should not be used in active ocular herpes simplex.

Adequate studies to demonstrate the safety of Kenalog Injection use by intraturbinal, subconjunctival, sub-Tenons, retrobulbar, and intraocular (intravitreal) injections have not been performed. Endophthalmitis, eye inflammation, increased intraocular pressure, and visual disturbances including vision loss have been reported with intravitreal administration. Administration of Kenalog Injection intraocularly or into the nasal turbinates is not recommended.

Intraocular injection of corticosteroid formulations containing benzyl alcohol, such as Kenalog Injection, is not recommended because of potential toxicity from the benzyl alcohol.

PRECAUTIONS

General

This product, like many other steroid formulations, is sensitive to heat. Therefore, it should not be autoclaved when it is desirable to sterilize the exterior of the vial.

The lowest possible dose of corticosteroid should be used to control the condition under treatment. When reduction in dosage is possible, the reduction should be gradual.

Since complications of treatment with glucocorticoids are dependent on the size of the dose and the duration of treatment, a risk/benefit decision must be made in each individual case as to dose and duration of treatment and as to whether daily or intermittent therapy should be used.

Kaposi’s sarcoma has been reported to occur in patients receiving corticosteroid therapy, most often for chronic conditions. Discontinuation of corticosteroids may result in clinical improvement.

Cardio-Renal

As sodium retention with resultant edema and potassium loss may occur in patients receiving corticosteroids, these agents should be used with caution in patients with congestive heart failure, hypertension, or renal insufficiency.

Endocrine

Drug-induced secondary adrenocortical insufficiency may be minimized by gradual reduction of dosage. This type of relative insufficiency may persist for months after discontinuation of therapy; therefore, in any situation of stress occurring during that period, hormone therapy should be reinstituted. Since mineralocorticoid secretion may be impaired, salt and/or a mineralocorticoid should be administered concurrently.

Gastrointestinal

Steroids should be used with caution in active or latent peptic ulcers, diverticulitis, fresh intestinal anastomoses, and nonspecific ulcerative colitis, since they may increase the risk of a perforation.

Signs of peritoneal irritation following gastrointestinal perforation in patients receiving corticosteroids may be minimal or absent.

There is an enhanced effect of corticosteroids in patients with cirrhosis.

Intra-Articular and Soft Tissue Administration

Intra-articularly injected corticosteroids may be systemically absorbed.

Appropriate examination of any joint fluid present is necessary to exclude a septic process.

A marked increase in pain accompanied by local swelling, further restriction of joint motion, fever, and malaise are suggestive of septic arthritis. If this complication occurs and the diagnosis of sepsis is confirmed, appropriate antimicrobial therapy should be instituted.

Injection of a steroid into an infected site is to be avoided. Local injection of a steroid into a previously infected joint is not usually recommended.

Corticosteroid injection into unstable joints is generally not recommended.

Intra-articular injection may result in damage to joint tissues (see ADVERSE REACTIONS: Musculoskeletal).

Musculoskeletal

Corticosteroids decrease bone formation and increase bone resorption both through their effect on calcium regulation (ie, decreasing absorption and increasing excretion) and inhibition of osteoblast function. This, together with a decrease in the protein matrix of the bone secondary to an increase in protein catabolism, and reduced sex hormone production, may lead to inhibition of bone growth in pediatric patients and the development of osteoporosis at any age. Special consideration should be given to patients at increased risk of osteoporosis (ie, postmenopausal women) before initiating corticosteroid therapy.

Neuro-Psychiatric

Although controlled clinical trials have shown corticosteroids to be effective in speeding the resolution of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis, they do not show that they affect the ultimate outcome or natural history of the disease. The studies do show that relatively high doses of corticosteroids are necessary to demonstrate a significant effect. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)

An acute myopathy has been observed with the use of high doses of corticosteroids, most often occurring in patients with disorders of neuromuscular transmission (eg, myasthenia gravis), or in patients receiving concomitant therapy with neuromuscular blocking drugs (eg, pancuronium). This acute myopathy is generalized, may involve ocular and respiratory muscles, and may result in quadriparesis. Elevation of creatinine kinase may occur. Clinical improvement or recovery after stopping corticosteroids may require weeks to years.

Psychiatric derangements may appear when corticosteroids are used, ranging from euphoria, insomnia, mood swings, personality changes, and severe depression to frank psychotic manifestations. Also, existing emotional instability or psychotic tendencies may be aggravated by corticosteroids.

Ophthalmic

Intraocular pressure may become elevated in some individuals. If steroid therapy is continued for more than 6 weeks, intraocular pressure should be monitored.

Information for Patients

Patients should be warned not to discontinue the use of corticosteroids abruptly or without medical supervision, to advise any medical attendants that they are taking corticosteroids, and to seek medical advice at once should they develop fever or other signs of infection.

Persons who are on corticosteroids should be warned to avoid exposure to chicken pox or measles. Patients should also be advised that if they are exposed, medical advice should be sought without delay.

Drug Interactions

Aminoglutethimide: Aminoglutethimide may lead to a loss of corticosteroid-induced adrenal suppression.

Amphotericin B injection and potassium-depleting agents: When corticosteroids are administered concomitantly with potassium-depleting agents (ie, amphotericin B, diuretics), patients should be observed closely for development of hypokalemia. There have been cases reported in which concomitant use of amphotericin B and hydrocortisone was followed by cardiac enlargement and congestive heart failure.

Antibiotics: Macrolide antibiotics have been reported to cause a significant decrease in corticosteroid clearance.

Anticholinesterases: Concomitant use of anticholinesterase agents and corticosteroids may produce severe weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis. If possible, anticholinesterase agents should be withdrawn at least 24 hours before initiating corticosteroid therapy.

Anticoagulants, oral: Coadministration of corticosteroids and warfarin usually results in inhibition of response to warfarin, although there have been some conflicting reports. Therefore, coagulation indices should be monitored frequently to maintain the desired anticoagulant effect.

Antidiabetics: Because corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations, dosage adjustments of antidiabetic agents may be required.

Antitubercular drugs: Serum concentrations of isoniazid may be decreased.

