Label: LEVOFLOXACIN - levofloxacin tablet, film coated

  • NDC Code(s): 59762-0278-2, 59762-0279-2, 59762-0280-3
  • Packager: Greenstone LLC
  • Category: HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL
  • DEA Schedule: None
  • Marketing Status: Abbreviated New Drug Application

Drug Label Information

Updated 01/14

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  • BOXED WARNING(What is this?)

    WARNING


    Fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. This risk is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

    Fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, may exacerbate muscle weakness in persons with myasthenia gravis. Avoid levofloxacin in patients with a known history of myasthenia gravis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

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  • HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
    These highlights do not include all the information needed to use levofloxacin safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for levofloxacin tablets.

    Levofloxacin Tablet, Film Coated for Oral use
    Initial U.S. Approval: 1996


    WARNING

    See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning.

    Fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. This risk is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

    Fluoroquinolones, including
    levofloxacin, may exacerbate muscle weakness in persons with myasthenia gravis. Avoid levofloxacin in patients with a known history of myasthenia gravis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].


    To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of levofloxacin and other antibacterial drugs, levofloxacin (1)

    should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (1)

    RECENT MAJOR CHANGES

    Indications and Usage
    •   Plague (1.14)                                                                       04/2012
    Dosage and Administration
    •   Dosage in Adult Patients with Normal Renal Function (2.1) 04/2012
    •   Dosage in Pediatric Patients (2.2)                                        04/2012
    Warnings and Precautions
    •   Musculoskeletal Disorders in Pediatric Patients and
    Arthropathic Effects in Animals (5.10)                                      04/2012
    •   Increased intracranial pressure (pseudotumor cerebri) (5.6) 10/2011

    INDICATIONS AND USAGE


    Levofloxacin tablets are a fluoroquinolone antibacterial indicated in adults (≥18 years of age) with infections caused by designated, susceptible bacteria (1, 12.4)


    • Pneumonia: nosocomial (1.1) and community acquired (1.2, 1.3)
    • Acute bacterial sinusitis (1.4)
    • Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (1.5)
    • Skin and skin structure infections: complicated (1.6) and uncomplicated (1.7)
    • Chronic bacterial prostatitis (1.8)
    • Urinary tract infections: complicated (1.9, 1.10) and uncomplicated (1.12)
    • Acute pyelonephritis (1.11)
    • Inhalational anthrax, post-exposure (1.13)
    • Plague (1.14)

    DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    • Dosage in patients with normal renal function (2.1)
    Type of Infection
    Dose Every 24 hours
    Duration (days)
    Nosocomial Pneumonia (1.1)
    750 mg
    7 to 14
    Community Acquired Pneumonia (1.2)
    500 mg
    7 to 14
    Community Acquired Pneumonia (1.3)
    750 mg
    5
    Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (1.4)
    750 mg
    5
    500 mg
    10 to 14
    Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis (1.5)
    500 mg
    7
    Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections (SSSI) (1.6)
    750 mg
    7 to 14
    Uncomplicated SSSI (1.7)
    500 mg
    7 to 10
    Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis (1.8)
    500 mg
    28
    Complicated Urinary Tract Infection (1.9) or Acute Pyelonephritis (1.11)
    750 mg
    5
    Complicated Urinary Tract Infection (1.10) or
    Acute Pyelonephritis (1.11)
    250 mg
    10
    Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infection (1.12)
    250 mg
    3
    Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure) (1.13)
    Adults and Pediatric Patients
    > 50 kg
    Pediatric Patients < 50 kg and ≥ 6 months of age
    500 mg
     
    8 mg/kg BID (not to exceed
    250 mg/dose)
    60
     
    60
    Plague (1.14)
    Adults and Pediatric Patients >50 kg
     
    Pediatric Patients <50 kg and ≥ 6 months of age
    500 mg
    8 mg/kg BID
    (not to exceed
    250 mg/dose)
     
    10 to 14
     
    10 to 14
    • Adjust dose for creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min (2.3, 8.6,12.3)

    DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS


    Formulation (3) Strength
       Tablets
       250 mg, 500 mg, and 750 mg 

    CONTRAINDICATIONS


    Known hypersensitivity to levofloxacin tablets or other quinolones (4, 5.3)

    WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS


    • Risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture is increased. This risk is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroids, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants. Discontinue if pain or inflammation in a tendon occurs (5.1, 8.5)
    • May exacerbate muscle weakness in persons with myasthenia gravis. Avoid use in patients with a known history of myasthenia gravis (5.2)
    • Anaphylactic reactions and allergic skin reactions, serious, occasionally fatal, may occur after first dose (4, 5.3)
    • Hematologic (including agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia), and renal toxicities may occur after multiple doses (5.4)
    • Hepatotoxicity: Severe, and sometimes fatal, hepatoxicity has been reported. Discontinue immediately if signs and symptoms of hepatitis occur (5.5)
    • Central nervous system effects, including convulsions, anxiety, confusion, depression, and insomnia may occur after the first dose. Use with caution in patients with known or suspected disorders that may predispose them to seizures or lower the seizure threshold. Increased intracranial pressure (pseudotumor cerebri) has been reported (5.6)
    • Clostridium difficile-associated colitis: evaluate if diarrhea occurs (5.7)
    • Peripheral neuropathy: discontinue if symptoms occur in order to prevent irreversibility (5.8)
    • Prolongation of the QT interval and isolated cases of torsade de pointes have been reported. Avoid use in patients with known prolongation, those with hypokalemia, and with other drugs that prolong the QT interval (5.9, 8.5)

    ADVERSE REACTIONS


    The most common reactions (≥3%) were nausea, headache, diarrhea, insomnia, constipation and dizziness (6.2).

    To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Greenstone LLC at 1-800-438-1985 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

    DRUG INTERACTIONS



    Interacting Drug Interaction
       Multivalent cation-containing products
       including antacids, metal cations or didanosine
       Absorption of levofloxacin is decreased when the tablet
       formulation  is taken within 2 hours of this product. (2.4, 7.1)
       Warfarin
       Effect may be enhanced. Monitor prothrombin time,
       INR, watch for bleeding (7.2)
       Antidiabetic agents
       Carefully monitor blood glucose (5.11, 7.3)

    USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS


    • Geriatrics:Severe hepatotoxicity has been reported. The majority of reports describe patients 65 years of age or older (5.5, 8.5, 17). May have increased risk of tendinopathy (including rupture), especially with concomitant corticosteroid use (5.1, 8.5, 17). May be more susceptible to prolongation of the QT interval (5.9, 8.5, 17)
    • Pediatrics:Musculoskeletal disorders (arthralgia, arthritis, tendinopathy, and gait abnormality) seen in more levofloxacin-treated patients than in comparator. Shown to cause arthropathy and osteochondrosis in juvenile animals (5.10, 8.4, 13.2). Safety in pediatric patients treated for more than 14 days has not been studied. Risk-benefit appropriate only for the treatment of inhalational anthrax (post-exposure) (1.13, 2.2, 8.4, 14.9) and plague (1.14, 2.2, 8.4,14.10)

    See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION and Medication Guide.

    Revised: 1/2014

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  • FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS*

    WARNING

    1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

    1.1 Nosocomial Pneumonia

    1.2 Community-Acquired Pneumonia: 7 to 14 day Treatment Regimen

    1.3 Community-Acquired Pneumonia: 5-day Treatment Regimen

    1.4 Acute Bacterial Sinusitis: 5-day and 10 to 14 day Treatment Regimens

    1.5 Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis

    1.6 Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections

    1.7 Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections

    1.8 Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis

    1.9 Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: 5-day Treatment Regimen

    1.10 Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: 10-day Treatment Regimen

    1.11 Acute Pyelonephritis: 5 or 10-day Treatment Regimen

    1.12 Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections

    1.13 Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)

    1.14 Plague

    2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    2.1 Dosage in Adult Patients with Normal Renal Function

