PREDNISONE  - prednisone tablet 
STAT Rx USA LLC

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Prednisone Tablets, USP
Rev. 11/10

DESCRIPTION

Prednisone is a glucocorticoid. Glucocorticoids are adrenocortical steroids, both naturally occurring and synthetic, which are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The molecular formula for prednisone is C21H26O5. Chemically, it is 17, 21-dihydroxypregna-1, 4-diene-3,11,20-trione and has the following structural formula:

Prednisone structure

Prednisone is a white to practically white, odorless, crystalline powder and has a molecular weight of 358.44. It melts at about 230°C with some decomposition. Prednisone is very slightly soluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol, chloroform, dioxane, and methanol. Each tablet, for oral administration, contains 1 mg, 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, or 20 mg of prednisone.

Inactive ingredients:
1 mg: anhydrous lactose, corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate.|
2.5 mg: anhydrous lactose, colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, and talc.
5 mg: anhydrous lactose, colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, and talc.
10 mg: anhydrous lactose, colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, and talc.
20 mg: anhydrous lactose, D&C Yellow No. 10 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Yellow No. 6 Aluminum Lake, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium starch glycolate.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Naturally occurring glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone and cortisone), which also have salt-retaining properties, are used as replacement therapy in adrenocortical deficiency states. Their synthetic analogs are primarily used for their potent anti-inflammatory effects in disorders of many organ systems.

Glucocorticoids, such as prednisone, cause profound and varied metabolic effects. In addition, they modify the body's immune responses to diverse stimuli.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Prednisone tablets are indicated in the following conditions:

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Prednisone tablets are contraindicated in systemic fungal infections and known hypersensitivity to components.

WARNINGS

In patients on corticosteroid therapy subjected to unusual stress, increased dosage of rapidly acting corticosteroids before, during, and after the stressful situation is indicated.

Corticosteroids may mask some signs of infection, and new infections may appear during their use. There may be decreased resistance and inability to localize infection when corticosteroids are used.

Prolonged use of corticosteroids may produce posterior subcapsular cataracts, glaucoma with possible damage to the optic nerves, and may enhance the establishment of secondary ocular infections due to fungi or viruses.

Usage in Pregnancy

Since adequate human reproduction studies have not been done with corticosteroids, the use of these drugs in pregnancy, nursing mothers or women of child-bearing potential requires that the possible benefits of the drug be weighed against the potential hazards to the mother and embryo or fetus. Infants born of mothers who have received substantial doses of corticosteroids during pregnancy, should be carefully observed for signs of hypoadrenalism.

Average and large doses of hydrocortisone or cortisone can cause elevation of blood pressure, salt and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium. These effects are less likely to occur with the synthetic derivatives except when used in large doses. Dietary salt restriction and potassium supplementation may be necessary. All corticosteroids increase calcium excretion.

While on corticosteroid therapy patients should not be vaccinated against smallpox. Other immunization procedures should not be undertaken in patients who are on corticosteroids, especially on high dose, because of possible hazards of neurological complications and a lack of antibody response.

The use of prednisone in active tuberculosis should be restricted to those cases of fulminating or disseminated tuberculosis in which the corticosteroid is used for the management of the disease in conjunction with an appropriate anti-tuberculous regimen.

If corticosteroids are indicated in patients with latent tuberculosis or tuberculin reactivity, close observation is necessary as reactivation of the disease may occur. During prolonged corticosteroid therapy, these patients should receive chemoprophylaxis.

Persons who are on drugs which suppress the immune system are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in non-immune children or adults on corticosteroids. In such children or adults who have not had these diseases, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. How the dose, route and duration of corticosteroid administration affects the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known. If exposed to chickenpox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated. (See the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information.) If chickenpox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered. 

PRECAUTIONS

General

Drug-induced secondary adrenocortical insufficiency may be minimized by gradual reduction of dosage. This type of relative insufficiency may persist for months after discontinuation of therapy; therefore, in any situation of stress occurring during that period, hormone therapy should be reinstituted. Since mineralocorticoid secretion may be impaired, salt and/or a mineralocorticoid should be administered concurrently.

There is an enhanced effect of corticosteroids on patients with hypothyroidism and in those with cirrhosis.

Corticosteroids should be used cautiously in patients with ocular herpes simplex because of possible corneal perforation.

The lowest possible dose of corticosteroid should be used to control the condition under treatment, and when reduction in dosage is possible, the reduction should be gradual.

Aspirin should be used cautiously in conjunction with corticosteroids in hypoprothrombinemia.

Psychic derangements may appear when corticosteroids are used, ranging from euphoria, insomnia, mood swings, personality changes, and severe depression, to frank psychotic manifestations. Also, existing emotional instability or psychotic tendencies may be aggravated by corticosteroids.

