DILAUDID - hydromorphone hydrochloride tablet
Lake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC
Cyclobenzaprine HCl relieves skeletal muscle spasm of local origin without interfering with muscle function. It is ineffective in muscle spasm due to central nervous system disease.
Cyclobenzaprine reduced or abolished skeletal muscle hyperactivity in several animal models. Animal studies indicate that cyclobenzaprine does not act at the neuromuscular junction or directly on skeletal muscle. Such studies show that cyclobenzaprine acts primarily within the central nervous system at brain stem as opposed to spinal cord levels, although its action on the latter may contribute to its overall skeletal muscle relaxant activity. Evidence suggests that the net effect of cyclobenzaprine is a reduction of tonic somatic motor activity, influencing both gamma (γ) and alpha (α) motor systems.
Pharmacological studies in animals showed a similarity between the effects of cyclobenzaprine and the structurally related tricyclic antidepressants, including reserpine antagonism, norepinephrine potentiation, potent peripheral and central anticholinergic effects, and sedation. Cyclobenzaprine caused slight to moderate increase in heart rate in animals.
Estimates of mean oral bioavailability of cyclobenzaprine range from 33% to 55%. Cyclobenzaprine exhibits linear pharmacokinetics over the dose range 2.5 mg to 10 mg, and is subject to enterohepatic circulation. It is highly bound to plasma proteins. Drug accumulates when dosed three times a day, reaching steady-state within 3-4 days at plasma concentrations about four-fold higher than after a single dose. At steady state in healthy subjects receiving 10 mg t.i.d. (n=18), peak plasma concentration was 25.9 ng/mL (range, 12.8-46.1 ng/mL), and area under the concentration-time (AUC) curve over an 8-hour dosing interval was 177 ng.hr/mL (range, 80-319 ng.hr/mL).
Cyclobenzaprine is extensively metabolized, and is excreted primarily as glucuronides via the kidney. Cytochromes P-450 3A4, 1A2, and, to a lesser extent, 2D6, mediate N-demethylation, one of the oxidative pathways for cyclobenzaprine. Cyclobenzaprine is eliminated quite slowly, with an effective half-life of 18 hours (range 8-37 hours; n=18); plasma clearance is 0.7 L/min.
The plasma concentration of cyclobenzaprine is generally higher in the elderly and in patients with hepatic impairment. (See PRECAUTIONS, Use in the Elderly and PRECAUTIONS, Impaired Hepatic Function.)
In a pharmacokinetic study in elderly individuals (≥65yrs old), mean (n=10) steady-state cyclobenzaprine AUC values were approximately 1.7 fold (171.0 ng.hr/mL, range 96.1-255.3) higher than those seen in a group of eighteen younger adults (101.4 ng.hr/mL, range 36.1-182.9) from another study. Elderly male subjects had the highest observed mean increase, approximately 2.4 fold (198.3 ng.hr/mL, range 155.6-255.3 versus 83.2 ng.hr/mL, range 41.1-142.5 for younger males) while levels in elderly females were increased to a much lesser extent, approximately 1.2 fold (143.8 ng.hr/mL, range 96.1-196.3 versus 115.9 ng.hr/mL, range 36.1-182.9 for younger females).
In light of these findings, therapy with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride in the elderly should be initiated with a 5 mg dose and titrated slowly upward.
In a pharmacokinetic study of sixteen subjects with hepatic impairment (15 mild, 1 moderate per Child-Pugh score), both AUC and Cmax were approximately double the values seen in the healthy control group. Based on the findings, cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride should be used with caution in subjects with mild hepatic impairment starting with the 5 mg dose and titrating slowly upward. Due to the lack of data in subjects with more severe hepatic insufficiency, the use of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride in subjects with moderate to severe impairment is not recommended.
No significant effect on plasma levels or bioavailability of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride or aspirin was noted when single or multiple doses of the two drugs were administered concomitantly. Concomitant administration of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride and naproxen or diflunisal was well tolerated with no reported unexpected adverse effects. However combination therapy of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride with naproxen was associated with more side effects than therapy with naproxen alone, primarily in the form of drowsiness. No well controlled studies have been performed to indicate that cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride enhances the clinical effect of aspirin or other analgesics, or whether analgesics enhance the clinical effect of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride in acute musculoskeletal conditions.