    2.2 Dosage in Pediatric Patients

    2.3 Dosage Adjustment in Adults with Renal Impairment

    2.4 Drug Interaction With Chelation Agents: Antacids, Sucralfate, Metal Cations, Multivitamins

    2.5 Administration Instructions

    3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

    4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

    5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

    5.1 Tendinopathy and Tendon Rupture

    5.2 Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis

    5.3 Hypersensitivity Reactions

    5.4 Other Serious and Sometimes Fatal Reactions

    5.5 Hepatotoxicity

    5.6 Central Nervous System Effects

    5.7 Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea

    5.8 Peripheral Neuropathy

    5.9 Prolongation of the QT Interval

    5.10 Musculoskeletal Disorders in Pediatric Patients and Arthropathic Effects in Animals

    5.11 Blood Glucose Disturbances

    5.12 Photosensitivity/Phototoxicity

    5.13 Development of Drug Resistant Bacteria

    6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

    6.1 Serious and Otherwise Important Adverse Reactions

    6.2 Clinical Trial Experience

    6.3 Postmarketing Experience

    7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

    7.1 Chelation Agents: Antacids, Sucralfate, Metal Cations, Multivitamins

    7.2 Warfarin

    7.3 Antidiabetic Agents

    7.4 Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

    7.5 Theophylline

    7.6 Cyclosporine

    7.7 Digoxin

    7.8 Probenecid and Cimetidine

    7.9 Interactions with Laboratory or Diagnostic Testing

    8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

    8.1 Pregnancy

    8.3 Nursing Mothers

    8.4 Pediatric Use

    8.5 Geriatric Use

    8.6 Renal Impairment

    8.7 Hepatic Impairment

    10 OVERDOSAGE

    11 DESCRIPTION

    12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

    12.1 Mechanism of Action

    12.3 Pharmacokinetics

    12.4 Microbiology

    13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

    13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

    13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology

    14 CLINICAL STUDIES

    14.1 Nosocomial Pneumonia

    14.2 Community-Acquired Pneumonia: 7 to 14 day Treatment Regimen

    14.3 Community-Acquired Pneumonia: 5-day Treatment Regimen

    14.4 Acute Bacterial Sinusitis: 5-day and 10 to 14 day Treatment Regimens

    14.5 Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections

    14.6 Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis

    14.7 Complicated Urinary Tract Infections and Acute Pyelonephritis: 5-day Treatment Regimen

    14.8 Complicated Urinary Tract Infections and Acute Pyelonephritis: 10-day Treatment Regimen

    14.9 Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)

    14.10 Plague

    15 REFERENCES

    16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

    16.1 Levofloxacin Tablets

    17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

    17.1 Antibacterial Resistance

    17.2 Administration with Food, Fluids, and Concomitant Medications

    17.3 Serious and Potentially Serious Adverse Reactions

    17.4 Drug Interactions with Insulin, Oral Hypoglycemic Agents, and Warfarin

    17.5 Plague and Anthrax Studies

    *
    Sections or subsections omitted from the full prescribing information are not listed.
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  • 1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE


    To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of levofloxacin tablets

    and other antibacterial drugs, levofloxacin tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

    Levofloxacin tablets are indicated for the treatment of adults (≥18 years of age) with mild, moderate, and severe infections caused by susceptible isolates of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed in this section. Levofloxacin

    injection is indicated when intravenous administration offers a route of administration advantageous to the patient (e.g., patient cannot tolerate an oral dosage form).

    Culture and susceptibility testing
     
    Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify organisms causing the infection and to determine their susceptibility to levofloxacin [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)]. Therapy with levofloxacin tablets may be initiated before results of these tests are known; once results become available, appropriate therapy should be selected.

    As with other drugs in this class, some isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may develop resistance fairly rapidly during treatment with levofloxacin tablets. Culture and susceptibility testing performed periodically during therapy will provide information about the continued susceptibility of the pathogens to the antimicrobial agent and also the possible emergence of bacterial resistance.

    1.1 Nosocomial Pneumonia


    Levofloxacin tablets are indicated for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, or Streptococcus pneumoniae. Adjunctive therapy should be used as clinically indicated. Where Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a documented or presumptive pathogen, combination therapy with an anti-pseudomonal β-lactam is recommended [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].

    1.2 Community-Acquired Pneumonia: 7 to 14 day Treatment Regimen


    Levofloxacin tablets are indicated for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multi-drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae [MDRSP]), Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, or Mycoplasma pneumoniae [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) and Clinical Studies (14.2)].