Steroids should be used with caution in nonspecific ulcerative colitis, if there is a probability of impending perforation, abscess or other pyogenic infection; diverticulitis; fresh intestinal anastomoses; active or latent peptic ulcer; renal insufficiency; hypertension; osteoporosis; and myasthenia gravis.

Growth and development of infants and children on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should be carefully observed.

Although controlled clinical trials have shown corticosteroids to be effective in speeding the resolution of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis, they do not show that corticosteroids affect the ultimate outcome or natural history of the disease. The studies do show that relatively high doses of corticosteroids are necessary to demonstrate a significant effect. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)

Since complications of treatment with glucocorticoids are dependent on the size of the dose and the duration of treatment, a risk/benefit decision must be made in each individual case as to dose and duration of treatment and as to whether daily or intermittent therapy should be used.

Convulsions have been reported with concurrent use of methylprednisolone and cyclosporin. Since concurrent use of these agents results in a mutual inhibition of metabolism, it is possible that adverse events associated with the individual use of either drug may be more apt to occur.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Fluid and Electrolyte Disturbances:
  Sodium retention
  Fluid retention
  Congestive heart failure in susceptible patients
  Potassium loss
  Hypokalemic alkalosis
  Hypertension

Musculoskeletal:
  Muscle weakness
  Steroid myopathy
  Loss of muscle mass
  Osteoporosis
  Vertebral compression fractures
  Aseptic necrosis of femoral and humeral heads
  Pathologic fracture of long bones

Gastrointestinal:
  Peptic ulcer with possible perforation and hemorrhage
  Pancreatitis
  Abdominal distention
  Ulcerative esophagitis

Dermatologic:
  Impaired wound healing
  Thin fragile skin
  Petechiae and ecchymoses
  Facial erythema
  Increased sweating
  May suppress reactions to skin tests

Neurological:
  Convulsions
  Increased intracranial pressure with papilledema (pseudotumor cerebri) usually after treatment
  Vertigo
  Headache

Endocrine:
  Menstrual irregularities
  Development of Cushingoid state
  Suppression of growth in children
  Secondary adrenocortical and pituitary unresponsiveness, particularly in times of stress, as in trauma, surgery or illness
  Decreased carbohydrate tolerance
  Manifestations of latent diabetes mellitus
  Increased requirements for insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in diabetics

Ophthalmic:
  Posterior subcapsular cataracts
  Increased intraocular pressure
  Glaucoma
  Exophthalmos

Metabolic:
   Negative nitrogen balance due to protein

Additional Reactions:
  Urticaria and other allergic, anaphylactic or hypersensitivity reactions

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-ward Pharmaceutical Corp. at 1-877-233-2001, or the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The initial dosage of prednisone may vary from 5 mg to 60 mg per day depending on the specific disease entity being treated. In situations of less severity lower doses will generally suffice, while in selected patients higher initial doses may be required. The initial dosage should be maintained or adjusted until a satisfactory response is noted. If after a reasonable period of time there is a lack of satisfactory clinical response, prednisone should be discontinued and the patient transferred to other appropriate therapy.

IT SHOULD BE EMPHASIZED THAT DOSAGE REQUIREMENTS ARE VARIABLE AND MUST BE INDIVIDUALIZED ON THE BASIS OF THE DISEASE UNDER TREATMENT AND THE RESPONSE OF THE PATIENT.

After a favorable response is noted, the proper maintenance dosage should be determined by decreasing the initial drug dosage in small increments at appropriate time intervals until the lowest dosage which will maintain an adequate clinical response is reached. It should be kept in mind that constant monitoring is needed in regard to drug dosage. Included in the situations which may make dosage adjustments necessary are changes in clinical status secondary to remissions or exacerbations in the disease process, the patient’s individual drug responsiveness, and the effect of patient exposure to stressful situations not directly related to the disease entity under treatment; in this latter situation, it may be necessary to increase the dosage of prednisone for a period of time consistent with patient’s condition. If after long-term therapy the drug is to be stopped, it is recommended that it be withdrawn gradually rather than abruptly.

Multiple Sclerosis

In the treatment of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis daily doses of 200 mg of prednisolone for a week followed by 80 mg every other day for 1 month have been shown to be effective. (Dosage range is the same for prednisone and prednisolone.)

ADT® (Alternate Day Therapy)

ADT is a corticosteroid dosing regimen in which twice the usual daily dose of corticoid is administered every other morning. The purpose of this mode of therapy is to provide the patient requiring long-term pharmacologic dose treatment with the beneficial effects of corticoids while minimizing certain undesirable effects, including pituitary-adrenal suppression, the Cushingoid state, corticoid withdrawal symptoms, and growth suppression in children.