Eight double-blind controlled clinical studies were performed in 642 patients comparing cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 10 mg, diazepam**, and placebo. Muscle spasm, local pain and tenderness, limitation of motion, and restriction in activities of daily living were evaluated. In three of these studies there was a significantly greater improvement with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride than with diazepam, while in the other studies the improvement following both treatments was comparable.
Although the frequency and severity of adverse reactions observed in patients treated with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride were comparable to those observed in patients treated with diazepam, dry mouth was observed more frequently in patients treated with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride and dizziness more frequently in those treated with diazepam. The incidence of drowsiness, the most frequent adverse reaction, was similar with both drugs.
The efficacy of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 5 mg was demonstrated in two seven-day, double-blind, controlled clinical trials enrolling 1405 patients. One study compared cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 5 mg and 10 mg t.i.d. to placebo; and a second study compared cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 5 mg and 2.5 mg t.i.d. to placebo. Primary endpoints for both trials were determined by patient-generated data and included global impression of change, medication helpfulness, and relief from starting backache. Each endpoint consisted of a score on a 5-point rating scale (from 0 or worst outcome to 4 or best outcome). Secondary endpoints included a physician's evaluation of the presence and extent of palpable muscle spasm.
Comparisons of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 5 mg and placebo groups in both trials established the statistically significant superiority of the 5 mg dose for all three primary endpoints at day 8 and, in the study comparing 5 and 10 mg, at day 3 or 4 as well. A similar effect was observed with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 10 mg (all endpoints). Physician-assessed secondary endpoints also showed that cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 5 mg was associated with a greater reduction in palpable muscle spasm than placebo.
Analysis of the data from controlled studies shows that cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride produces clinical improvement whether or not sedation occurs.
**VALIUM® (diazepam, Roche)
A post-marketing surveillance program was carried out in 7607 patients with acute musculoskeletal disorders, and included 297 patients treated with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 10 mg for 30 days or longer. The overall effectiveness of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride was similar to that observed in the double-blind controlled studies; the overall incidence of adverse effects was less (see ADVERSE REACTIONS
Analgesic effects of single doses of DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID administered to patients with post-surgical pain have been studied in double-blind controlled trials. In one study, both 5 mg and 10 mg of DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID provided significantly more analgesia than placebo. In another trial, 5 mg and 10 mg of DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID were compared to 30 mg and 60 mg of morphine sulfate oral liquid. The pain relief provided by 5 mg and 10 mg DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID was comparable to 30 mg and 60 mg oral morphine sulfate, respectively.
DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS are indicated for the management of pain in patients where an opioid analgesic is appropriate.
DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS are contraindicated in: patients with known hypersensitivity to hydromorphone, patients with respiratory depression in the absence of resuscitative equipment, and in patients with status asthmaticus. DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS are also contraindicated for use in obstetrical analgesia.
Respiratory depression is the chief hazard of DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS. Respiratory depression is more likely to occur in the elderly, in the debilitated, and in those suffering from conditions accompanied by hypoxia or hypercapnia when even moderate therapeutic doses may dangerously decrease pulmonary ventilation.
DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS should be used with extreme caution in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cor pulmonale, patients having a substantially decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or in patients with preexisting respiratory depression. In such patients even usual therapeutic doses of opioid analgesics may decrease respiratory drive while simultaneously increasing airway resistance to the point of apnea.
DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS contain hydromorphone, which is a potent Schedule II controlled opioid agonist. Schedule II opioid agonists, including morphine, oxymorphone, oxycodone, fentanyl, and methadone, have the highest potential for abuse and risk of producing respiratory depression. Alcohol, other opioids and central nervous system depressants (sedative-hypnotics) potentiate the respiratory depressant effects of hydromorphone, increasing the risk of respiratory depression that might result in death.Misuse, Abuse, and Diversion of Opioids
Hydromorphone is an opioid agonist of the morphine-type. Such drugs are sought by drug abusers and people with addiction disorders and are subject to criminal diversion. DILAUDID can be abused in a manner similar to other opioid agonists, legal or illicit. This should be considered when prescribing or dispensing DILAUDID in situations where the physician or pharmacist is concerned about an increased risk of misuse, abuse, or diversion. Prescribers should monitor all patients receiving opioids for signs of abuse, misuse, and addiction. Furthermore, patients should be assessed for their potential for opioid abuse prior to being prescribed opioid therapy. Persons at increased risk for opioid abuse include those with a personal or family history of substance abuse (including drug or alcohol abuse) or mental illness (e.g., depression). Opioids may still be appropriate for use in these patients, however, they will require intensive monitoring for signs of abuse DILAUDID has been reported as being abused by crushing, chewing, snorting, or injecting the dissolved product. These practices pose a significant risk to the abuser that could result in overdose or death (see WARNINGS and DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE). Concerns about abuse, addiction, and diversion should not prevent the proper management of pain. Healthcare professionals should contact their State Professional Licensing Board or State Controlled Substances Authority for information on how to prevent and detect abuse or diversion of this product.Interactions with Alcohol and Drugs of Abuse
Hydromorphone may be expected to have additive effects when used in conjunction with alcohol, other opioids, or illicit drugs that cause central nervous system depression.Neonatal Withdrawal Syndrome
Infants born to mothers physically dependent on DILAUDID will also be physically dependent and may exhibit respiratory difficulties and withdrawal symptoms (see DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE ).Head Injury and Increased Intracranial Pressure
The respiratory depressant effects of DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS with carbon dioxide retention and secondary elevation of cerebrospinal fluid pressure may be markedly exaggerated in the presence of head injury, other intracranial lesions, or preexisting increase in intracranial pressure. Opioid analgesics including DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS (hydromorphone hydrochloride) may produce effects on pupillary response and consciousness which can obscure the clinical course and neurologic signs of further increase in intracranial pressure in patients with head injuries.Hypotensive Effect
Opioid analgesics, including DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS, may cause severe hypotension in an individual whose ability to maintain blood pressure has already been compromised by a depleted blood volume, or a concurrent administration of drugs such as phenothiazines or general anesthetics (see PRECAUTIONS - Drug Interactions ). Therefore, DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS should be administered with caution to patients in circulatory shock, since vasodilation produced by the drug may further reduce cardiac output and blood pressure.Sulfites
Contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic people.
DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS should be given with caution and the initial dose should be reduced in the elderly or debilitated and those with severe impairment of hepatic, pulmonary or renal functions; myxedema or hypothyroidism; adrenocortical insufficiency (e.g., Addison's Disease); CNS depression or coma; toxic psychoses; prostatic hypertrophy or urethral stricture; gall bladder disease; acute alcoholism; delirium tremens; kyphoscoliosis or following gastrointestinal surgery.
The administration of opioid analgesics including DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS may obscure the diagnoses or clinical course in patients with acute abdominal conditions and may aggravate preexisting convulsions in patients with convulsive disorders.
Reports of mild to severe seizures and myoclonus have been reported in severely compromised patients, administered high doses of parenteral hydromorphone, for cancer and severe pain. Opioid administration at very high doses is associated with seizures and myoclonus in a variety of diseases where pain control is the primary focus.Use in Drug and Alcohol Dependent Patients
DILAUDID should be used with caution in patients with alcoholism and other drug dependencies due to the increased frequency of opioid tolerance, dependence, and the risk of addiction observed in these patient populations. Abuse of DILAUDID in combination with other CNS depressant drugs can result in serious risk to the patient.
Hydromorphone is an opioid with no approved use in the management of addictive disorders.Use in Ambulatory Patients
DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS may impair mental and/or physical ability required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks (e.g. driving, operating machinery). Patients should be cautioned accordingly. DILAUDID may produce orthostatic hypotension in ambulatory patients.Use in Biliary Tract Disease
Opioid analgesics, including DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS, should also be used with caution in patients about to undergo surgery of the biliary tract since it may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi.Tolerance and Physical Dependence
Tolerance is the need for increasing doses of opioids to maintain a defined effect such as analgesia (in the absence of disease progression or other external factors). Physical dependence is manifested by withdrawal symptoms after abrupt discontinuation of a drug or upon administration of an antagonist. Physical dependence and tolerance are not unusual during chronic opioid therapy.
The opioid abstinence or withdrawal syndrome is characterized by some or all of the following: restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, perspiration, chills, myalgia, mydriasis. Other symptoms also may develop, including: irritability, anxiety, backache, joint pain, weakness, abdominal cramps, insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, or increased blood pressure, respiratory rate, or heart rate.
