Label: METHYLPREDNISOLONE - methylprednisolone tablet

  • Category: HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL
  • DEA Schedule: None
  • Marketing Status: Abbreviated New Drug Application

Drug Label Information

Updated 09/12

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  • DESCRIPTION

    Methylprednisolone is a glucocorticoid. Glucocorticoids are adrenocortical steroids, both naturally occurring and synthetic, which are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Methylprednisolone is a white to practically white, odorless, crystalline powder. It is sparingly soluble in alcohol, in dioxane, and in methanol, slightly soluble in acetone, and in chloroform and very slightly soluble in ether. It is practically insoluble in water.
    The chemical name for methylprednisolone is pregna-1, 4-diene-3, 20-dione,11,17,21-trihydroxy-6-methyl-(611the molecular weight is 374.48. The structural formula is represented below:
    MM1


    Each methylprednisolone tablet for oral administration, contains 4 mg methylprednisolone. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and pregelatinized starch.
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  • ACTIONS

    Naturally occurring glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone and cortisone), which also have salt-retaining properties, are used as replacement therapy in adrenocortical deficiency states. Their synthetic analogs are primarily used for their potent anti-inflammatory effects in disorders of many organ systems.
    Glucocorticoids cause profound and varied metabolic effects. In addition, they modify the bodyimmune responses to diverse stimuli.
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  • INDICATIONS & USAGE

    Methylprednisolone tablets are indicated in the following conditions:

    1. Endocrine Disorders
    Primary or secondary adrenocortical insuffciency (hydrocortisone or cortisone is the the first choice; synthetic analogs may be used in conjunction with mineralocorticoids where applicable; in infancy, mineralocorticoids supplementation is of particular importance).

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
    Nonsuppurative thyroiditis
    Hypercalcemia associated with cancer

    2. Rheumatic Disorders
    As adjunctive therapy for short-term administration (to tide the patient over an acute episode or exacerbation) in:
    Rheumatoid arthritis, including juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (selected cases may require low-dose maintenance therapy)
    Ankylosing spondylitis
    Acute and subacute bursitis
    Synovitis of osteoarthritis
    Acute nonspecific tenosynovitis
    Post-traumatic osteoarthritis
    Psoriatic arthritis
    Epicondylitis
    Acute gouty arthritis

    3. Collagen Diseases
    During an exacerbation or as maintenance therapy in selected cases of:
    Systemic lupus erythematosus
    Systemic dermatomyositis (polymyositis)
    Acute rheumatic carditis

    4. Dermatologic Diseases
    Bullous dermatitis herpetiformis
    Severe erythema multiforme (Stevens-Johnson syndrome)
    Severe seborrheic dermatitis
    Exfoliative dermatitis
    Mycosis fungoides
    Pemphigus
    Severe psoriasis

    5. Allergic States
    Control of severe or incapacitating allergic conditions intractable to adequate trials of conventional treatment:
    Seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis
    Drug hypersensitivity reactions
    Serum sickness
    Contact dermatitis
    Bronchial asthma
    Atopic dermatitis

    6. Ophthalmic Diseases
    Severe acute and chronic allergic and inflammatory processes involving the eye and its adnexa such as:
    Allergic corneal marginal ulcers
    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus
    Anterior segment inflammation
    Diffuse posterior uveitis and choroiditis
    Sympathetic ophthalmia
    Keratitis
    Optic neuritis
    Allergic conjunctivitis
    Chorioretinitis
    Iritis and iridocyclitis

    7. Respiratory Diseases
    Symptomatic sarcoidosis
    Berylliosis
    Loefflersyndrome not manageable by other means
    Fulminating or disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis when used concurrently with appropriate antituberculous chemotherapy
    Aspiration pneumonitis

    8. Hematologic Disorders
    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in adults
    Secondary thrombocytopenia in adults
    Acquired (autoimmune) hemolytic anemia
    Erythroblastopenia (RBC anemia)
    Congenital (erythroid) hypoplastic anemia

    9. Neoplastic Diseases
    For palliative management of:
    Leukemias and lymphomas in adults
    Acute leukemia of childhood

    10. Edematous States
    To induce diuresis or remission of proteinuria in the nephrotic syndrome, without uremia, of the idiopathic type or that due to lupus erythematosus