Cholestyramine: Cholestyramine may increase the clearance of corticosteroids.

Cyclosporine: Increased activity of both cyclosporine and corticosteroids may occur when the two are used concurrently. Convulsions have been reported with this concurrent use.

Digitalis glycosides: Patients on digitalis glycosides may be at increased risk of arrhythmias due to hypokalemia.

Estrogens, including oral contraceptives: Estrogens may decrease the hepatic metabolism of certain corticosteroids, thereby increasing their effect.

Hepatic enzyme inducers (eg, barbiturates, phenytoin, carbamazepine, rifampin): Drugs which induce hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzyme activity may enhance the metabolism of corticosteroids and require that the dosage of the corticosteroid be increased.

Ketoconazole: Ketoconazole has been reported to decrease the metabolism of certain corticosteroids by up to 60%, leading to an increased risk of corticosteroid side effects.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): Concomitant use of aspirin (or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and corticosteroids increases the risk of gastrointestinal side effects. Aspirin should be used cautiously in conjunction with corticosteroids in hypoprothrombinemia. The clearance of salicylates may be increased with concurrent use of corticosteroids.

Skin tests: Corticosteroids may suppress reactions to skin tests.

Vaccines: Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy may exhibit a diminished response to toxoids and live or inactivated vaccines due to inhibition of antibody response. Corticosteroids may also potentiate the replication of some organisms contained in live attenuated vaccines. Routine administration of vaccines or toxoids should be deferred until corticosteroid therapy is discontinued if possible (see WARNINGS: Infections: Vaccination).

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No adequate studies have been conducted in animals to determine whether corticosteroids have a potential for carcinogenesis or mutagenesis.

Steroids may increase or decrease motility and number of spermatozoa in some patients.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C

Corticosteroids have been shown to be teratogenic in many species when given in doses equivalent to the human dose. Animal studies in which corticosteroids have been given to pregnant mice, rats, and rabbits have yielded an increased incidence of cleft palate in the offspring. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Corticosteroids should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Infants born to mothers who have received corticosteroids during pregnancy should be carefully observed for signs of hypoadrenalism.

Nursing Mothers

Systemically administered corticosteroids appear in human milk and could suppress growth, interfere with endogenous corticosteroid production, or cause other untoward effects. Caution should be exercised when corticosteroids are administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

This product contains benzyl alcohol as a preservative. Benzyl alcohol, a component of this product, has been associated with serious adverse events and death, particularly in pediatric patients. The “gasping syndrome” (characterized by central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, gasping respirations, and high levels of benzyl alcohol and its metabolites found in the blood and urine) has been associated with benzyl alcohol dosages >99 mg/kg/day in neonates and low-birth-weight neonates. Additional symptoms may include gradual neurological deterioration, seizures, intracranial hemorrhage, hematologic abnormalities, skin breakdown, hepatic and renal failure, hypotension, bradycardia, and cardiovascular collapse. Although normal therapeutic doses of this product deliver amounts of benzyl alcohol that are substantially lower than those reported in association with the “gasping syndrome,” the minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which toxicity may occur is not known. Premature and low-birth-weight infants, as well as patients receiving high dosages, may be more likely to develop toxicity. Practitioners administering this and other medications containing benzyl alcohol should consider the combined daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from all sources.

The efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in the pediatric population are based on the well-established course of effect of corticosteroids which is similar in pediatric and adult populations. Published studies provide evidence of efficacy and safety in pediatric patients for the treatment of nephrotic syndrome (>2 years of age), and aggressive lymphomas and leukemias (>1 month of age). Other indications for pediatric use of corticosteroids, eg, severe asthma and wheezing, are based on adequate and well-controlled trials conducted in adults, on the premises that the course of the diseases and their pathophysiology are considered to be substantially similar in both populations.

The adverse effects of corticosteroids in pediatric patients are similar to those in adults (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Like adults, pediatric patients should be carefully observed with frequent measurements of blood pressure, weight, height, intraocular pressure, and clinical evaluation for the presence of infection, psychosocial disturbances, thromboembolism, peptic ulcers, cataracts, and osteoporosis. Pediatric patients who are treated with corticosteroids by any route, including systemically administered corticosteroids, may experience a decrease in their growth velocity. This negative impact of corticosteroids on growth has been observed at low systemic doses and in the absence of laboratory evidence of HPA axis suppression (ie, cosyntropin stimulation and basal cortisol plasma levels). Growth velocity may therefore be a more sensitive indicator of systemic corticosteroid exposure in pediatric patients than some commonly used tests of HPA axis function. The linear growth of pediatric patients treated with corticosteroids should be monitored, and the potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be weighed against clinical benefits obtained and the availability of treatment alternatives. In order to minimize the potential growth effects of corticosteroids, pediatric patients should be titrated to the lowest effective dose.

Geriatric Use

No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between elderly subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

(listed alphabetically under each subsection)

The following adverse reactions may be associated with corticosteroid therapy:

Allergic reactions: Anaphylaxis including death, angioedema.

Cardiovascular: Bradycardia, cardiac arrest, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac enlargement, circulatory collapse, congestive heart failure, fat embolism, hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in premature infants, myocardial rupture following recent myocardial infarction (see WARNINGS), pulmonary edema, syncope, tachycardia, thromboembolism, thrombophlebitis, vasculitis.

Dermatologic: Acne, allergic dermatitis, cutaneous and subcutaneous atrophy, dry scaly skin, ecchymoses and petechiae, edema, erythema, hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, impaired wound healing, increased sweating, lupus erythematosus-like lesions, purpura, rash, sterile abscess, striae, suppressed reactions to skin tests, thin fragile skin, thinning scalp hair, urticaria.

Endocrine: Decreased carbohydrate and glucose tolerance, development of cushingoid state, glycosuria, hirsutism, hypertrichosis, increased requirements for insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in diabetes, manifestations of latent diabetes mellitus, menstrual irregularities, secondary adrenocortical and pituitary unresponsiveness (particularly in times of stress, as in trauma, surgery, or illness), suppression of growth in pediatric patients.

Fluid and electrolyte disturbances: Congestive heart failure in susceptible patients, fluid retention, hypokalemic alkalosis, potassium loss, sodium retention.

