ETODOLAC- etodolac tablet 
ETODOLAC- etodolac capsule 
Genpharm Inc.

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ETODOLAC CAPSULES 200 MG AND 300 MG, &
ETODOLAC TABLETS 400 MG AND 500 MG

Cardiovascular Risk

• NSAIDs may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may increase with duration of use. Patients with cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease may be at greater risk. (See WARNINGS.)

• Etodolac is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. (See WARNINGS.)

Gastrointestinal Risk

• NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal (GI) events. (See WARNINGS.)

DESCRIPTION

Etodolac is a member of the pyranocarboxylic acid group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Each tablet and capsule contains etodolac for oral administration. Etodolac is a racemic mixture of [+]S and [-]R-enantiomers. Etodolac is a white crystalline compound, insoluble in water but soluble in alcohols, chloroform, dimethyl sulfoxide, and aqueous polyethylene glycol.

The chemical name is (±) 1,8-diethyl-1,3,4,9-tetrahydropyrano-[3,4-b]indole-1-acetic acid. The molecular weight of the base is 287.37. It has a pKa of 4.65 and an n- octanol:water partition coefficient of 11.4 at pH 7.4. The molecular formula for etodolac is C17H21NO3, and it has the following structural formula:

Image from Drug Label Content

Each capsule, for oral administration, contains 200 mg or 300 mg of etodolac. In addition, each capsule contains the following inactive ingredients: black iron oxide, crospovidone, FD&C blue no. 1 aluminum lake, FD&C blue no. 2 aluminum lake, FD&C red no. 40 aluminum lake, FD&C yellow no. 10 aluminum lake, gelatin, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone, sodium lauryl sulfate, synthetic black iron oxide, and titanium dioxide.

Each tablet, for oral administration, contains 400 mg or 500 mg of etodolac. In addition to the active ingredient, the 400 mg tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: D&C yellow no.10 aluminum lake, FD&C yellow no. 6 aluminum lake, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polydextrose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, povidone, sodium starch glycolate, titanium dioxide and triacetin. And the 500 mg tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: FD&C blue no. 2 aluminum lake, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polysorbate 80, povidone, sodium starch glycolate, titanium dioxide and triacetin.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Pharmacodynamics

Etodolac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities in animal models. The mechanism of action of etodolac, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood, but may be related to prostaglandin synthetase inhibition.

Etodolac is a racemic mixture of [-]R- and [+]S-etodolac. As with other NSAIDs, it has been demonstrated in animals that the [+]S-form is biologically active. Both enantiomers are stable and there is no [-]R to [+]S conversion in vivo.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

The systemic bioavailability of etodolac from etodolac capsules and tablets are 100% as compared to solution and at least 80% as determined from mass balance studies. Etodolac is well absorbed and had a relative bioavailability of 100% when 200 mg capsules were compared with a solution of etodolac. Based on mass balance studies, the systemic availability of etodolac from either the tablet or capsule formulation is at least 80%. Etodolac does not undergo significant first-pass metabolism following oral administration. Mean (± 1 SD) peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) range from approximately 14 ± 4 to 37 ± 9 μg/mL after 200 to 600 mg single doses and are reached in 80 ± 30 minutes (see Table 1 for summary of pharmacokinetic parameters). The dose-proportionality based on the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) is linear following doses up to 600 mg every 12 hours. Peak concentrations are dose proportional for both total and free etodolac following doses up to 400 mg every 12 hours, but following a 600 mg dose, the peak is about 20% higher than predicted on the basis of lower doses. The extent of absorption of etodolac is not affected when etodolac is administered after a meal. Food intake, however, reduces the peak concentration reached by approximately one-half and increases the time to peak concentration by 1.4 to 3.8 hours.