    11. Gastrointestinal Diseases
    To tide the patient over a critical period of the disease in:
    Ulcerative colitis
    Regional enteritis

    12. Nervous System
    Acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis

    13. Miscellaneous
    Tuberculous meningitis with subarachnoid block or impending block when used concurrently with appropriate antituberculous chemotherapy
    Trichinosis with neurologic or myocardial involvement
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  • CONTRAINDICATIONS

    Systemic fungal infections and known hypersensitivity to components.
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  • WARNINGS

    In patients on corticosteroid therapy subjected to unusual stress, increased dosage of rapidly acting corticosteroids before, during, and after the stressful situation is indicated.
    Corticosteroids may mask some signs of infection, and new infections may appear during their use. Infections with any pathogen including viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoan or helminthic infections, in any location of the body, may be associated with the use of corticosteroids alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents that affect cellular immunity, humoral immunity, or neutrophil function. 1
    These infections may be mild, but can be severe and at times fatal. With increasing doses of corticosteroids, the rate of occurrence of infectious complications increases. 2There may be decreased resistance and inability to localize infection when corticosteroids are used.
    Prolonged use of corticosteroids may produce posterior subcapsular cataracts, glaucoma with possible damage to the optic nerves, and may enhance the establishment of secondary ocular infections due to fungi or viruses.

    1
         Fekety R. Infections associated with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy. In: Gorbach SL, Bartlett JG, Blacklow NR, eds. Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia: WBSaunders Company 1992:1050
    2
         Stuck AE, Minder CE, Frey FJ. Risk of infectious complications in patients taking glucocorticoids. Rev Infect Dis 1989:11(6):954
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  • USAGE IN PREGNANCY

    Since adequate human reproduction studies have not been done with corticosteroids, the use of these drugs in pregnancy, nursing mothers or women of childbearing potential requires that the possible benefits of the drug be weighed against the potential hazards to the mother and embryo or fetus. Infants born of mothers who have received substantial doses of corticosteroids during pregnancy, should be carefully observed for signs of hypoadrenalism.
    Average and large doses of hydrocortisone or cortisone can cause elevation of blood pressure, salt and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium. These effects are less likely to occur with the synthetic derivatives except when used in large doses. Dietary salt restriction and potassium supplementation may be necessary. All corticosteroids increase calcium excretion.

    The use of methylprednisolone tablets in active tuberculosis should be restricted to those cases of fulminating or disseminated tuberculosis in which the corticosteroid is used for the management of the disease in conjunction with an appropriate antituberculous regimen.
    If corticosteroids are indicated in patients with latent tuberculosis or tuberculin reactivity, close observation is necessary as reactivation of the disease may occur. During prolonged corticosteroid therapy, these patients should receive chemoprophylaxis.
    Persons who are on drugs which suppress the immune system are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chicken pox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in non-immune children or adults on corticosteroids. In such children or adults who have not had these diseases particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. How the dose, route and duration of corticosteroid administration affects the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known. If exposed to chicken pox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated. (See the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information.) If chicken pox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered. Similarly, corticosteroids should be used with great care in patients with known or suspected Strongyloides (threadworm) infestation. In such patients, corticosteroid-induced immunosuppression may lead to Strongyloides hyperinfection and dissemination with widespread larval migration, often accompanied by severe enterocolitis and potentially fatal gram-negative septicemia.
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  • PRECAUTIONS

    General Precautions
    Drug-induced secondary adrenocortical insuffciency may be minimized by gradual reduction of dosage. This type of relative insuffciency may persist for months after discontinuation of therapy; therefore, in any situation of stress occurring during that period, hormone therapy should be reinstituted. Since mineralocorticoid secretion may be impaired, salt and/or a mineralocorticoid should be administered concurrently.