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal distention, bowel/bladder dysfunction (after intrathecal administration [see WARNINGS: Neurologic]), elevation in serum liver enzyme levels (usually reversible upon discontinuation), hepatomegaly, increased appetite, nausea, pancreatitis, peptic ulcer with possible perforation and hemorrhage, perforation of the small and large intestine (particularly in patients with inflammatory bowel disease), ulcerative esophagitis.

Metabolic: Negative nitrogen balance due to protein catabolism.

Musculoskeletal: Aseptic necrosis of femoral and humeral heads, calcinosis (following intra-articular or intralesional use), Charcot-like arthropathy, loss of muscle mass, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, pathologic fracture of long bones, post injection flare (following intra-articular use), steroid myopathy, tendon rupture, vertebral compression fractures.

Neurologic/Psychiatric: Convulsions, depression, emotional instability, euphoria, headache, increased intracranial pressure with papilledema (pseudotumor cerebri) usually following discontinuation of treatment, insomnia, mood swings, neuritis, neuropathy, paresthesia, personality changes, psychiatric disorders, vertigo. Arachnoiditis, meningitis, paraparesis/paraplegia, and sensory disturbances have occurred after intrathecal administration. Spinal cord infarction, paraplegia, quadriplegia, cortical blindness, and stroke (including brainstem) have been reported after epidural administration of corticosteroids (see WARNINGS: Neurologic).

Ophthalmic: Exophthalmos, glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure, posterior subcapsular cataracts, rare instances of blindness associated with periocular injections.

Other: Abnormal fat deposits, decreased resistance to infection, hiccups, increased or decreased motility and number of spermatozoa, malaise, moon face, weight gain.

OVERDOSAGE

Treatment of acute overdosage is by supportive and symptomatic therapy. For chronic overdosage in the face of severe disease requiring continuous steroid therapy, the dosage of the corticosteroid may be reduced only temporarily, or alternate day treatment may be introduced.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

General

NOTE: CONTAINS BENZYL ALCOHOL (see PRECAUTIONS).

The initial dose of Kenalog-40 Injection may vary from 2.5 mg to 100 mg per day depending on the specific disease entity being treated (see Dosage section below). However, in certain overwhelming, acute, life-threatening situations, administration in dosages exceeding the usual dosages may be justified and may be in multiples of the oral dosages.

IT SHOULD BE EMPHASIZED THAT DOSAGE REQUIREMENTS ARE VARIABLE AND MUST BE INDIVIDUALIZED ON THE BASIS OF THE DISEASE UNDER TREATMENT AND THE RESPONSE OF THE PATIENT. After a favorable response is noted, the proper maintenance dosage should be determined by decreasing the initial drug dosage in small decrements at appropriate time intervals until the lowest dosage which will maintain an adequate clinical response is reached. Situations which may make dosage adjustments necessary are changes in clinical status secondary to remissions or exacerbations in the disease process, the patient’s individual drug responsiveness, and the effect of patient exposure to stressful situations not directly related to the disease entity under treatment. In this latter situation it may be necessary to increase the dosage of the corticosteroid for a period of time consistent with the patient’s condition. If after long-term therapy the drug is to be stopped, it is recommended that it be withdrawn gradually rather than abruptly.

Dosage

SYSTEMIC

The suggested initial dose is 60 mg, injected deeply into the gluteal muscle. Atrophy of subcutaneous fat may occur if the injection is not properly given. Dosage is usually adjusted within the range of 40 mg to 80 mg, depending upon patient response and duration of relief. However, some patients may be well controlled on doses as low as 20 mg or less.

Hay fever or pollen asthma: Patients with hay fever or pollen asthma who are not responding to pollen administration and other conventional therapy may obtain a remission of symptoms lasting throughout the pollen season after a single injection of 40 mg to 100 mg.

In the treatment of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis, daily doses of 160 mg of triamcinolone for a week followed by 64 mg every other day for one month are recommended (see PRECAUTIONS: Neuro-Psychiatric).

In pediatric patients, the initial dose of triamcinolone may vary depending on the specific disease entity being treated. The range of initial doses is 0.11 to 1.6 mg/kg/day in 3 or 4 divided doses (3.2 to 48 mg/m2bsa/day).

For the purpose of comparison, the following is the equivalent milligram dosage of the various glucocorticoids:

Cortisone, 25Triamcinolone, 4
Hydrocortisone, 20Paramethasone, 2
Prednisolone, 5Betamethasone, 0.75
Prednisone, 5Dexamethasone, 0.75
Methylprednisolone, 4

These dose relationships apply only to oral or intravenous administration of these compounds. When these substances or their derivatives are injected intramuscularly or into joint spaces, their relative properties may be greatly altered.

LOCAL

Intra-articular administration: A single local injection of triamcinolone acetonide is frequently sufficient, but several injections may be needed for adequate relief of symptoms.

Initial dose: 2.5 mg to 5 mg for smaller joints and from 5 mg to 15 mg for larger joints, depending on the specific disease entity being treated. For adults, doses up to 10 mg for smaller areas and up to 40 mg for larger areas have usually been sufficient. Single injections into several joints, up to a total of 80 mg, have been given.

Administration

GENERAL

STRICT ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE IS MANDATORY. The vial should be shaken before use to ensure a uniform suspension. Prior to withdrawal, the suspension should be inspected for clumping or granular appearance (agglomeration). An agglomerated product results from exposure to freezing temperatures and should not be used. After withdrawal, Kenalog-40 Injection should be injected without delay to prevent settling in the syringe. Careful technique should be employed to avoid the possibility of entering a blood vessel or introducing infection.

SYSTEMIC

For systemic therapy, injection should be made deeply into the gluteal muscle (see WARNINGS). For adults, a minimum needle length of 1½ inches is recommended. In obese patients, a longer needle may be required. Use alternative sites for subsequent injections.

LOCAL

For treatment of joints, the usual intra-articular injection technique should be followed. If an excessive amount of synovial fluid is present in the joint, some, but not all, should be aspirated to aid in the relief of pain and to prevent undue dilution of the steroid.