In general, opioids used regularly should not be abruptly discontinued.Information for Patients/Caregivers
Patients receiving DILAUDID (hydromorphone hydrochloride) ORAL LIQUID or DILAUDID TABLETS or their caregivers should be given the following information by the physician, nurse, or pharmacist:
The concomitant use of other central nervous system depressants including sedatives or hypnotics, general anesthetics, phenothiazines, tranquilizers and alcohol may produce additive depressant effects. Respiratory depression, hypotension and profound sedation or coma may occur. When such combined therapy is contemplated, the dose of one or both agents should be reduced. DILAUDID should not be taken with alcohol. Opioid analgesics, including DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS, may enhance the action of neuromuscular blocking agents and produce an excessive degree of respiratory depression.Interactions with Mixed Agonist/Antagonist Opioid Analgesics
Agonist/antagonist analgesics (i.e., pentazocine, nalbuphine, butorphanol, and buprenorphine) should be administered with caution to a patient who has received or is receiving a course of therapy with a pure opioid agonist analgesic such as hydromorphone. In this situation, mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect of hydromorphone and/or may precipitate withdrawal symptoms in these patients.Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No carcinogenicity studies have been conducted in animals.
Hydromorphone was not mutagenic in the in vitro Ames reverse mutation assay or the human lymphocyte chromosome aberration assay. Hydromorphone was not clastogenic in the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay.
No effects on fertility, reproductive performance, or reproductive organ morphology were observed in male or female rats given oral doses up to 7 mg/kg/day, which is equivalent to the human dose of 2.5-10 mg every 3 to 6 hours for oral liquid, and 3-fold higher than the human dose of 2-4 mg every 4 to 6 hours for the tablet on a body surface area basis.PregnancyPregnancy Category C
No effects on teratogenicity or embryotoxicity were observed in female rats given oral doses up to 7 mg/kg/day, which is approximately equivalent to the human dose of 2.5-10 mg every 3 to 6 hours for oral liquid, and 3-fold higher than the human dose of 2-4 mg every 4 to 6 hours for the tablet on a body surface area basis. Hydromorphone produced skull malformations (exencephaly and cranioschisis) in Syrian hamsters given oral doses up to 20 mg/kg during the peak of organogenesis (gestation days 8-9). The skull malformations were observed at doses approximately 2-fold higher the human dose of 2.5-10 mg every 3 to 6 hours for oral liquid, and 7-fold higher than the human dose of 2-4 mg every 4 to 6 hours for the tablet on a body surface area basis. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of DILAUDID in pregnant women.
Hydromorphone crosses the placenta, resulting in fetal exposure. DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS should be used in pregnant women only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus (see Labor and Delivery and DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE ).Nonteratogenic Effects
Babies born to mothers who have been taking opioids regularly prior to delivery will be physically dependent. The withdrawal signs include irritability and excessive crying, tremors, hyperactive reflexes, increased respiratory rate, increased stools, sneezing, yawning, vomiting, and fever. The intensity of the syndrome does not always correlate with the duration of maternal opioid use or dose. There is no consensus on the best method of managing withdrawal. Approaches to the treatment of this syndrome have included supportive care and, when indicated, drugs such as paregoric or phenobarbital.Labor and Delivery
DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS are contraindicated in Labor and Delivery (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).Nursing Mothers
Low levels of opioid analgesics have been detected in human milk. As a general rule, nursing should not be undertaken while a patient is receiving DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS since it, and other drugs in this class, may be excreted in the milk.Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness in children have not been established.Geriatric Use
Clinical studies of DILAUDID did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy (see INDIVIDUALIZATION OF DOSAGE and PRECAUTIONS).
The major hazards of DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS include respiratory depression and apnea. To a lesser degree, circulatory depression, respiratory arrest, shock and cardiac arrest have occurred.
The most frequently observed adverse effects are light-headedness, dizziness, sedation, nausea, vomiting, sweating, flushing, dysphoria, euphoria, dry mouth, and pruritus. These effects seem to be more prominent in ambulatory patients and in those not experiencing severe pain.Less Frequently Observed Adverse ReactionsGeneral and CNS
Weakness, headache, agitation, tremor, uncoordinated muscle movements, alterations of mood (nervousness, apprehension, depression, floating feelings, dreams), muscle rigidity, paresthesia, muscle tremor, blurred vision, nystagmus, diplopia and miosis, transient hallucinations and disorientation, visual disturbances, insomnia, increased intracranial pressureCardiovascular
Flushing of the face, chills, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitation, faintness, syncope, hypotension, hypertensionRespiratory
Bronchospasm and laryngospasmGastrointestinal
Constipation, biliary tract spasm, ileus, anorexia, diarrhea, cramps, taste alterationGenitourinary
Urinary retention or hesitancy, antidiuretic effectsDermatologic
Urticaria, other skin rashes, diaphoresis
Serious overdosage with DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS is characterized by respiratory depression, somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, constricted pupils, and sometimes bradycardia and hypotension. In serious overdosage, particularly following intravenous injection, apnea, circulatory collapse, cardiac arrest and death may occur.