    There is an enhanced effect of corticosteroids on patients with hypothyroidism and in those with cirrhosis.
    Corticosteroids should be used cautiously in patients with ocular herpes simplex because of possible corneal perforation.
    The lowest possible dose of corticosteroid should be used to control the condition under treatment, and when reduction in dosage is possible, the reduction should be gradual.
    Psychic derangements may appear when corticosteroids are used, ranging from euphoria, insomnia, mood swings, personality changes and severe depression, to frank psychotic manifestations. Also, existing emotional instability or psychotic tendencies may be aggravated by corticosteroids.
    Steroids should be used with caution in nonspecific ulcerative colitis, if there is a probability of impending perforation, abscess or other pyogenic infection; diverticulitis; fresh intestinal anastomoses; active or latent peptic ulcer; renal insuffciecny; hypertension; osteoporosis; and myasthenia gravis.
    Growth and development of infants and children on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should be carefully observed.
    Kaposisarcoma has been reported to occur in patients receiving corticosteroid therapy. Discontinuation of corticosteroids may result in clinical remission.
    Although controlled clinical trials have shown corticosteroids to be effective in speeding the resolution of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis, they do not show that corticosteroids affect the ultimate outcome or natural history of the disease. The studies do show that relatively high doses of corticosteroids are necessary to demonstrate a significant effect. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
    Since complications of treatment with glucocorticoids are dependent on the size of the dose and the duration of treatment, a risk/benefit decision must be made in each individual case as to dose and duration of treatment and as to whether daily or intermittent therapy should be used.
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  • DRUG INTERACTIONS


    Methylprednisolone may increase the clearance of chronic high dose aspirin. This could lead to decreased salicylate serum levels or increase the risk of salicylate toxicity when methylprednisolone is withdrawn. Aspirin should be used cautiously in conjunction with corticosteroids in patients suffering from hypoprothrombinemia.
    The effect of methylprednisolone on oral anticoagulants is variable. There are reports of enhanced as well as diminished effects of anticoagulant when given concurrently with corticosteroids. Therefore, coagulation indices should be monitored to maintain the desired anticoagulant effect.
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  • INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS

    Persons who are on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids should be warned to avoid exposure to chickenpox or measles. Patients should also be advised that if they are exposed, medical advice should be sought without delay.
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  • ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Fluid and Electrolyte Disturbances
         Sodium retention
         Congestive heart failure in susceptible patients
         Hypertension
         Fluid retention
         Potassium loss
         Hypokalemic alkalosis

    Musculoskeletal
         Muscle weakness
         Loss of muscle mass
         Steroid myopathy
         Osteoporosis
         Tendon rupture, particularly of the Achilles tendon
         Vertebral compression fractures
         Aseptic necrosis of femoral and humeral heads
         Pathologic fracture of long bones

    Gastrointestinal
         Peptic ulcer with possible perforation and hemorrhage
         Pancreatitis
         Abdominal distention
         Ulcerative esophagitis
    Increases in alanine transaminase (ALT, SGPT), aspartate transaminase (AST, SGOT), and alkaline phosphatase have been observed following corticosteroid treatment. These changes are usually small, not associated with any clinical syndrome and are reversible upon discontinuation.

    Dermatologic
         Impaired wound healing
         Petechiae and ecchymoses
         May suppress reactions to skin tests
         Thin fragile skin
         Facial erythema
         Increased sweating

    Neurological
         Increased intracranial pressure with papilledema (pseudo-tumor cerebri) usually after treatment
         Convulsions
         Vertigo
         Headache

    Endocrine
         Development of Cushingoid state
         Suppression of growth in children
         Secondary adrenocortical and pituitary unresponsiveness, particularly in times of stress, as in trauma, surgery or illness
         Menstrual irregularities
         Decreased carbohydrate tolerance
         Manifestations of latent diabetes mellitus
         Increased requirements of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in diabetics

    Ophthalmic
         Posterior subcapsular cataracts
         Increased intraocular pressure
         Glaucoma
         Exophthalmos

    Metabolic
         Negative nitrogen balance due to protein catabolism
    The following additional reactions have been reported following oral as well as parenteral therapy: Urticaria and other allergic, anaphylactic or hypersensitivity reactions.
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  • DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION

    The initial dosage of methylprednisolone tablets may vary from 4 mg to 48 mg per day depending on the specific disease entity being treated. In situations of less severity lower doses will generally suffice while in selected patients higher initial doses may be required. The initial dosage should be maintained or adjusted until a satisfactory response is noted. If after a reasonable period of time there is a lack of satisfactory clinical response, methylprednisolone tablets should be discontinued and the patient transferred to other appropriate therapy.
    IT SHOULD BE EMPHASIZED THAT DOSAGE REQUIREMENTS ARE VARIABLE AND MUST BE INDIVIDUALIZED ON THE BASIS OF THE DISEASE UNDER TREATMENT AND THE RESPONSE OF THE PATIENT.After a favorable response is noted, the proper maintenance dosage should be determined by decreasing the initial drug dosage in small decrements at appropriate time intervals until the lowest dosage which will maintain an adequate clinical response is reached. It should be kept in mind that constant monitoring is needed in regard to drug dosage. Included in the situations which may make dosage adjustments necessary are changes in clinical status secondary to remissions or exacerbations in the disease process, the patientcondition. If after long-term therapy the drug is to be stopped, it is recommended that it be withdrawn gradually rather than abruptly.