With intra-articular administration, prior use of a local anesthetic may often be desirable. Care should be taken with this kind of injection, particularly in the deltoid region, to avoid injecting the suspension into the tissues surrounding the site, since this may lead to tissue atrophy.

In treating acute nonspecific tenosynovitis, care should be taken to ensure that the injection of the corticosteroid is made into the tendon sheath rather than the tendon substance. Epicondylitis may be treated by infiltrating the preparation into the area of greatest tenderness.

HOW SUPPLIED

Kenalog®-40 Injection (triamcinolone acetonide injectable suspension, USP) is supplied in vials providing 40 mg triamcinolone acetonide per mL.

          40 mg/mL, 1 mL vialNDC 0003-0293-05
          40 mg/mL, 5 mL vialNDC 0003-0293-20
          40 mg/mL, 10 mL vialNDC 0003-0293-28

Storage

Store at controlled room temperature, 20°–25°C (68°–77°F), avoid freezing and protect from light. Do not refrigerate.

Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
Princeton, NJ 08543 USA
Product of Italy

1221153A5

Rev August 2011

DESCRIPTION

Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is a local anesthetic which is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution intended for parenteral injection.  See INDICATIONS AND USAGE for specific uses.

Lidocaine hydrochloride is chemically designated as 2-(Diethylamino)-2’, 6’-acetoxylidide monohydrochloride and has the following structural formula:


structure



C14H22N2O HCl                              M.W. 288.82

Each mL contains: Lidocaine hydrochloride 10 or 20 mg; methylparaben 0.1%; sodium chloride (7 mg and 6 mg of sodium chloride for 1% and 2% respectively) to render it isotonic; Water for Injection q.s.  Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment (5.0 to 7.0).

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action

Lidocaine HCl stabilizes the neuronal membrane by inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of impulses, thereby effecting local anesthetic action.

Hemodynamics

Excessive blood levels may cause changes in cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and mean arterial pressure.  With central neural blockade these changes may be attributable to block of autonomic fibers, a direct depressant effect of the local anesthetic agent on various components of the cardiovascular system.  The net effect is normally a modest hypotension when the recommended dosages are not exceeded.

Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism

Information derived from diverse formulations, concentrations and usages reveals that lidocaine HCl is completely absorbed following parenteral administration, its rate of absorption depending, for example, upon various factors such as the site of administration and the presence or absence of a vasoconstrictor agent.  Except for intravascular administration, the highest blood levels are obtained following intercostal nerve block and the lowest after subcutaneous administration.

The plasma binding of lidocaine HCl is dependent on drug concentration, and the fraction bound decreases with increasing concentration.  At concentrations of 1 to 4 mcg of free base/mL, 60 to 80% of lidocaine HCl is protein bound.  Binding is also dependent on the plasma concentration of the alpha-1-acid glycoprotein.

Lidocaine HCl crosses the blood-brain and placental barriers, presumably by passive diffusion.

Lidocaine HCl is metabolized rapidly by the liver, and metabolites and unchanged drug are excreted by the kidneys.  Biotransformation includes oxidative N-dealkylation, ring hydroxylation, cleavage of the amide linkage, and conjugation.  N-dealkylation, a major pathway of biotransformation, yields the metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide and glycinexylidide.  The pharmacological/toxicological actions of these metabolites are similar to, but less potent than, those of lidocaine HCl.  Approximately 90% of lidocaine HCl administered is excreted in the form of various metabolites, and less than 10% is excreted unchanged.  The primary metabolite in urine is a conjugate of 4-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylaniline.

The elimination half-life of lidocaine HCl following an intravenous bolus injection is typically 1.5 to 2 hours.  Because of the rapid rate at which lidocaine HCl is metabolized, any condition that affects liver function may alter lidocaine kinetics.  The half-life may be prolonged two-fold or more in patients with liver dysfunction.  Renal dysfunction does not affect lidocaine HCl kinetics but may increase the accumulation of metabolites.

Factors such as acidosis and the use of CNS stimulants and depressants affect the CNS levels of lidocaine HCl required to produce overt systemic effects.  Objective adverse manifestations become increasingly apparent with increasing venous plasma levels above 6 mcg free base/mL.  In the rhesus monkey arterial blood levels of 18 to 21 mcg/mL have been shown to be threshold for convulsive activity.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is indicated for the production of local anesthesia, by infiltration techniques, such as percutaneous injection, and by peripheral nerve block techniques, such as brachial plexus and inter-costal, when the accepted procedures for these techniques as described in standard textbooks are observed.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Lidocaine HCl is contraindicated in patients with a known history of hypersensitivity to local anesthetics of the amide type.

WARNINGS

LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTION FOR INFILTRATION AND NERVE BLOCK SHOULD BE EMPLOYED ONLY BY CLINICIANS WHO ARE WELL VERSED IN DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY AND OTHER ACUTE EMERGENCIES THAT MIGHT ARISE FROM THE BLOCK TO BE EMPLOYED AND THEN ONLY AFTER ENSURING THE IMMEDIATE AVAILABILITY OF OXYGEN, OTHER RESUSCITATIVE DRUGS, CARDIOPULMONARY EQUIPMENT AND THE PERSONNEL NEEDED FOR PROPER MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC REACTIONS AND RELATED EMERGENCIES (see also ADVERSE REACTIONS and PRECAUTIONS).  DELAY IN PROPER MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY, UNDERVENTILATION FROM ANY CAUSE AND/OR ALTERED SENSITIVITY MAY LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACIDOSIS, CARDIAC ARREST AND, POSSIBLY, DEATH.

Intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures is an unapproved use, and there have been post-marketing reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving such infusions.  The majority of reported cases of chondrolysis have involved the shoulder joint; cases of gleno-humeral chondrolysis have been described in pediatric and adult patients following intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics with and without epinephrine for periods of 48 to 72 hours.  There is insufficient information to determine whether shorter infusion periods are not associated with these findings.  The time of onset of symptoms, such as joint pain, stiffness and loss of motion can be variable, but may begin as early as the 2nd month after surgery.  Currently, there is no effective treatment for chondrolysis; patients who experienced chondrolysis have required additional diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and some required arthroplasty or shoulder replacement.