Table 1. Mean (CV%)† Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Etodolac in Normal Healthy Adults and Various Special Populations
†% Coefficient of variation
*Age Range (years)
NA = not available

PK

Parameters

Normal

Healthy

Adults

(18-65)*

(n=179)

Healthy

Males

(18-65)

(n=176)

Healthy

Females

(27-65)

(n=3)

Elderly

(>65)

(70-84)

Hemodialysis

(24-65)

(n=9)

Renal

Impairment

(46-73)

(n=10)

Hepatic

Impairment

(34-60)

(n=9)

Dialysis

On

Dialysis

Off

Tmax, h

1.4

(61%)†

1.4

(60%)

1.7

(60%)

1.2

(43%)

1.7

(88%)

0.9

(67%)

2.1

(46%)

1.1

(15%)

Oral

Clearance,

mL/h/kg

(CL/F)

49.1

(33%)

49.4

(33%)

35.7

(28%)

45.7

(27%)
NANA

58.3

(19%)

42.0

(43%)

Apparent

Volume of

Distribution,

mL/kg (Vd/F)

393

(29%)

394

(29%)

300

(8%)

414

(38%)
NANANANA

Terminal

Half-Life, h

6.4

(22%)

6.4

(22%)

7.9

(35%)

6.5

(24%)

5.1

(22%)

7.5

(34%)
NA

5.7

(24%)

Distribution

The mean apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F) of etodolac is approximately 390 mL/kg. Etodolac is more than 99% bound to plasma proteins, primarily to albumin. The free fraction is less than 1% and is independent of etodolac total concentration over the dose range studied. It is not known whether etodolac is excreted in human milk; however, based on its physical-chemical properties, excretion into breast milk is expected. Data from in vitro studies, using peak serum concentrations at reported therapeutic doses in humans, show that the etodolac free fraction is not significantly altered by acetaminophen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, naproxen, piroxicam, chlorpropamide, glipizide, glyburide, phenytoin, and probenecid.

Metabolism

Etodolac is extensively metabolized in the liver. The role, if any, of a specific cytochrome P450 system in the metabolism of etodolac is unknown. Several etodolac metabolites have been identified in human plasma and urine. Other metabolites remain to be identified. The metabolites include 6-, 7-, and 8-hydroxylated-etodolac and etodolac glucuronide. After a single dose of 14C-etodolac, hydroxylated metabolites accounted for less than 10% of total drug in serum. On chronic dosing, hydroxylated-etodolac metabolite does not accumulate in the plasma of patients with normal renal function. The extent of accumulation of hydroxylated-etodolac metabolites in patients with renal dysfunction has not been studied. The hydroxylated-etodolac metabolites undergo further glucuronidation followed by renal excretion and partial elimination in the feces.

Excretion

The mean oral clearance of etodolac following oral dosing is 49 (± 16) mL/h/kg. Approximately 1% of a etodolac dose is excreted unchanged in the urine with 72% of the dose excreted into urine as parent drug plus metabolite:

Although renal elimination is a significant pathway of excretion for etodolac metabolites, no dosing adjustment in patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction is generally necessary. The terminal half-life (t1/2) of etodolac is 6.4 hours (22% CV). In patients with severe renal dysfunction or undergoing hemodialysis, dosing adjustment is not generally necessary.

Fecal excretion accounted for 16% of the dose.

Special Populations

Geriatric

In etodolac clinical studies, no overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients. In pharmacokinetic studies, age was shown not to have any effect on etodolac half-life or protein binding, and there was no change in expected drug accumulation. Therefore, no dosage adjustment is generally necessary in the elderly on the basis of pharmacokinetics (see PRECAUTIONS, Geriatric Use).

Etodolac is eliminated primarily by the kidney. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function (see WARNINGS, Renal Effects).

Pediatric

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 18 years have not been established.

Race

Pharmacokinetic differences due to race have not been identified. Clinical studies included patients of many races, all of whom responded in a similar fashion.

Hepatic Insufficiency

Etodolac is predominantly metabolized by the liver. In patients with compensated hepatic cirrhosis, the disposition of total and free etodolac is not altered. Patients with acute and chronic hepatic diseases do not generally require reduced doses of etodolac compared to patients with normal hepatic function. However, etodolac clearance is dependent on liver function and could be reduced in patients with severe hepatic failure. Etodolac plasma protein binding did not change in patients with compensated hepatic cirrhosis given etodolac.