The rationale for this treatment schedule is based on two major premises: (a) the anti-inflammatory or therapeutic effect of corticoids persists longer than their physical presence and metabolic effects and (b) administration of the corticosteroid every other morning allows for re-establishment of more nearly normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity on the off-steroid day.

A brief review of the HPA physiology may be helpful in understanding this rationale. Acting primarily through the hypothalamus a fall in free cortisol stimulates the pituitary gland to produce increasing amounts of corticotropin (ACTH) while a rise in free cortisol inhibits ACTH secretion. Normally the HPA system is characterized by diurnal (circadian) rhythm. Serum levels of ACTH rise from a low point about 10 pm to a peak level about 6 am. Increasing levels of ACTH stimulate adrenocortical activity resulting in a rise in plasma cortisol with maximal levels occurring between 2 am and 8 am. This rise in cortisol dampens ACTH production and in turn adrenocortical activity. There is a gradual fall in plasma corticoids during the day with lowest levels occurring about midnight.

The diurnal rhythm of the HPA axis is lost in Cushing's disease, a syndrome of adrenocortical hyperfunction characterized by obesity with centripetal fat distribution, thinning of the skin with easy bruisability, muscle wasting with weakness, hypertension, latent diabetes, osteoporosis, electrolyte imbalance, etc. The same clinical findings of hyperadrenocorticism may be noted during long-term pharmacologic dose corticoid therapy administered in conventional daily divided doses. It would appear, then, that a disturbance in the diurnal cycle with maintenance of elevated corticoid values during the night may play a significant role in the development of undesirable corticoid effects. Escape from these constantly elevated plasma levels for even short periods of time may be instrumental in protecting against undesirable pharmacologic effects.

During conventional pharmacologic dose corticosteroid therapy, ACTH production is inhibited with subsequent suppression of cortisol production by the adrenal cortex. Recovery time for normal HPA activity is variable depending upon the dose and duration of treatment. During this time the patient is vulnerable to any stressful situation. Although it has been shown that there is considerably less adrenal suppression following a single morning dose of prednisolone (10 mg) as opposed to a quarter of that dose administered every 6 hours, there is evidence that some suppressive effect on adrenal activity may be carried over into the following day when pharmacologic doses are used. Further, it has been shown that a single dose of certain corticosteroids will produce adrenocortical suppression for two or more days. Other corticoids, including methylprednisolone, hydrocortisone, prednisone, and prednisolone, are considered to be short acting (producing adrenocortical suppression for 1¼ to 1½ days following a single dose) and thus are recommended for alternate day therapy.

The following should be kept in mind when considering alternate day therapy:

1) Basic principles and indications for corticosteroid therapy should apply. The benefits of ADT should not encourage the indiscriminate use of steroids.

2) ADT is a therapeutic technique primarily designed for patients in whom long-term pharmacologic corticoid therapy is anticipated.

3) In less severe disease processes in which corticoid therapy is indicated, it may be possible to initiate treatment with ADT. More severe disease states usually will require daily divided high dose therapy for initial control of the disease process. The initial suppressive dose level should be continued until satisfactory clinical response is obtained, usually four to ten days in the case of many allergic and collagen diseases. It is important to keep the period of initial suppressive dose as brief as possible particularly when subsequent use of alternate day therapy is intended. Once control has been established, two courses are available: (a) change to ADT and then gradually reduce the amount of corticoid given every other day or (b) following control of the disease process reduce the daily dose of corticoid to the lowest effective level as rapidly as possible and then change over to an alternate day schedule. Theoretically, course (a) may be preferable.

4) Because of the advantages of ADT, it may be desirable to try patients on this form of therapy who have been on daily corticoids for long periods of time (eg, patients with rheumatoid arthritis). Since these patients may already have a suppressed HPA axis, establishing them on ADT may be difficult and not always successful. However, it is recommended that regular attempts be made to change them over. It may be helpful to triple or even quadruple the daily maintenance dose and administer this every other day rather than just doubling the daily dose if difficulty is encountered. Once the patient is again controlled, an attempt should be made to reduce this dose to a minimum.

5) As indicated above, certain corticosteroids, because of their prolonged suppressive effect on adrenal activity, are not recommended for alternate day therapy (eg, dexamethasone and betamethasone).

6) The maximal activity of the adrenal cortex is between 2 am and 8 am, and it is minimal between 4 pm and midnight. Exogenous corticosteroids suppress adrenocortical activity the least, when given at the time of maximal activity (am).

7) In using ADT it is important, as in all therapeutic situations to individualize and tailor the therapy to each patient. Complete control of symptoms will not be possible in all patients. An explanation of the benefits of ADT will help the patient to understand and tolerate the possible flare-up in symptoms which may occur in the latter part of the off-steroid day. Other symptomatic therapy may be added or increased at this time if needed.