    Multiple Sclerosis
    In the treatment of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis daily doses of 200 mg of prednisolone for a week followed by 80 mg every other day for 1 month have been shown to be effective (4 mg of methylprednisolone is equivalent to 5 mg of prednisolone).

    Alternate Day Therapy
    Alternate day therapy is a corticosteroid dosing regimen in which twice the usual daily dose of corticoid is administered every other morning. The purpose of this mode of therapy is to provide the patient requiring long-term pharmacologic dose treatment with the beneficial effects of corticoids while minimizing certain undesirable effects, including pituitary-adrenal suppression, the Cushingoid state, corticoid withdrawal symptoms, and growth suppression in children.
    The rationale for this treatment schedule is based on two major premises: (a) the anti-inflammatory or therapeutic effect of corticoids persists longer than their physical presence and metabolic effects and (b) administration of the corticosteroid every other morning allows for re-establishment of more nearly normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity on the off-steroid day.
    A brief review of the HPA physiology may be helpful in understanding this rationale. Acting primarily through the hypothalamus a fall in free cortisol stimulates the pituitary gland to produce increasing amounts of corticotropin (ACTH) while a rise in free cortisol inhibits ACTH secretion. Normally the HPA system is characterized by diurnal (circadian) rhythm. Serum levels of ACTH rise from a low point about 10 pm to a peak level about 6 am. Increasing levels of ACTH stimulate adrenal cortical activity resulting in a rise in plasma cortisol with maximal levels occurring between 2 am and 8 am. This rise in cortisol dampens ACTH production and in turn adrenal cortical activity. There is a gradual fall in plasma corticoids during the day with lowest levels occurring about midnight.
    The diurnal rhythm of the HPA axis is lost in Cushingdisease, a syndrome of adrenal cortical hyperfunction characterized by obesity with centripetal fat distribution, thinning of the skin with easy bruisability, muscle wasting with weakness, hypertension, latent diabetes, osteoporosis, electrolyte imbalance, etc. The same clinical findings of hyperadrenocorticism may be noted during long-term pharmacologic dose corticoid therapy administered in conventional daily divided doses. It would appear, then, that a disturbance in the diurnal cycle with maintenance of elevated corticoid values during the night may play a significant role in the development of undesirable corticoid effects. Escape from these constantly elevated plasma levels for even short periods of time may be instrumental in protecting against undesirable pharmacologic effects.
    During conventional pharmacologic dose corticosteroid therapy, ACTH production is inhibited with subsequent suppression of cortisol production by the adrenal cortex. Recovery time for normal HPA activity is variable depending upon the dose and duration of treatment. During this time the patient is vulnerable to any stressful situation. Although it has been shown that there is considerably less adrenal suppression following a single morning dose of prednisolone (10 mg) as opposed to a quarter of that dose administered every 6 hours, there is evidence that some suppressive effect on adrenal activity may be carried over into the following day when pharmacologic doses are used. Further, it has been shown that a single dose of certain corticosteroids will produce adrenal cortical suppression for two or more days. Other corticoids, including methylprednisolone, hydrocortisone, prednisone, and prednisolone, are considered to be short acting (producing adrenal cortical suppression for 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 days following a single dose) and thus are recommended for alternate day therapy.
    The following should be kept in mind when considering alternate day therapy:
    1.Basic principles and indications for corticosteroid therapy should apply. The benefits of alternate day therapy should not encourage the indiscriminate use of steroids.
    2.Alternate day therapy is a therapeutic technique primarily designed for patients in whom long-term pharmacologic corticoid therapy is anticipated.
    3.In less severe disease processes in which corticoid therapy is indicated, it may be possible to initiate treatment with alternate day therapy. More severe disease states usually will require daily divided high dose therapy for initial control of the disease process. The initial suppressive dose level should be continued until satisfactory clinical response is obtained, usually four to ten days in the case of many allergic and collagen diseases. It is important to keep the period of initial suppressive dose as brief as possible particularly when subsequent use of alternate day therapy is intended.     
    Once control has been established, two courses are available: (a) change to alternate day therapy and then gradually reduce the amount of corticoid given every other day or (b) following control of the disease process reduce the daily dose of corticoid to the lowest effective level as rapidly as possible and then change over to an alternate day schedule. Theoretically, course (a) may be preferable.
    4.Because of the advantages of alternate day therapy, it may be desirable to try patients on this form of therapy who have been on daily corticoid for long periods of time (e.g., patients with rheumatoid arthritis). Since these patients may already have a suppressed HPA axis, establishing them on alternate day therapy may be difficult and not always successful. However, it is recommended that regular attempts be made to change them over. It may be helpful to triple or even quadruple the daily maintenance dose and administer this every other day rather than just doubling the daily dose if difficulty is encountered. Once the patient is again controlled, an attempt should be made to reduce this dose to a minimum.
    5.As indicated above, certain corticosteroids, because of their prolonged suppressive effect on adrenal activity, are not recommended for alternate day therapy (e.g., dexamethasone and betamethasone).
    6.The maximal activity of the adrenal cortex is between 2 am and 8 am, and it is minimal between 4 pm and midnight. Exogenous corticosteroids suppress adrenocortical activity the least, when given at the time of maximal activity (am).
    7.In using alternate day therapy it is important, as in all therapeutic situations, to individualize and tailor the therapy to each patient. Complete control of symptoms will not be possible in all patients. An explanation of the benefits of alternate day therapy will help the patient to understand and tolerate the possible flare-up in symptoms which may occur in the latter part of the off-steroid day. Other symptomatic therapy may be added or increased at this time if needed.
    8.In the event of an acute flare-up of the disease process, it may be necessary to return to a full suppressive daily divided corticoid dose for control. Once control is again established alternate day therapy may be reinstituted.
    9.Although many of the undesirable features of corticosteroid therapy can be minimized by alternate day therapy, as in any therapeutic situation, the physician must carefully weigh the benefit-risk ratio for each patient in whom corticoid therapy is being considered.
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  • HOW SUPPLIED