Renal Insufficiency

Etodolac pharmacokinetics have been investigated in subjects with renal insufficiency. Etodolac renal clearance was unchanged in the presence of mild-to-moderate renal failure (creatinine clearance 37 to 88 mL/min). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the disposition of total and free etodolac in these patients. However, etodolac should be used with caution in such patients because, as with other NSAIDs, it may further decrease renal function in some patients. In patients undergoing hemodialysis, there was a 50% greater apparent clearance of total etodolac, due to a 50% greater unbound fraction. Free etodolac clearance was not altered, indicating the importance of protein binding in etodolac’s disposition. Etodolac is not significantly removed from the blood in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

CLINICAL TRIALS

Analgesia

Controlled clinical trials in analgesia were single-dose, randomized, double-blind, parallel studies in three pain models, including dental extractions. The analgesic effective dose for etodolac established in these acute pain models was 200 to 400 mg. The onset of analgesia occurred approximately 30 minutes after oral administration. Etodolac 200 mg provided efficacy comparable to that obtained with aspirin (650 mg). Etodolac 400 mg provided efficacy comparable to that obtained with acetaminophen with codeine (600 mg + 60 mg). The peak analgesic effect was between 1 to 2 hours. Duration of relief averaged 4 to 5 hours for 200 mg of etodolac and 5 to 6 hours for 400 mg of etodolac as measured by when approximately half of the patients required remedication.

Osteoarthritis

The use of etodolac in managing the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee was assessed in double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trials in 341 patients. In patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, etodolac, in doses of 600 to 1000 mg/day, was better than placebo in two studies. The clinical trials in osteoarthritis used b.i.d. dosage regimens.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

In a 3-month study with 426 patients, etodolac 300 mg b.i.d. was effective in management of rheumatoid arthritis and comparable in efficacy to piroxicam 20 mg/day. In a long-term study with 1,446 patients in which 60% of patients completed 6 months of therapy and 20% completed 3 years of therapy, etodolac in a dose of 500 mg b.i.d. provided efficacy comparable to that obtained with ibuprofen 600 mg q.i.d. In clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis patients, etodolac has been used in combination with gold, d-penicillamine, chloroquine, corticosteroids, and methotrexate.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of etodolac and other treatment options before deciding to use etodolac. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).

Etodolac capsules and tablets are indicated:

• For acute and long-term use in the management of signs and symptoms of the following:

1. Osteoarthritis

2. Rheumatoid arthritis

• For the management of acute pain

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Etodolac is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to etodolac.

Etodolac should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS, Anaphylactoid Reactions and PRECAUTIONS, Pre-existing Asthma).

Etodolac is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).

WARNINGS

CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. All NSAIDs, both COX-2 selective and nonselective, may have a similar risk. Patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease may be at greater risk. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.

There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID does increase the risk of serious GI events (see WARNINGS, Gastrointestinal Effects—Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation).

Two large, controlled, clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10-14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Hypertension

NSAIDs, including etodolac, can lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of pre- existing hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs, including etodolac, should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.

Congestive Heart Failure and Edema

Fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients taking NSAIDs. Etodolac should be used with caution in patients with fluid retention or heart failure.

Gastrointestinal Effects- Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation

NSAIDs, including etodolac, can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients, who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy, is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3-6 months, and in about 2-4% of patients treated for one year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk. Physicians should inform patients about the signs and/or symptoms of serious GI toxicity and what steps to take if they occur.

NSAIDs should be prescribed with extreme caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease, and/or gastrointestinal bleeding, and who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk for GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients, and therefore, special care should be taken in treating this population.

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI adverse event is suspected. This should include discontinuation of the NSAID until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. For high risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered.

Renal Effects

Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greater risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.

Renal pelvic transitional epithelial hyperplasia, a spontaneous change occurring with variable frequency, was observed with increased frequency in treated male rats in a 2-year chronic study.