In the treatment of overdosage, primary attention should be given to the reestablishment of adequate respiratory exchange through provision of a patent airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation. A potentially serious oral ingestion, if recent, should be managed with gut decontamination. In unconscious patients with a secure airway, instill activated charcoal (30-100 g in adults, 1-2 g/kg in infants) via a nasogastric tube. A saline cathartic or sorbitol may be added to the first dose of activated charcoal.
Supportive measures (including oxygen, vasopressors) should be employed in the management of circulatory shock and pulmonary edema accompanying overdose as indicated. Cardiac arrest or arrhythmias may require cardiac massage or defibrillation.
The opioid antagonist, naloxone, is a specific antidote against respiratory depression which may result from overdosage, or unusual sensitivity to DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS. Therefore, an appropriate dose of this antagonist should be administered, preferably by the intravenous route, simultaneously with efforts at respiratory resuscitation. Naloxone should not be administered in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression. Naloxone should be administered cautiously to persons who are known, or suspected to be physically dependent on DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS. In such cases, an abrupt or complete reversal of narcotic effects may precipitate an acute withdrawal syndrome. Since the duration of action of DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS may exceed that of the antagonist, the patient should be kept under continued surveillance; repeated doses of the antagonist may be required to maintain adequate respiration. Apply other supportive measures when indicated.
In case of overdose, standard supportive measures should be instituted as required.
Varenicline has been shown to be dialyzed in patients with end stage renal disease [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], however, there is no experience in dialysis following overdose.
The usual adult oral dosage of DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID is one-half (2.5 mL) to two teaspoonfuls (10 mL) (2.5 mg - 10 mg) every 3 to 6 hours as directed by the clinical situation. Oral dosages higher than the usual dosages may be required in some patients.Dilaudid Tablets
The usual starting dose for DILAUDID tablets is 2 mg to 4 mg, orally, every 4 to 6 hours. Appropriate use of the DILAUDID TABLETS must be decided by careful evaluation of each clinical situation.
A gradual increase in dose may be required if analgesia is inadequate, as tolerance develops, or if pain severity increases. The first sign of tolerance is usually a reduced duration of effect. Patients with hepatic and renal impairment should be started on a lower starting dose (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY - Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism).INDIVIDUALIZATION OF DOSAGE
The dosage of opioid analgesics like hydromorphone hydrochloride should be individualized for any given patient, since adverse events can occur at doses that may not provide complete freedom from pain.
Safe and effective administration of opioid analgesics to patients with acute or chronic pain depends upon a comprehensive assessment of the patient. The nature of the pain (severity, frequency, etiology, and pathophysiology) as well as the concurrent medical status of the patient will affect selection of the starting dosage.
In non-opioid-tolerant patients, therapy with hydromorphone is typically initiated at an oral dose of 2-4 mg every four hours, but elderly patients may require lower doses (see PRECAUTIONS - Geriatric Use).
In patients receiving opioids, both the dose and duration of analgesia will vary substantially depending on the patient's opioid tolerance. The dose should be selected and adjusted so that at least 3-4 hours of pain relief may be achieved. In patients taking opioid analgesics, the starting dose of DILAUDID should be based on prior opioid usage. This should be done by converting the total daily usage of the previous opioid to an equivalent total daily dosage of oral DILAUDID using an equianalgesic table (see below). For opioids not in the table, first estimate the equivalent total daily usage of oral morphine, then use the table to find the equivalent total daily dosage of DILAUDID.
Once the total daily dosage of DILAUDID has been estimated, it should be divided into the desired number of doses. Since there is individual variation in response to different opioid drugs, only 1/2 to 2/3 of the estimated dose of DILAUDID calculated from equivalence tables should be given for the first few doses, then increased as needed according to the patient's response.
Since the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone are affected in hepatic and renal impairment with a consequent increase in exposure, patients with hepatic and renal impairment should be started on a lower starting dose (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY - Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism).
In chronic pain, doses should be administered around-the-clock. A supplemental dose of 5-15% of the total daily usage may be administered every two hours on an "as-needed" basis.