To avoid intravascular injection, aspiration should be performed before the local anesthetic solution is injected.  The needle must be repositioned until no return of blood can be elicited by aspiration.  Note, however, that the absence of blood in the syringe does not guarantee that intravascular injection has been avoided.

Local anesthetic solutions containing antimicrobial preservatives (e.g., methylparaben) should not be used for epidural or spinal anesthesia because the safety of these agents has not been established with regard to intrathecal injection, either intentional or accidental.

PRECAUTIONS

General

The safety and effectiveness of lidocaine HCl depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies.  Standard textbooks should be consulted for specific techniques and precautions for various regional anesthetic procedures.

Resuscitative equipment, oxygen, and other resuscitative drugs should be available for immediate use (see WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS).  The lowest dosage that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects.  Syringe aspirations should also be performed before and during each supplemental injection when using indwelling catheter techniques.  An intravascular injection is still possible even if aspirations for blood are negative.  Repeated doses of lidocaine HCl may cause significant increases in blood levels with each repeated dose, because of slow accumulation of the drug or its metabolites.  Tolerance to elevated blood levels varies with the status of the patient.  Debilitated, elderly patients, acutely ill patients, and children should be given reduced doses commensurate with their age and physical condition.  Lidocaine HCl should also be used with caution in patients with severe shock or heart block.

Careful and constant monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory (adequacy of ventilation) vital signs and the patient’s state of consciousness should be accomplished after each local anesthetic injection.  It should be kept in mind at such times that restlessness, anxiety, tinnitus, dizziness, blurred vision, tremors, depression or drowsiness may be early warning signs of central nervous system toxicity.

Since amide-type local anesthetics are metabolized by the liver, lidocaine HCl should be used with caution in patients with hepatic disease.  Patients with severe hepatic disease, because of their inability to metabolize local anesthetic normally, are at greater risk of developing toxic plasma concentrations.  Lidocaine HCl should also be used with caution in patients with impaired cardiovascular function since they may be less able to compensate for functional changes associated with the prolongation of A-V conduction produced by these drugs.

Many drugs used during the conduct of anesthesia are considered potential triggering agents for familial malignant hyperthermia.  Since it is not known whether amide-type local anesthetics may trigger this reaction and since the need for supplemental general anesthesia cannot be predicted in advance, it is suggested that a standard protocol for the management of malignant hyperthermia should be available.  Early unexplained signs of tachycardia, tachypnea, labile blood pressure and metabolic acidosis may precede temperature elevation.  Successful outcome is dependent on early diagnosis, prompt discontinuance of the suspect triggering agent(s) and institution of treatment, including oxygen therapy, indicated supportive measures and dantrolene (consult dantrolene sodium intravenous package insert before using).

Lidocaine HCl should be used with caution in persons with known drug sensitivities.  Patients allergic to para-aminobenzoic acid derivatives (procaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, etc.) have not shown cross-sensitivity to lidocaine HCl.

Use in the Head and Neck Area

Small doses of local anesthetics injected into the head and neck area, including retrobulbar, dental and stellate ganglion blocks, may produce adverse reactions similar to systemic toxicity seen with unintentional intravascular injections of larger doses.  Confusion, convulsions, respiratory depression and/or respiratory arrest, and cardiovascular stimulation or depression have been reported.  These reactions may be due to intra-arterial injection of the local anesthetic with retrograde flow to the cerebral circulation.  Patients receiving these blocks should have their circulation and respiration monitored and be constantly observed.  Resuscitative equipment and personnel for treating adverse reactions should be immediately available.  Dosage recommendations should not be exceeded (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Clinically Significant Drug Interactions

Concurrent administration of vasopressor drugs (for the treatment of hypotension related to obstetric blocks) and ergot-type oxytocic drugs may cause severe, persistent hypertension or cerebrovascular accidents.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

The intramuscular injection of lidocaine HCl may result in an increase in creatine phosphokinase levels.  Thus, the use of this enzyme determination, without isoenzyme separation, as a diagnostic test for the presence of acute myocardial infarction may be compromised by the intramuscular injection of lidocaine HCl.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Studies of lidocaine HCl in animals to evaluate the carcinogenic and mutagenic potential or the effect on fertility have not been conducted.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B

Reproduction studies have been performed in rats at doses up to 6.6 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus caused by lidocaine HCl.  There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.  Animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response.  General consideration should be given to this fact before administering lidocaine HCl to women of childbearing potential, especially during early pregnancy when maximum organogenesis takes place.

Labor and Delivery

Local anesthetics rapidly cross the placenta and when used for epidural, paracervical, pudenal, or caudal block anesthesia, can cause varying degrees of maternal, fetal and neonatal toxicity (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY-Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism).  The potential for toxicity depends upon the procedure performed, the type and amount of drug used, and the technique of drug administration.  Adverse reactions in the parturient, fetus and neonate involve alterations of the central nervous system, peripheral vascular tone and cardiac function.

Local anesthetics produce vasodilation by blocking sympathetic nerves. Elevating the patient’s legs and positioning her on her left side will help prevent decreases in blood pressure.  The fetal heart rate also should be monitored continuously, and electronic fetal monitoring is highly advisable.

Paracervical or pudendal anesthesia may alter the forces of parturition through changes in uterine contractility or maternal expulsive efforts.  In one study paracervical block anesthesia was associated with a decrease in the mean duration of first stage labor and facilitation of cervical dilation.  The use of obstetrical anesthesia may increase the need for forceps assistance.

The use of some local anesthetic drug products during labor and delivery may be followed by diminished muscle strength and tone for the first day or two of life.  The long-term significance of these observations is unknown.  Fetal bradycardia may occur in 20 to 30% of patients receiving paracervical nerve block anesthesia with the amide-type local anesthetics and may be associated with fetal acidosis.  Fetal heart rate should always be monitored during paracervical anesthesia.  The physician should weigh the possible advantages against risks when considering a paracervical block in prematurity, toxemia of pregnancy, and fetal distress.  Careful adherence to recommended dosage is of the utmost importance in obstetrical paracervical block.  Failure to achieve adequate analgesia with recommended doses should arouse suspicion of intravascular or fetal intracranial injection.  Cases compatible with unintended fetal intracranial injection of local anesthetic solution have been reported following intended paracervical or pudendal block or both.  Babies so affected present with unexplained neonatal depression at birth, which correlates with high local anesthetic serum levels, and often manifest seizures within six hours.  Prompt use of supportive measures combined with forced urinary excretion of the local anesthetic has been used successfully to manage this complication.