Advanced Renal Disease

No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of etodolac in patients with advanced renal disease. Therefore, treatment with etodolac is not recommended in these patients with advanced renal disease. If etodolac therapy must be initiated, close monitoring of the patient’s renal function is advisable.

Anaphylactoid Reactions

As with other NSAIDS, anaphylactoid reactions may occur in patients without prior exposure to etodolac. Etodolac should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Fatal reactions have been reported in such patients (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS, General, Pre-existing Asthma). Emergency help should be sought in cases where an anaphylactoid reaction occurs.

Skin Reactions

NSAIDs, including etodolac, can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

Pregnancy

In late pregnancy, the third trimester, as with other NSAIDs, etodolac should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus (see PRECAUTIONS, Pregnancy, Nonteratogenic Effects).

PRECAUTIONS

General

Etodolac cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered solely if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids.

The pharmacological activity of etodolac in reducing fever and inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.

Hepatic Effects

Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs including etodolac. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis, and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes, have been reported.

A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with etodolac. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), etodolac should be discontinued.

Hematological Effects

Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs including etodolac. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including etodolac, should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia.

NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving etodolac who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants, should be carefully monitored.

Preexisting Asthma

Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthmas has been associated with severe bronchospasm which can be fatal. Since cross reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, etodolac should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in all patients with pre-existing asthma.

Information for patients

Patients should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with an NSAID and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to read the NSAID Medication Guide that accompanies each prescription dispensed.

  1. Etodolac, like other NSAIDs, may cause serious CV side effects, such as MI or stroke, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious CV events can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, slurring of speech, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see WARNINGS, Cardiovascular Effects).
  2. Etodolac, like other NSAIDs, can cause GI discomfort and, rarely, serious GI side effects, such as ulcers and bleeding, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see WARNINGS, Gastrointestinal Effects— Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation).
  3. Etodolac, like other NSAIDs, can cause serious skin side effects such as exfoliative dermatitis, SJS, and TEN, which may result in hospitalizations and even death. Although serious skin reactions may occur without warning, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of skin rash and blisters, fever, or other signs of hypersensitivity such as itching, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative signs or symptoms. Patients should be advised to stop the drug immediately if they develop any type of rash and contact their physicians as soon as possible.
  4. Patients should promptly report signs or symptoms of unexplained weight gain or edema to their physicians.
  5. Patients should be informed of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms). If these occur, patients should be instructed to stop therapy and seek immediate medical therapy.
  6. Patients should be informed of the signs of an anaphylactoid reaction (e.g., difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). If these occur, patients should be instructed to seek immediate emergency help (see WARNINGS).
  7. In late pregnancy, the third trimester, as with other NSAIDs, etodolac should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.

Laboratory tests

Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs should have their CBC and a chemistry profile checked periodically for signs or symptoms of anemia. Appropriate measures should be taken in case such signs of anemia occur. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop, systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.) or if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, etodolac should be discontinued.

Drug interactions

ACE-inhibitors

Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE-inhibitors. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE-inhibitors (see WARNINGS).

Antacids

The concomitant administration of antacids has no apparent effect on the extent of absorption of etodolac. However, antacids can decrease the peak concentration reached by 15% to 20% but have no detectable effect on the time-to-peak.

Aspirin

When etodolac is administered with aspirin, its protein binding is reduced, although the clearance of free etodolac is not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of etodolac and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects.

Cyclosporine, Digoxin, Methotrexate

Etodolac, like other NSAIDs, through effects on renal prostaglandins, may cause changes in the elimination of these drugs leading to elevated serum levels of cyclosporine, digoxin, methotrexate, and increased toxicity. Nephrotoxicity associated with cyclosporine may also be enhanced. Patients receiving these drugs who are given etodolac, or any other NSAID, and particularly those patients with altered renal function, should be observed for the development of the specific toxicities of these drugs. NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.

Diuretics

Etodolac has no apparent pharmacokinetic interaction when administered with furosemide or hydrochlorothiazide. Nevertheless, clinical studies, as well as postmarketing observations have shown that etodolac can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, the patient should be observed closely for signs of renal failure (see WARNINGS, Renal Effects), as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.