    MDRSP isolates are isolates resistant to two or more of the following antibacterials: penicillin (MIC ≥2 mcg/mL), 2nd generation cephalosporins, e.g., cefuroxime, macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

    1.3 Community-Acquired Pneumonia: 5-day Treatment Regimen


    Levofloxacin tablets are indicated for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (excluding multi-drug-resistant isolates [MDRSP]), Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydophila pneumoniae [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) and Clinical Studies (14.3)].

    1.4 Acute Bacterial Sinusitis: 5-day and 10 to 14 day Treatment Regimens


    Levofloxacin tablets are indicated for the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis [see Clinical Studies (14.4)].

    1.5 Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis


    Levofloxacin tablets are indicated for the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis.

    1.6 Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections


    Levofloxacin tablets are indicated for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Proteus mirabilis [see Clinical Studies (14.5)].

    1.7 Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections


    Levofloxacin tablets are indicated for the treatment of uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections (mild to moderate) including abscesses, cellulitis, furuncles, impetigo, pyoderma, wound infections, due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus pyogenes.

    1.8 Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis


    Levofloxacin tablets are indicated for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis due to Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, or methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis [see Clinical Studies (14.6)].

    1.9 Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: 5-day Treatment Regimen


    Levofloxacin tablets are indicated for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Proteus mirabilis [see Clinical Studies (14.7)].

    1.10 Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: 10-day Treatment Regimen


    Levofloxacin tablets are indicated for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (mild to moderate) due to Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa [see Clinical Studies (14.8)].

    1.11 Acute Pyelonephritis: 5 or 10-day Treatment Regimen


    Levofloxacin tablets are indicated for the treatment of acute pyelonephritis caused by Escherichia coli, including cases with concurrent bacteremia [see Clinical Studies (14.7, 14.8)].

    1.12 Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections


    Levofloxacin tablets are indicated for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (mild to moderate) due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    1.13 Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)


    Levofloxacin tablets are indicated for inhalational anthrax (post-exposure) to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis. The effectiveness of levofloxacin tablets is based on plasma concentrations achieved in humans, a surrogate endpoint reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. Levofloxacin tablets have not been tested in humans for the post-exposure prevention of inhalation anthrax. The safety of levofloxacin tablets in adults for durations of therapy beyond 28 days or in pediatric patients for durations of therapy beyond 14 days has not been studied. Prolonged levofloxacin tablets therapy should only be used when the benefit outweighs the risk [see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.2) and Clinical Studies (14.9)].

    1.14 Plague


    Levofloxacin tablets are indicated for  treatment of plague, including pneumonic and septicemic plague, due to Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) and prophylaxis for plague in adults and pediatric patients, 6 months of age and older. Efficacy studies of levofloxacin tablets could not be conducted in humans with plague for ethical and feasibility reasons. Therefore, approval of this indication was based on an efficacy study conducted in animals [see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.2) and Clinical Studies (14.10)].

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  • 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

    2.1 Dosage in Adult Patients with Normal Renal Function

    The usual dose of levofloxacin tablets is 250 mg, 500 mg, or 750 mg administered orally every 24 hours, as indicated by infection and described in Table 1.


    These recommendations apply to patients with creatinine clearance ≥ 50 mL/min. For patients with creatinine clearance <50 mL/min, adjustments to the dosing regimen are required [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].