    Methylprednisolone Tablets, USP 4 mg are white, oval-shaped, uncoated, debossed GG 957 on one side and quadrisect scored on the reverse side are supplied as follows:
    NDC 0781-5022-07 in Unit of Use pack of 21 tablets
    NDC 0781-5022-01 in bottles of 100 tablets
    NDC 0781-5022-10 in bottles of 1000 tablets
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  • STORAGE AND HANDLING

    Store at 20-25C(68-77F)(see USP Controlled Room Temperature).
    Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container.
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  • PACKAGE LABEL.PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL SECTION

    DRUG: Methylprednisolone
    GENERIC: METHYLPREDNISOLONE
    DOSAGE: TABLET
    ADMINSTRATION: ORAL
    NDC: 49349-750-05
    STRENGTH:4 mg
    COLOR: white
    SHAPE: OVAL
    SCORE: Four equal pieces
    SIZE: 8 mm
    IMPRINT: 21
    QTY: 21

    MM2



    MM3



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  • INGREDIENTS AND APPEARANCE
    METHYLPREDNISOLONE 
    methylprednisolone tablet
    Product Information
    Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:49349-750(NDC:0781-5022)
    Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule     
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
    METHYLPREDNISOLONE (METHYLPREDNISOLONE) METHYLPREDNISOLONE 4 mg
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient Name Strength
    LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE  
    MAGNESIUM STEARATE  
    CELLULOSE, MICROCRYSTALLINE  
    STARCH, CORN  
    Product Characteristics
    Color white Score 4 pieces
    Shape OVAL (TABLET) Size 8mm
    Flavor Imprint Code GG957
    Contains     
    Packaging
    # Item Code Package Description Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    1 NDC:49349-750-05 21 in 1 BLISTER PACK
    Marketing Information
    Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    ANDA ANDA040194 09/05/2012
    Labeler - REMEDYREPACK INC. (829572556)
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