Glyburide

Etodolac has no apparent pharmacokinetic interaction when administered with glyburide.

Lithium

NSAIDs have produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance was decreased by approximately 20%. These effects have been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by the NSAID. Thus, when NSAIDs and lithium are administered concurrently, subjects should be observed carefully for signs of lithium toxicity.

Phenylbutazone

Phenylbutazone causes increase (by about 80%) in the free fraction of etodolac. Although in vivo studies have not been done to see if etodolac clearance is changed by coadministration of phenylbutazone, it is not recommended that they be coadministered.

Phenytoin

Etodolac has no apparent pharmacokinetic interaction when administered with phenytoin.

Warfarin

The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than that of users of either drug alone. Short-term pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that concomitant administration of warfarin and etodolac capsules and tablets results in reduced protein binding of warfarin, but there was no change in the clearance of free warfarin. There was no significant difference in the pharmacodynamic effect of warfarin administered alone and warfarin administered with etodolac as measured by prothrombin time. Thus, concomitant therapy with warfarin and etodolac should not require dosage adjustment of either drug. However, caution should be exercised because there have been a few spontaneous reports of prolonged prothrombin times, with or without bleeding, in etodolac-treated patients receiving concomitant warfarin therapy.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

The urine of patients who take etodolac can give a false-positive reaction for urinary bilirubin (urobilin) due to the presence of phenolic metabolites of etodolac. Diagnostic dip-stick methodology, used to detect ketone bodies in urine, has resulted in false-positive findings in some patients treated with etodolac. Generally, this phenomenon has not been associated with other clinically significant events. No dose relationship has been observed.

Etodolac treatment is associated with a small decrease in serum uric acid levels. In clinical trials, mean decreases of 1 to 2 mg/dL were observed in arthritic patients receiving etodolac (600 mg to 1000 mg/day) after 4 weeks of therapy. These levels then remained stable for up to 1 year of therapy.

Cacinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility

No carcinogenic effect of etodolac was observed in mice or rats receiving oral doses of 15 mg/kg/day (45 to 89 mg/m2, respectively) or less for periods of 2 years or 18 months, respectively. Etodolac was not mutagenic in in vitro tests performed with S. typhimurium and mouse lymphoma cells as well as in an in vivo mouse micronucleus test. However, data from the in vitro human peripheral lymphocyte test showed an increase in the number of gaps (3.0 to 5.3% unstained regions in the chromatid without dislocation) among the etodolac-treated cultures (50 to 200 μg/mL) compared to negative controls (2.0%); no other difference was noted between the controls and drug-treated groups. Etodolac showed no impairment of fertility in male and female rats up to oral doses of 16 mg/kg (94 mg/m2). However, reduced implantation of fertilized eggs occurred in the 8 mg/kg group.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category C

In teratology studies, isolated occurrences of alterations in limb development were found and included polydactyly, oligodactyly, syndactyly, and unossified phalanges in rats and oligodactyly and synostosis of metatarsals in rabbits. These were observed at dose levels (2 to 14 mg/kg/day) close to human clinical doses. However, the frequency and the dosage group distribution of these findings in initial or repeated studies did not establish a clear drug or dose-response relationship.

Animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Etodolac should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nonteratogenic Effects

Etodolac should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefits justify the potential risk to the fetus. Because of the known effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of the ductus arteriosus), use during pregnancy (particularly during the third trimester) should be avoided.

Labor and delivery

In rat studies with NSAIDs, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased pup survival occurred. The effects of etodolac on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.

Nursing mothers

It is not known whether etodolac is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from etodolac, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 18 years have not been established.

Geriatric use

As with any NSAID, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (65 years and older) and when increasing the dose (see WARNINGS).

In etodolac clinical studies, no overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients. In pharmacokinetic studies, age was shown not to have any effect on etodolac half-life or protein binding, and there was no change in expected drug accumulation. Therefore, no dosage adjustment is generally necessary in the elderly on the basis of pharmacokinetics (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Special Populations).