    Table 1: Dosage in Adult Patients with Normal Renal Function (creatinine clearance ≥ 50 mL/min)
    Type of Infection1
    Dosed Every 24 hours
    Duration (days)2
    1   Due to the designated pathogens [see Indications and Usage (1)].
    2   Sequential therapy (intravenous to oral) may be instituted at the discretion of the physician.
    3   Due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multi-drug-resistant isolates [MDRSP]), Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, or Mycoplasma pneumoniae [see Indications and Usage (1.2)].
    4   Due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (excluding multi-drug-resistant isolates [MDRSP]), Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydophila pneumoniae [see Indications and Usage (1.3)].
    5   This regimen is indicated for cUTI due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and AP due to E. coli, including cases with concurrent bacteremia.
    6   This regimen is indicated for cUTI due to Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and for AP due to E. coli.
    7   Drug administration should begin as soon as possible after suspected or confirmed exposure to aerosolized B. anthracis. This indication is based on a surrogate endpoint. Levofloxacin plasma concentrations achieved in humans are reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit [see Clinical Studies (14.9)].
    8   The safety of levofloxacin tablets in adults for durations of therapy beyond 28 days or in pediatric patients for durations beyond 14 days has not been studied. An increased incidence of musculoskeletal adverse events compared to controls has been observed in pediatric patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10), Use in Specific Populations (8.4), and Clinical Studies (14.9)]. Prolonged levofloxacin tablets therapy should only be used when the benefit outweighs the risk.
    9 Drug administration should begin as soon as possible after suspected or confirmed exposure to Yersinia pestis. Higher doses of levofloxacin tablets typically used for treatment of pneumonia can be used for treatment of plague, if clinically inidicated.
    Nosocomial Pneumonia
    750 mg
    7 to 14
    Community Acquired Pneumonia3
    500 mg
    7 to 14
    Community Acquired Pneumonia4
    750 mg
    5
    Acute Bacterial Sinusitis
    750 mg
    5
    500 mg
    10 to 14
    Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis
    500 mg
    7
    Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections (SSSI)
    750 mg
    7 to 14
    Uncomplicated SSSI
    500 mg
    7 to 10
    Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis
    500 mg
    28
    Complicated Urinary Tract Infection (cUTI) or Acute Pyelonephritis (AP)5
    750 mg
    5
    Complicated Urinary Tract Infection (cUTI) or Acute Pyelonephritis (AP)6
    250 mg
    10
    Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infection
    250 mg
    3
    Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure), adult and pediatric patients > 50 kg7,8
    Pediatric patients < 50 kg and ≥ 6 months of age 7,8
    500 mg
     
    see Table 2 below (2.2)
    608
     
    608
    Plague, adult and pediatric patients > 50 kg9
     
    Pediatric patients < 50 kg and ≥ 6 months of age
    500 mg
    see Table 2 below (2.2)
    10 to 14
    10 to 14

    2.2 Dosage in Pediatric Patients


    The dosage in pediatric patients ≥ 6 months of age is described below in Table 2.


    Table 2: Dosage in Pediatric Patients ≥ 6 months of age
    1  Due to Bacillus anthracis [see Indications and Usage (1.13)]and Yersinia pestis [see Indications and Usage (1.14)].
    2  Sequential therapy (intravenous to oral) may be instituted at the discretion of the physician.
    3  Drug administration should begin as soon as possible after suspected or confirmed exposure to aerosolized B. anthracis. This indication is based on a surrogate endpoint. Levofloxacin plasma concentrations achieved in humans are reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit [see Clinical Studies (14.9)].
    4  The safety of levofloxacin tablets in pediatric patients for durations of therapy beyond 14 days has not been studied. An increased incidence of musculoskeletal adverse events compared to controls has been observed in pediatric patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10), Use in Specific Populations (8.4), and Clinical Studies (14.9)]. Prolonged levofloxacin tablets therapy should only be used when the benefit outweighs the risk.
    5 Drug administration should begin as soon as possible after suspected or confirmed exposure to Yersinia pestis.
    Type of Infection1
    Dose
    Freq. Once every
    Duration2
    Inhalational Anthrax (post-exposure)3, 4
    Pediatric patients > 50 kg
    500 mg
    24 hr
    60 days4
    Pediatric patients < 50 kg and ≥ 6 months of age
    8 mg/kg
    (not to exceed
    250 mg per dose)
    12 hr
    60 days4
    Plague5
    Pediatric patients > 50 kg
    500 mg
    24 hr
    10 to 14 days
    Pediatric patients < 50 kg and ≥ 6 months of age
    8 mg/kg
    (not to exceed
    250 mg per dose)
    12 hr
    10 to 14 days

    2.3 Dosage Adjustment in Adults with Renal Impairment


    Administer levofloxacin tablets with caution in the presence of renal insufficiency. Careful clinical observation and appropriate laboratory studies should be performed prior to and during therapy since elimination of levofloxacin may be reduced.

    No adjustment is necessary for patients with a creatinine clearance ≥ 50 mL/min.

    In patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance <50 mL/min), adjustment of the dosage regimen is necessary to avoid the accumulation of levofloxacin due to decreased clearance [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].