Case reports of maternal convulsions and cardiovascular collapse following use of some local anesthetics for paracervical block in early pregnancy (as anesthesia for elective abortion) suggest that systemic absorption under these circumstances may be rapid.  The recommended maximum dose of each drug should not be exceeded.  Injection should be made slowly and with frequent aspiration.  Allow a 5-minute interval between sides.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk.  Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when lidocaine HCl is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Dosages in children should be reduced, commensurate with age, body weight and physical condition (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Systemic

Adverse experiences following the administration of lidocaine HCl are similar in nature to those observed with other amide local anesthetic agents.  These adverse experiences are, in general, dose-related and may result from high plasma levels caused by excessive dosage, rapid absorption or inadvertent intravascular injection, or may result from a hypersensitivity, idiosyncrasy or diminished tolerance on the part of the patient.  Serious adverse experiences are generally systemic in nature.

The following types are those most commonly reported:

Central Nervous System

CNS manifestations are excitatory and/or depressant and may be characterized by lightheadedness, nervousness, apprehension, euphoria, confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, tinnitus, blurred or double vision, vomiting, sensations of heat, cold or numbness, twitching, tremors, convulsions, unconsciousness, respiratory depression and arrest.  The excitatory manifestations may be very brief or may not occur at all, in which case the first manifestation of toxicity may be drowsiness merging into unconsciousness and respiratory arrest.

Drowsiness following the administration of lidocaine HCl is usually an early sign of a high blood level of the drug and may occur as a consequence of rapid absorption.

Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular manifestations are usually depressant and are characterized by bradycardia, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse, which may lead to cardiac arrest.

Allergic

Allergic reactions are characterized by cutaneous lesions, urticaria, edema or anaphylactoid reactions.  Allergic reactions may occur as a result of sensitivity either to local anesthetic agents or to the methylparaben used as a preservative in the multiple dose vials.  Allergic reactions as a result of sensitivity to lidocaine HCl are extremely rare and, if they occur, should be managed by conventional means. The detection of sensitivity by skin testing is of doubtful value.

Neurologic

The incidences of adverse reactions associated with the use of local anesthetics may be related to the total dose of local anesthetic administered and are also dependent upon the particular drug used, the route of administration and the physical status of the patient.  In a prospective review of 10,440 patients who received lidocaine HCl for spinal anesthesia, the incidences of adverse reactions were reported to be about 3% each for positional headaches, hypotension and backache; 2% for shivering; and less than 1% each for peripheral nerve symptoms, nausea, respiratory inadequacy and double vision.  Many of these observations may be related to local anesthetic techniques, with or without a contribution from the local anesthetic.

There have been reported cases of permanent injury to extraocular muscles requiring surgical repair following retrobulbar administration.

OVERDOSAGE

Acute emergencies from local anesthetics are generally related to high plasma levels encountered during therapeutic use of local anesthetics or to unintended subarachnoid injection of local anesthetic solution (see ADVERSE REACTIONS, WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS).

Management of Local Anesthetic Emergencies

The first consideration is prevention, best accomplished by careful and constant monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory vital signs and the patient’s state of consciousness after each local anesthetic injection.  At the first sign of change, oxygen should be administered.

The first step in the management of convulsions, as well as underventilation or apnea due to unintended subarachnoid injection of drug solution, consists of immediate attention to the maintenance of a patent airway and assisted or controlled ventilation with oxygen and a delivery system capable of permitting immediate positive airway pressure by mask.  Immediately after the institution of these ventilatory measures, the adequacy of the circulation should be evaluated, keeping in mind that drugs used to treat convulsions sometimes depress the circulation when administered intravenously.  Should convulsions persist despite adequate respiratory support, and if the status of the circulation permits, small increments of an ultra-short acting barbiturate (such as thiopental or thiamylal) or a benzodiazepine (such as diazepam) may be administered intravenously.  The clinician should be familiar, prior to the use of local anesthetics, with these anticonvulsant drugs.  Supportive treatment of circulatory depression may require administration of intravenous fluids and, when appropriate, a vasopressor as directed by the clinical situation (e.g., ephedrine).

If not treated immediately, both convulsions and cardiovascular depression can result in hypoxia, acidosis, bradycardia, arrhythmias and cardiac arrest.  Underventilation or apnea due to unintentional subarachnoid injection of local anesthetic solution may produce these same signs and also lead to cardiac arrest if ventilatory support is not instituted.  If cardiac arrest should occur, standard cardiopulmonary resuscitative measures should be instituted.

Endotracheal intubation, employing drugs and techniques familiar to the clinician, may be indicated, after initial administration of oxygen by mask, if difficulty is encountered in the maintenance of a patent airway or if prolonged ventilatory support (assisted or controlled) is indicated.  Dialysis is of negligible value in the treatment of acute overdosage with lidocaine HCl.

The oral LD50 of lidocaine HCl in non-fasted female rats is 459 (346 to 773) mg/kg (as the salt) and 214 (159 to 324) mg/kg (as the salt) in fasted female rats.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Table 1 (Recommended Dosages) summarizes the recommended volumes and concentrations of lidocaine hydrochloride injection for various types of anesthetic procedures.  The dosages suggested in this table are for normal healthy adults and refer to the use of epinephrine-free solutions.  When larger volumes are required, only solutions containing epinephrine should be used, except in those cases where vasopressor drugs may be contraindicated.

There have been adverse event reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures.  Lidocaine is not approved for this use (see WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

These recommended doses serve only as a guide to the amount of anesthetic required for most routine procedures.  The actual volumes and concentrations to be used depend on a number of factors such as type and extent of surgical procedure, depth of anesthesia and degree of muscular relaxation required, duration of anesthesia required and the physical condition of the patient.  In all cases the lowest concentration and smallest dose that will produce the desired result should be given.  Dosages should be reduced for children and for elderly and debilitated patients and patients with cardiac and/or liver disease.