Elderly patients may be more sensitive to the antiprostaglandin effects of NSAIDs (on the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys) than younger patients (see WARNINGS). In particular, elderly or debilitated patients who receive NSAID therapy seem to tolerate gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding less well than other individuals, and most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in this population.

Etodolac is eliminated primarily by the kidney. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function (see WARNINGS, Renal Effects).

ADVERSE REACTIONS

In patients taking etodolac or other NSAIDs, the most frequently reported adverse experiences occurring in approximately 1-10% of patients are:

Gastrointestinal experiences including: abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, gross bleeding/perforation, heartburn, nausea, GI ulcers (gastric/duodenal), vomiting.

Other events including: abnormal renal function, anemia, dizziness, edema, elevated liver enzymes, headaches, increased bleeding time, pruritis, rashes, tinnitus.

Adverse-reaction information for etodolac was derived from 2,629 arthritic patients treated with etodolac capsules and tablets in double-blind and open-label clinical trials of 4 to 320 weeks in duration and worldwide postmarketing surveillance studies. In clinical trials, most adverse reactions were mild and transient. The discontinuation rate in controlled clinical trials, because of adverse events, was up to 10% for patients treated with etodolac.

New patient complaints (with an incidence greater than or equal to 1%) are listed below by body system. The incidences were determined from clinical trials involving 465 patients with osteoarthritis treated with 300 to 500 mg of etodolac b.i.d. (i.e., 600 to 1000 mg/day).

Incidence Greater Than or Equal To 1%—Probably Causally Related

*Drug-related patient complaints occurring in 3 to 9% of patients treated with etodolac.

Drug-related patient-complaints occurring in fewer than 3%, but more than 1%, are unmarked.

Incidence Less Than 1%—Probably Causally Related

(Adverse reactions reported only in worldwide postmarketing experience, not seen in clinical trials, are considered rarer and are italicized.)

Incidence Less Than 1%—Causal Relationship Unknown

(Medical events occurring under circumstances where causal relationship to etodolac is uncertain. These reactions are listed as alerting information for physicians.)

Additional Adverse Reactions Reported with NSAIDS

OVERDOSAGE

Symptoms following acute NSAID overdose are usually limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which are generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding can occur and coma has occurred following massive ibuprofen or mefenamic-acid overdose. Hypertension, acute renal failure, and respiratory depression may occur but are rare. Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported with therapeutic ingestion of NSAIDs, and may occur following overdose.

Patients should be managed by symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdose. There are no specific antidotes. Emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 g in adults, 1 to 2 g/kg in children) and/or osmotic cathartic may be indicated in patients seen within 4 hours of ingestion with symptoms or following a large overdose (5 to 10 times the usual dose). Forced diuresis, alkalinization of the urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion would probably not be useful due to etodolac’s high protein binding.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of etodolac and other treatment options before deciding to use etodolac. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).

After observing the response to initial therapy with etodolac, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs.

Dosage adjustment of etodolac is generally not required in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. Etodolac should be used with caution in such patients, because, as with other NSAIDs, it may further decrease renal function in some patients with impaired renal function (see WARNINGS, Renal Effects).

Analgesia

The recommended total daily dose of etodolac for acute pain is up to 1000 mg, given as 200-400 mg every 6 to 8 hours. Doses of etodolac greater than 1000 mg/day have not been adequately evaluated in well-controlled clinical trials.

Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis

The recommended starting dose of etodolac for the management of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis is: 300 mg b.i.d., t.i.d., or 400 mg b.i.d., or 500 mg b.i.d. A lower dose of 600 mg/day may suffice for long-term administration. Physicians should be aware that doses above 1000 mg/day have not been adequately evaluated in well-controlled clinical trials.

In chronic conditions, a therapeutic response to therapy with etodolac is sometimes seen within one week of therapy, but most often is observed by two weeks. After a satisfactory response has been achieved, the patient’s dose should be reviewed and adjusted as required.