8) In the event of an acute flare-up of the disease process, it may be necessary to return to a full suppressive daily divided corticoid dose for control. Once control is again established alternate day therapy may be reinstituted.

9) Although many of the undesirable features of corticosteroid therapy can be minimized by ADT, as in any therapeutic situation, the physician must carefully weigh the benefit-risk ratio for each patient in whom corticoid therapy is being considered.

HOW SUPPLIED

     

Prednisone Tablets, USP 5 mg: White, Round Tablets; Debossed “West-ward 475” on one side and Scored on the other side. Each tablet contains 5 mg of prednisone for oral administration.

    Bottles of 21  -  NDC 16590-373-21
    Bottles of 30  -  NDC 16590-373-30
    Bottles of 48  -  NDC 16590-373-48
    Bottles of 60  -  NDC 16590-373-60
    Bottles of 90  -  NDC 16590-373-90


Prednisone Tablets, USP 20 mg: Peach, Round Tablets; Debossed “West-ward 477” on one side and Scored on the other side. Each tablet contains 20 mg of prednisone for oral administration.

    Bottles of 10  -  NDC 16590-326-10
    Bottles of 15  -  NDC 16590-326-15
    Bottles of 20  -  NDC 16590-326-20
    Bottles of 21  -  NDC 16590-326-21
    Bottles of 30  -  NDC 16590-326-30

Store at 20-25°C (68-77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light and moisture.
Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.

Rx only

Manufactured by:
West-ward Pharmaceutical Corp.
Eatontown, NJ 07724
Revised November 2010


Relabeling and Repackaging by:
STAT Rx USA LLC
Gainesville, GA  30501



REFERENCES

 1 Fekety R. Infections associated with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy. In: Gorbach SL, Bartlett JG, Blacklow NR, eds. Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia: WBSaunders Company 1992:1050-1.

2 Stuck AE, Minder CE, Frey FJ. Risk of infectious complications in patients taking glucocorticoids. Rev Infect Dis 1989:11(6):954-63.

PACKAGE LABEL - PREDNISONE 5 MG TABLETS


Prednisone Tablets, USP 5 mg


PREDNISONE 5 MG LABEL Image


PACKAGE LABEL - PREDNISONE 20 MG TABLETS


Prednisone Tablets, USP 20 mg


PREDNISONE 20 MG LABEL Image


PREDNISONE  
prednisone tablet
Product Information
Product TypeHUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABELItem Code (Source)NDC:16590-373(NDC:0143-1475)
Route of AdministrationORALDEA Schedule    
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
PREDNISONE (PREDNISONE) PREDNISONE5 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient NameStrength
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE 
SILICON DIOXIDE 
MAGNESIUM STEARATE 
CELLULOSE, MICROCRYSTALLINE 
SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO 
TALC 
Product Characteristics
ColorWHITEScore2 pieces
ShapeROUNDSize6mm
FlavorImprint Code westward;475
Contains    
Packaging
#Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
1NDC:16590-373-2121 in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC
2NDC:16590-373-3030 in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC
3NDC:16590-373-4848 in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC
4NDC:16590-373-6060 in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC
5NDC:16590-373-9090 in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC
Marketing Information
Marketing CategoryApplication Number or Monograph CitationMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
ANDAANDA08029205/22/1972
PREDNISONE  
prednisone tablet
Product Information
Product TypeHUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABELItem Code (Source)NDC:16590-326(NDC:0143-1477)
Route of AdministrationORALDEA Schedule    
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
PREDNISONE (PREDNISONE) PREDNISONE20 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient NameStrength
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE 
D&C YELLOW NO. 10 
FD&C YELLOW NO. 6 
MAGNESIUM STEARATE 
CELLULOSE, MICROCRYSTALLINE 
SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO 
Product Characteristics
ColorRED (Peach) Score2 pieces
ShapeROUNDSize9mm
FlavorImprint Code Westward;477
Contains    
Packaging
#Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
1NDC:16590-326-1010 in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC
2NDC:16590-326-1515 in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC
3NDC:16590-326-2020 in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC
4NDC:16590-326-2121 in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC
5NDC:16590-326-3030 in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC
Marketing Information
Marketing CategoryApplication Number or Monograph CitationMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
ANDAANDA08367702/26/1974
Labeler - STAT Rx USA LLC (786036330)
Registrant - PSS World Medical Inc. (101822682)
Establishment
NameAddressID/FEIBusiness Operations
STAT Rx USA LLC786036330relabel(16590-373, 16590-326), repack(16590-373, 16590-326)

Revised: 9/2012
Document Id: 3d40bcf7-6ef8-4169-a077-a9a132ea82f7
Set id: 1f2cc2d9-73d5-4539-8a0c-dba24ae4b10d
Version: 2
Effective Time: 20120926
 
STAT Rx USA LLC