The onset of anesthesia, the duration of anesthesia and the degree of muscular relaxation are proportional to the volume and concentration (i.e. total dose) of local anesthetic used.  Thus, an increase in volume and concentration of lidocaine hydrochloride injection will decrease the onset of anesthesia, prolong the duration of anesthesia, provide a greater degree of muscular relaxation and increase the segmental spread of anesthesia.  However, increasing the volume and concentration of lidocaine hydrochloride injection may result in a more profound fall in blood pressure when used in epidural anesthesia.  Although the incidence of side effects with lidocaine is quite low, caution should be exercised when employing large volumes and concentrations, since the incidence of side effects is directly proportional to the total dose of local anesthetic agent injected.

MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED DOSAGES

NOTE: The products accompanying this insert do not contain epinephrine.

Adults

For normal healthy adults, the individual maximum recommended dose of lidocaine hydrochloride without epinephrine should not exceed 4.5 mg/kg (2 mg/lb) of body weight and in general it is recommended that the maximum total dose does not exceed 300 mg.

The maximum recommended dose per 90 minute period of lidocaine hydrochloride for paracervical block in obstetrical and non-obstetrical patients is 200 mg total.  One half of the total dose is usually administered to each side.  Inject slowly, five minutes between sides (see also discussion of paracervical block in PRECAUTIONS).

TABLE 1  RECOMMENDED DOSAGES OF LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTION

(WITHOUT EPINEPHRINE) FOR VARIOUS ANESTHETIC PROCEDURES IN NORMAL HEALTHY ADULTS




PROCEDURE

LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTION

(WITHOUT EPINEPHRINE)

CONCENTRATION

(%)

VOLUME

(mL)

TOTAL DOSE

(mg)

INFILTRATION


   PERCUTANEOUS

0.5 or 1

1 to 60

5 to 300

PERIPHERAL NERVE BLOCKS, E.G.


   BRACHIAL

1.5

15 to 20

225 to 300

   DENTAL

2

1 to 5

20 to 100

   INTERCOSTAL

1

3

30

   PARAVERTEBRAL

1

3 to 5

30 to 50

   PUDENDAL (EACH SIDE)

1

10

100

PARACERVICAL


   OBSTETRICAL ANALGESIA

  (EACH SIDE)

1

10

100

SYMPATHETIC NERVE BLOCKS, E.G.


   CERVICAL (STELLATE GANGLION)

1

5

50

   LUMBAR

1

5 to 10

50 to 100


THE ABOVE SUGGESTED CONCENTRATIONS AND VOLUMES SERVE ONLY AS A GUIDE. OTHER VOLUMES AND CONCENTRATIONS MAY BE USED PROVIDED THE TOTAL MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED DOSE IS NOT EXCEEDED.

Children

It is difficult to recommend a maximum dose of any drug for children, since this varies as a function of age and weight.  For children over three years of age who have a normal lean body mass and normal body development, the maximum dose is determined by the child’s age and weight.  For example, in a child of five years weighing 50 lbs., the dose of lidocaine hydrochloride should not exceed 75 to 100 mg (1.5 to 2 mg/lb).

In order to guard against systemic toxicity, the lowest effective concentration and lowest effective dose should be used at all times.  In some cases it will be necessary to dilute available concentrations with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection in order to obtain the required final concentration.

Sterilization, Storage and Technical Procedures

Disinfecting agents containing heavy metals, which cause release of respective ions (mercury, zinc, copper, etc.) should not be used for skin or mucous membrane disinfection as they have been related to incidents of swelling and edema.  When chemical disinfection of multi-dose vials is desired, either isopropyl alcohol (91%) or ethyl alcohol (70%) is recommended.  Many commercially available brands of rubbing alcohol, as well as solutions of ethyl alcohol not of USP grade, contain denaturants which are injurious to rubber and therefore are not to be used.

Parenteral drug products should be visually inspected for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever the solution and container permit.  The injection is not to be used if its color is pinkish or darker than slightly yellow or if it contains a precipitate.

HOW SUPPLIED

Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection is preserved with 0.1% methylparaben and is available in the following concentrations:


Product

No.

NDC

No.

 

%

Lidocaine HCl

mg/mL

Volume

(mL)

920102*

63323-201-02

1

10

2

20110

63323-201-10

1

10

10

20202

63323-202-02

2

20

2


*Packaged in a Plastic Vial.

All products available in packages of 25.

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Protect from light.

logo 


45776E

Revised: April 2010

Active ingredient(s)

Ammonia (15%)

Purpose

 Inhalant

Use(s)

To prevent or treat fainting

Warnings

Keep away from the Eyes.

For external use only

Stop use and ask a doctor if

 condition persists

Keep out of reach of children

 If swallowed, get medical help or contact a Poison Control Center right away.

Directions

 Directions: hold inhalant away from face and crush between thumb and forefinger. Carefully approach crushed inhalant to nostrils of affected person.

Other information

 Store at room temperature away from light.

Storage

 Store at 20ºC to 25ºC (68ºF to 77ºF)

Inactive ingredients

 Alcohol USP, FDC red dye 40, lavender oil fcc, lemon oil fcc, nutmeg oil fcc, purified water usp

Questions

 Questions? Call 1-866-390-4411 Mon - Fri 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM

Active ingredient

Povidone-Iodine USP 10% w/w (equivalent to 1.0% titratable iodine)

Purpose

Antiseptic

Uses

Warnings

For external use only

Do not use

Discontinue use if irritation and redness develop. If condition persist for more than 72 hours consult a doctor.

Consult a doctor in case of

Stop use and ask a doctor if

the condition persists or gets worse.

Keep out of reach of children.

If swallowed, get medical help or contact a Poison Control Center right away.

Directions

For the preparation of the skin prior to surgery

For use as a first aid antiseptic

Other information

Inactive ingredients

Purified Water, Sodium Hydroxide

Questions?