Periodic reassessment after the initial dosing is always required. If pain management is not satisfactory and in the absence of significant opioid-induced adverse events, the hydromorphone dose may be increased gradually. If excessive opioid side effects are observed early in the dosing interval, the hydromorphone dose should be reduced. If this results in breakthrough pain at the end of the dosing interval, the dosing interval may need to be shortened. Dose titration should be guided more by the need for analgesia than the absolute dose of opioid employed.
DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS contain hydromorphone, a Schedule II controlled opioid agonist. Schedule II opioid substances which include morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone, fentanyl, and methadone have the highest potential for abuse and risk of fatal overdose. Hydromorphone can be abused and is subject to criminal diversion.
Opioid analgesics may cause psychological and physical dependence. Physical dependence results in withdrawal symptoms in patients who abruptly discontinue the drug. Physical dependence usually does not occur to a clinically significant degree until after several weeks of continued opioid usage, but it may occur after as little as a week of opioid use. Physical dependence and tolerance are separate and distinct from abuse and addiction.
Addiction is a chronic, neurobiologic disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. It is characterized by behaviors that include one or more of the following: impaired control over drug use, compulsive use, continued use despite harm, and craving. Drug addiction is a treatable disease, utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, but relapse is common.
"Drug seeking" behavior is very common in addicts and drug abusers. Drug-seeking tactics include emergency calls or visits near the end of office hours, refusal to undergo appropriate examination, testing or referral, repeated "loss" of prescriptions, tampering with, forging or counterfeiting prescriptions and reluctance to provide prior medical records or contact information for other treating physician(s). "Doctor shopping" to obtain additional prescriptions is common among drug abusers, people suffering from untreated addiction and criminals seeking drugs to sell.
Physicians should be aware that addiction may not be accompanied by concurrent tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence in all addicts. In addition, abuse of opioids can occur in the absence of addiction and is characterized by misuse for non-medical purposes, often in combination with other psychoactive substances. Since DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS may be diverted for non-medical use, careful record keeping of prescribing information, including quantity, frequency, and renewal requests is strongly advised.
Proper assessment of the patient, proper prescribing practices, periodic re-evaluation of therapy, and proper dispensing and storage are appropriate measures that help to limit abuse of opioid drugs.
DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS are intended for oral use only. Misuse or abuse of DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS pose a risk of overdose and death. This risk is increased with concurrent abuse of alcohol and other CNS depressants. Parenteral drug abuse can potentially result in local tissue necrosis, infection, pulmonary granulomas, and increased risk of endocarditis and valvular heart injury. In addition, parenteral abuse is commonly associated with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis and HIV.
DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS pose little risk of direct exposure to health care personnel and should be handled and disposed of prudently in accordance with hospital or institutional policy. Significant absorption from dermal exposure is unlikely; accidental dermal exposure to DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID should be treated by removal of any contaminated clothing and rinsing the affected area with cool water. Patients and their families should be instructed to flush any DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS that are no longer needed.
Access to abuseable drugs such as DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID TABLETS presents an occupational hazard for addiction in the health care industry. Routine procedures for handling controlled substances developed to protect the public may not be adequate to protect health care workers. Implementation of more effective accounting procedures and measures to restrict access to drugs of this class (appropriate to the practice setting) may minimize the risk of self-administration by health care providers.
DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID is a clear, sweet, slightly viscous liquid. It is available in: Bottles of 1 pint (473 mL) - NDC# 59011-451-01
DILAUDID 2 mg TABLETS are orange, debossed with a P on one side and the
number 2 on the opposite side. They are available in:
Bottles of 100 - NDC # 59011-452-10
Unit Dose Packages of 100 (4x25) - NDC # 59011-452-01
DILAUDID 4 mg TABLETS are yellow, debossed with a P on one side and the
number 4 on the opposite side. They are available in:
Bottles of 100 - NDC # 59011-454-10
Unit Dose Packages of 100 (4x25) - NDC # 59011-454-01
Bottles of 500 - NDC # 59011-454-05
DILAUDID 8 mg TABLETS are white, triangular shaped tablets bisected and
debossed with a "P" and an inverted "P" on one side and debossed with the number
"8" on other side. They are available in:
Bottles of 100 - NDC# 59011-458-10
Healthcare professionals can telephone Purdue Pharma’s Medical Services Department (1-888-726-7535) for information on this product.Storage
Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°-30°C (59°-86°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light. A schedule CS-II Narcotic. DEA Order Form is Required.
Manufactured for Purdue Pharma L.P. Stamford CT 06901-3431
hydromorphone hydrochloride tablet
|Labeler - Lake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC (831276758)|