    Table 3 shows how to adjust dose based on creatinine clearance.


    Table 3: Dosage Adjustment in Adult Patients with Renal Impairment (creatinine clearance <50 mL/min)
    Dosage in
    Normal Renal
    Function Every
    24 hours
    Creatinine
    Clearance
    20 to 49 mL/min
    Creatinine
    Clearance
    10 to 19 mL/min
    Hemodialysis or
    Chronic Ambulatory
    Peritoneal Dialysis
    (CAPD)
       750 mg
       750 mg every 48 hours
       750 mg initial dose, then
       500 mg every 48 hours
       750 mg initial dose, then 
       500 mg every 48 hours
       500 mg
       500 mg initial dose, then 
       250 mg every 24 hours
       500 mg initial dose, then
       250 mg every 48 hours
       500 mg initial dose, then 
       250 mg every 48 hours
       250 mg
       No dosage adjustment required
       250 mg every 48 hours. 
       If treating uncomplicated 
       UTI, then no dosage 
       adjustment is required
       No information on 
       dosing adjustment is available

    2.4 Drug Interaction With Chelation Agents: Antacids, Sucralfate, Metal Cations, Multivitamins


    Levofloxacin tablets should be administered at least two hours before or two hours after antacids containing magnesium, aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc or didanosine chewable/buffered tablets or the pediatric powder for oral solution [see Drug Interactions (7.1) and Patient Counseling Information (17.2)].

    2.5 Administration Instructions


    Food and Levofloxacin Tablets

    Levofloxacin tablets can be administered without regard to food.

    Hydration for Patients Receiving Levofloxacin Tablets
     

    Adequate hydration of patients receiving oral levofloxacin tablets should be maintained to prevent the formation of highly concentrated urine. Crystalluria and cylindruria have been reported with quinolones [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Patient Counseling Information (17.2)].

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  • 3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS


    Levofloxacin tablets, 250 mg are terra pink colored capsule shaped, biconvex film-coated tablets, debossed with ‘13’ on one side and ‘T’ on the other side.

    Levofloxacin tablets, 500 mg are peach colored capsule shaped, biconvex film-coated tablets, debossed with ‘12’ on one side and ‘T’ on the other side.

    Levofloxacin tablets, 750 mg are white capsule shaped, biconvex film-coated tablets, debossed with ‘11’ on one side and ‘T’ on the other side.

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  • 4 CONTRAINDICATIONS


    Levofloxacin tablets are contraindicated in persons with known hypersensitivity to levofloxacin, or other quinolone antibacterials [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

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  • 5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

    5.1 Tendinopathy and Tendon Rupture


    Fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. This adverse reaction most frequently involves the Achilles tendon, and rupture of the Achilles tendon may require surgical repair. Tendinitis and tendon rupture in the rotator cuff (the shoulder), the hand, the biceps, the thumb, and other tendon sites have also been reported. The risk of developing fluoroquinolone-associated tendinitis and tendon rupture is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in those taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants. Factors, in addition to age and corticosteroid use, that may independently increase the risk of tendon rupture include strenuous physical activity, renal failure, and previous tendon disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Tendinitis and tendon rupture have been reported in patients taking fluoroquinolones who do not have the above risk factors. Tendon rupture can occur during or after completion of therapy; cases occurring up to several months after completion of therapy have been reported. Levofloxacin should be discontinued if the patient experiences pain, swelling, inflammation or rupture of a tendon. Patients should be advised to rest at the first sign of tendinitis or tendon rupture, and to contact their healthcare provider regarding changing to a non-quinolone antimicrobial drug [see Adverse Reactions (6.3); Patient Counseling Information (17.3)].

    5.2 Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis


    Fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, have neuromuscular blocking activity and may exacerbate muscle weakness in persons with myasthenia gravis. Postmarketing serious adverse events, including deaths and requirement for ventilatory support, have been associated with fluoroquinolone use in persons with myasthenia gravis. Avoid levofloxacin in patients with a known history of myasthenia gravis [see Adverse Reactions (6.3); Patient Counseling Information (17.3)].