Professional Disposables International, Inc.
Orangeburg, NY 10962-1376
USA - 1-800-999-6423
www.pdipdi.com         Made in USA

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - APMULE LABEL

CRUSH ONCE, USE AND DISCAR

CRUSH --> ● <-- HERE

0.3 ml AMMONIA INHALANT

A RESPIRATORY STIMULANT

FOR INHALATION ONLY

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - APMULE LABEL

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - VIAL LABEL

NDC 0003-0293-20 Rx only

KENALOG-40®

(Triamcinolone Acetonide Injectable Suspension, USP)

200 mg per 5 mL

40 mg per mL

5 mL Multiple Dose Vial

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - VIAL LABEL

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - PREP PAD LABEL

PDI®

REORDER NO. C124

NDC 10819-3883-3

Povidone-IodinePrep Pad

Antiseptic/Germicide LARGE

For Professional and Hospital Use

Professional Disposables International, Inc.

Orangeburg, NY 10962-1376 · USA · 1-800-999-6423

www.pdipdi.com Made in USA

1 Prep Pad [1.7 x 3.5 in (4.4 x 8.8 cm)]

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - PREP PAD LABEL

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - SYRINGE LABEL

NDC 63323-201-10

20110

Lidocaine HCl Injection, USP

1% (10 mg/mL)

For Infiltration and Nerve Block.

Not for Epidural or Caudal Use.

10 mL Multiple Dose Vial

Rx only

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - SYRINGE LABEL

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL –KIT LABEL

NDC 76420-770-01 Rx-Only

Interarticular

Joint Kit

Kit Contains:

2 Kenalog-40 (1mL)*

1 (10mL) Lidocaine HCl Injection, USP 1% (10mg/mL)*

1 Ammonia Inhalant Ampule (35% alcohol/15% Ammonia)

1 Povidone-Iodine Prep Pad

1 Pair Sterile Latex Gloves - Size 7*

1 CSR Wrap

1 Dose

EnovachemMANUFACTUING

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL –KIT LABEL
INTERARTICULAR JOINT KIT 
ammonia, lidocaine hydrochloride anhydrous, triamcinolone acetonide, povidone-iodine kit
Product Information
Product TypeHUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABELItem Code (Source)NDC:76420-770
Packaging
#Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
1NDC:76420-770-011 in 1 CARTON
Quantity of Parts
Part #Package QuantityTotal Product Quantity
Part 11 AMPULE 10 mL
Part 22 VIAL, SINGLE-DOSE 20 mL
Part 31 AMPULE 0.3 mL
Part 41 PACKET 2.2 g
Part 1 of 4
LIDOCAINE 
lidocaine hydrochloride anhydrous injection, solution
Product Information
Item Code (Source)NDC:63323-201
Route of AdministrationINFILTRATIONDEA Schedule    
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE ANHYDROUS (LIDOCAINE) LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE ANHYDROUS10 mg  in 1 mL
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient NameStrength
SODIUM CHLORIDE7 mg  in 1 mL
METHYLPARABEN1 mg  in 1 mL
HYDROCHLORIC ACID 
SODIUM HYDROXIDE 
Packaging
#Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
1NDC:63323-201-1010 mL in 1 AMPULE
Marketing Information
Marketing CategoryApplication Number or Monograph CitationMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
ANDAANDA08040405/27/2010
Part 2 of 4
KENALOG-40 
triamcinolone acetonide injection, solution
Product Information
Item Code (Source)NDC:0003-0293
Route of AdministrationINTRAMUSCULAR, INTRA-ARTICULARDEA Schedule    
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
TRIAMCINOLONE ACETONIDE (TRIAMCINOLONE ACETONIDE) TRIAMCINOLONE ACETONIDE40 mg  in 1 mL
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient NameStrength
SODIUM CHLORIDE 
BENZYL ALCOHOL 
CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE SODIUM 
POLYSORBATE 80 
SODIUM HYDROXIDE 
HYDROCHLORIC ACID 
NITROGEN 
Packaging
#Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
1NDC:0003-0293-0510 mL in 1 VIAL, SINGLE-DOSE
Marketing Information
Marketing CategoryApplication Number or Monograph CitationMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
NDANDA01490106/01/2009
Part 3 of 4
AMMONIA INHALANTS 
ammonia inhalants inhalant
Product Information
Item Code (Source)NDC:39822-9900
Route of AdministrationRESPIRATORY (INHALATION)DEA Schedule    
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
AMMONIA (AMMONIA) AMMONIA0.045 g  in 0.3 mL
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient NameStrength
ALCOHOL 
FD&C RED NO. 40 
LAVENDER OIL 
WATER 
NUTMEG OIL 
LEMON 
Packaging
#Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
1NDC:39822-9900-20.3 mL in 1 AMPULE
Marketing Information
Marketing CategoryApplication Number or Monograph CitationMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
unapproved drug other02/14/1976
Part 4 of 4
PVP IODINE PREP PAD  MEDIUM AND LARGE
povidone-iodine swab
Product Information
Item Code (Source)NDC:10819-3883
Route of AdministrationTOPICALDEA Schedule    
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
POVIDONE-IODINE (Iodine) Iodine10 mg  in 1 g
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient NameStrength
WATER 
SODIUM HYDROXIDE 
Packaging
#Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
1NDC:10819-3883-32.2 g in 1 PACKET
Marketing Information
Marketing CategoryApplication Number or Monograph CitationMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
OTC monograph not finalpart333A01/01/1978
Marketing Information
Marketing CategoryApplication Number or Monograph CitationMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
NDANDA01490102/05/2014
Labeler - Asclemed USA, Inc. (059888437)
Establishment
NameAddressID/FEIBusiness Operations
Asclemed USA, Inc.059888437REPACK(63323-201)
Establishment
NameAddressID/FEIBusiness Operations
Professional Disposables International, Inc.800777117MANUFACTURE(10819-3883)

Revised: 2/2014
Document Id: 83633b57-d4a7-454a-84d7-999824fb8a99
Set id: da98646f-8691-41ce-9ed2-4eb5bfd95a19
Version: 2
Effective Time: 20140204
 
Asclemed USA, Inc.