HOW SUPPLIED

Etodolac is available as:

Etodolac Capsules

200 mg capsules (light gray opaque body with “0038” printed in black and iron gray opaque cap with “G” printed in black)

- in bottles of 100, NDC 55567-038-18

- in unit-dose packages of 100, NDC 55567-038-06

300 mg capsules (iron gray opaque body with “0039” printed in black and iron gray opaque cap with “G” printed in black)

- in bottles of 100, NDC 55567-039-18

- in unit-dose packages of 100, NDC 55567-039-06

Store at controlled room temperature 15 - 30°C (59 - 86°F), protected from moisture.

Dispense in light-resistant container.

Etodolac Tablets

400 mg tablets (orange, oval, biconvex, unscored, film-coated tablets, debossed “0040” on one side and

“G” on the other) are available:

- in bottles of 100, NDC 55567-040-18

- in unit-dose packages of 100, NDC 55567-040-06

500 mg tablets (light blue, modified oval shaped, unscored, biconvex film-coated tablets, marked with “G” on one side and “ET500” on the other) are available:

- in bottles of 100, NDC 55567-032-18

- in unit-dose packages of 100, NDC 55567-032-06

Store at controlled room temperature 15 - 30°C (59 - 86°F).

Store tablets in original container until ready to use. Dispense in light-resistant container.

Medication Guide for Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

(See the end of this Medication Guide for a list of prescription NSAID medicines.)

Image from Drug Label Content

What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

NSAID medicines may increase the chance of a heart attack or stroke that can lead to death. This chance increases:

NSAID medicines should never be used right before or after a heart surgery called a “coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)."

NSAID medicines can cause ulcers and bleeding in the stomach and intestines at any time during treatment. Ulcers and bleeding:

The chance of a person getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with:

NSAID medicines should only be used:

 

Image from Drug Label Content

What are Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

NSAID medicines are use to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as:

Who should not take a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)?

Do not take an NSAID medicine:

Tell your healthcare provider:

What are the possible side effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

Serious side effectsiinclude:                            

  • heart attack
  • stroke
  • high blood pressure
  • heart failure from body swelling (fluid retention)
  • kidney problems including kidney failure
  • bleeding and ulcers in the stomach and intestine
  • low red blood cells (anemia)
  • life-threatening skin reactions
  • life-threatening allergic reactions
  • liver problems including liver failure
  • asthma attacks in people who have asthma
 Other side effects include:
  • stomach pain
  • constipation
  • diarrhea
  • gas
  • heartburn
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • dizziness

Get emergency help right away if you have any of the following symptoms:

Stop your NSAID medicine and call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the following symptoms:

These are not all the side effects with NSAID medicines. Talk to your healthcare provider or pharmacist for more information about NSAID medicines.

Other information about Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

NSAID medicines that need a prescription

Generic Name Tradename
CelecoxibCelebrex
DiclofenacCataflam, Voltaren, Arthrotec (combined with misoprostol)
DiflunisalDolobid
EtodolacLodine, Lodine XL
FenoprofenNalfon, Nalfon 200
FlurbiprofenAnsaid
IbuprofenMotrin,  Tab-Profen, Vicoprofen (combined with hydrocodone), Combunox (combined with oxycodone)
IndomethacinIndocin, Indocin SR, Indo-Lemmon, Indomethagan
KetoprofenOruvail
KetorolacToradol
Mefenamic  AcidPnstel
MeloxicamMobic
NabumetoneRelafen
NaproxenNaprosyn, Anaprox, Anaprox DS, EC-Naproxyn, Naprelan, Naprapac (copackaged with lansoprazole)
OxaprozinDaypro
PiroxicamFeldene
SulindacClinoril
TolmetinTolectin, Tolectin DS, Tolectin 600

 This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Manufactured by:

Genpharm Inc.

Toronto, Canada

M8Z 2S6

1-800-661-7134

Printed in Canada.