    5.3 Hypersensitivity Reactions


    Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity and/or anaphylactic reactions have been reported in patients receiving therapy with fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin. These reactions often occur following the first dose. Some reactions have been accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, hypotension/shock, seizure, loss of consciousness, tingling, angioedema (including tongue, laryngeal, throat, or facial edema/swelling), airway obstruction (including bronchospasm, shortness of breath, and acute respiratory distress), dyspnea, urticaria, itching, and other serious skin reactions. Levofloxacin should be discontinued immediately at the first appearance of a skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. Serious acute hypersensitivity reactions may require treatment with epinephrine and other resuscitative measures, including oxygen, intravenous fluids, antihistamines, corticosteroids, pressor amines, and airway management, as clinically indicated [see Adverse Reactions (6); Patient Counseling Information (17.3)].

    5.4 Other Serious and Sometimes Fatal Reactions


    Other serious and sometimes fatal events, some due to hypersensitivity, and some due to uncertain etiology, have been reported rarely in patients receiving therapy with fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin. These events may be severe and generally occur following the administration of multiple doses. Clinical manifestations may include one or more of the following: 


    • fever, rash, or severe dermatologic reactions (e.g., toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome);
    • vasculitis; arthralgia; myalgia; serum sickness;
    • allergic pneumonitis;
    • interstitial nephritis; acute renal insufficiency or failure;
    • hepatitis; jaundice; acute hepatic necrosis or failure;
    • anemia, including hemolytic and aplastic; thrombocytopenia, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; leukopenia; agranulocytosis; pancytopenia; and/or other hematologic abnormalities.

    The drug should be discontinued immediately at the first appearance of skin rash, jaundice, or any other sign of hypersensitivity and supportive measures instituted [see Adverse Reactions (6); Patient Counseling Information (17.3)].

    5.5 Hepatotoxicity


    Postmarketing reports of severe hepatotoxicity (including acute hepatitis and fatal events) have been received for patients treated with levofloxacin. No evidence of serious drug-associated hepatotoxicity was detected in clinical trials of over 7,000 patients. Severe hepatotoxicity generally occurred within 14 days of initiation of therapy and most cases occurred within 6 days. Most cases of severe hepatotoxicity were not associated with hypersensitivity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. The majority of fatal hepatotoxicity reports occurred in patients 65 years of age or older and most were not associated with hypersensitivity. Levofloxacin should be discontinued immediately if the patient develops signs and symptoms of hepatitis [see Adverse Reactions (6); Patient Counseling Information (17.3)].

    5.6 Central Nervous System Effects


    Convulsions, toxic psychoses, increased intracranial pressure (including pseudotumor cerebri) have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin. Fluoroquinolones may also central nervous system stimulation which may lead to tremors, restlessness, anxiety, lightheadedness, confusion, hallucinations, paranoia, depression, nightmares, insomnia, and, rarely, suicidal thoughts or acts. These reactions may occur following the first dose. If these reactions occur in patients receiving levofloxacin, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate measures instituted. As with other fluoroquinolones, levofloxacin should be used with caution in patients with a known or suspected central nervous system (CNS) disorder that may predispose them to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, epilepsy) or in the presence of other risk factors that may predispose them to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., certain drug therapy, renal dysfunction.) [see Adverse Reactions (6); Drug Interactions (7.4, 7.5); Patient Counseling Information (17.3)].

    5.7 Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea


    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including levofloxacin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

    C. difficile
    produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

    If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated [see Adverse Reactions (6.2), Patient Counseling Information (17.3)].

    5.8 Peripheral Neuropathy


    Rare cases of sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy affecting small and/or large axons resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias and weakness have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin. Levofloxacin should be discontinued if the patient experiences symptoms of neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness or other alterations of sensation including light touch, pain, temperature, position sense, and vibratory sensation in order to prevent the development of an irreversible condition [see Adverse Reactions (6), Patient Counseling Information (17.3)].

    5.9 Prolongation of the QT Interval


    Some fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, have been associated with prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram and infrequent cases of arrhythmia. Rare cases of torsade de pointes have been spontaneously reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin. Levofloxacin should be avoided in patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, patients with uncorrected hypokalemia, and patients receiving Class IA (quinidine, procainamide), or Class III (amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval [see Adverse Reactions (6.3), Use in Specific Populations (8.5), and Patient Counseling Information (17.3)].