003-814 REV. #04 (P4) May 2006

ETODOLAC 
etodolac tablet
Product Information
Product TypeHUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABELItem Code (Source)NDC:55567-040
Route of AdministrationORALDEA Schedule    
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
Etodolac (Etodolac) 400 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient NameStrength
D&C yellow no.10 aluminum lake 
FD&C yellow no. 6 aluminum lake 
hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 
lactose monohydrate 
magnesium stearate 
microcrystalline cellulose 
polydextrose 
polyethylene glycol 
polysorbate 80 
povidone 
sodium starch glycolate 
titanium dioxide 
triacetin 
Product Characteristics
ColorORANGEScoreno score
ShapeOVAL (OVAL) Size19mm
FlavorImprint Code 0040;G
Contains    
CoatingtrueSymboltrue
Packaging
#Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
1NDC:55567-040-18100 in 1 BOTTLE
2NDC:55567-040-06100 in 1 BLISTER PACK
ETODOLAC 
etodolac tablet
Product Information
Product TypeHUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABELItem Code (Source)NDC:55567-032
Route of AdministrationORALDEA Schedule    
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
Etodolac (Etodolac) 500 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient NameStrength
FD&C blue no.2 aluminum lake 
hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 
lactose monohydrate 
magnesium stearate 
microcrystalline cellulose 
polysorbate 80 
povidone 
sodium starch glycolate 
titanium dioxide 
triacetin 
Product Characteristics
ColorBLUEScoreno score
ShapeOVAL (OVAL) Size6mm
FlavorImprint Code ET500;G
Contains    
CoatingtrueSymboltrue
Packaging
#Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
1NDC:55567-032-06100 in 1 BLISTER PACK
2NDC:55567-032-18100 in 1 BOTTLE
ETODOLAC 
etodolac capsule
Product Information
Product TypeHUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABELItem Code (Source)NDC:55567-038
Route of AdministrationORALDEA Schedule    
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
Etodolac (Etodolac) 200 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient NameStrength
black iron oxide 
crospovidone 
FD&C blue no. 1 aluminum lake 
FD&C blue no. 2 aluminum lake 
FD&C red no. 40 aluminum lake 
FD&C yellow no. 10 aluminum lake 
gelatin 
magnesium stearate 
microcrystalline cellulose 
povidone 
sodium lauryl sulfate 
synthetic black iron oxide 
titanium dioxide 
Product Characteristics
ColorGRAY, , GRAY, GRAYScoreno score
ShapeSize21mm
FlavorImprint Code 0038;G
Contains    
CoatingfalseSymboltrue
Packaging
#Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
1NDC:55567-038-18100 in 1 BOTTLE
2NDC:55567-038-06100 in 1 BLISTER PACK
ETODOLAC 
etodolac capsule
Product Information
Product TypeHUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABELItem Code (Source)NDC:55567-039
Route of AdministrationORALDEA Schedule    
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient NameBasis of StrengthStrength
Etodolac (Etodolac) 200 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient NameStrength
black iron oxide 
crospovidone 
FD&C blue no. 1 aluminum lake 
FD&C blue no. 2 aluminum lake 
FD&C red no. 40 aluminum lake 
FD&C yellow no. 10 aluminum lake 
gelatin 
magnesium stearate 
microcrystalline cellulose 
povidone 
sodium lauryl sulfate 
synthetic black iron oxide 
titanium dioxide 
Product Characteristics
ColorGRAY (light gray opaque and iron gray opaque) Scoreno score
ShapeCLOVER (CLOVER) Size21mm
FlavorImprint Code 0038;G
Contains    
CoatingfalseSymboltrue
Packaging
#Item CodePackage DescriptionMarketing Start DateMarketing End Date
1NDC:55567-039-18100 in 1 BOTTLE
2NDC:55567-039-06100 in 1 BLISTER PACK
Labeler - Genpharm Inc.

Revised: 1/2008
Document Id: C560CF7C-49AA-106A-C78A-3B2B4AFDDA4F
Set id: 01F99FFF-4CD8-401F-9481-9CAC4E87BA2D
Version: 1
Effective Time: 20080116
 
Genpharm Inc.