    5.10 Musculoskeletal Disorders in Pediatric Patients and Arthropathic Effects in Animals


    Levofloxacin is indicated in pediatric patients (6 months of age and older) only for the prevention of inhalational anthrax (post-exposure) and for plague [see Indications and Usage (1.13, 1.14)]. An increased incidence of musculoskeletal disorders (arthralgia, arthritis, tendinopathy, and gait abnormality) compared to controls has been observed in pediatric patients receiving levofloxacin [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].



    In immature rats and dogs, the oral administration of levofloxacin resulted in increased osteochondrosis. Histopathological examination of the weight-bearing joints of immature dogs dosed with levofloxacin revealed persistent lesions of the cartilage. Other fluoroquinolones also produce similar erosions in the weight-bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species [see Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology (13.2)].

    5.11 Blood Glucose Disturbances


    As with other fluoroquinolones, disturbances of blood glucose, including symptomatic hyper- and hypoglycemia, have been reported with levofloxacin, usually in diabetic patients receiving concomitant treatment with an oral hypoglycemic agent (e.g., glyburide) or with insulin. In these patients, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended. If a hypoglycemic reaction occurs in a patient being treated with levofloxacin, levofloxacin should be discontinued and appropriate therapy should be initiated immediately [see Adverse Reactions (6.2); Drug Interactions (7.3); Patient Counseling Information (17.4)].

    5.12 Photosensitivity/Phototoxicity


    Moderate to severe photosensitivity/phototoxicity reactions, the latter of which may manifest as exaggerated sunburn reactions (e.g., burning, erythema, exudation, vesicles, blistering, edema) involving areas exposed to light (typically the face, “V” area of the neck, extensor surfaces of the forearms, dorsa of the hands), can be associated with the use of fluoroquinolones after sun or UV light exposure. Therefore, excessive exposure to these sources of light should be avoided. Drug therapy should be discontinued if photosensitivity/phototoxicity occurs [see Adverse Reactions (6.3); Patient Counseling Information (17.3)].

    5.13 Development of Drug Resistant Bacteria


    Prescribing levofloxacin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria [see Patient Counseling Information (17.1)].

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  • 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

    6.1 Serious and Otherwise Important Adverse Reactions


    The following serious and otherwise important adverse drug reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of labeling:



    Crystalluria and cylindruria have been reported with quinolones, including levofloxacin. Therefore, adequate hydration of patients receiving levofloxacin should be maintained to prevent the formation of a highly concentrated urine [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].

    6.2 Clinical Trial Experience


    Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

    The data described below reflect exposure to levofloxacin in 7537 patients in 29 pooled Phase 3 clinical trials. The population studied had a mean age of 50 years (approximately 74% of the population was < 65 years of age), 50% were male, 71% were Caucasian, 19% were Black. Patients were treated with levofloxacin for a wide variety of infectious diseases [see Indications and Usage (1)]. Patients received levofloxacin doses of 750 mg once daily, 250 mg once daily, or 500 mg once or twice daily. Treatment duration was usually 3 to 14 days, and the mean number of days on therapy was 10 days.

    The overall incidence, type and distribution of adverse reactions was similar in patients receiving levofloxacin doses of 750 mg once daily, 250 mg once daily, and 500 mg once or twice daily. Discontinuation of levofloxacin due to adverse drug reactions occurred in 4.3% of patients overall, 3.8% of patients treated with the 250 mg and 500 mg doses and 5.4% of patients treated with the 750 mg dose. The most common adverse drug reactions leading to discontinuation with the 250 and 500 mg doses were gastrointestinal (1.4%), primarily nausea (0.6%); vomiting (0.4%); dizziness (0.3%); and headache (0.2%). The most common adverse drug reactions leading to discontinuation with the 750 mg dose were gastrointestinal (1.2%), primarily nausea (0.6%), vomiting (0.5%); dizziness (0.3%); and headache (0.3%).

    Adverse reactions occurring in ≥1% of levofloxacin-treated patients and less common adverse reactions, occurring in 0.1 to <1% of levofloxacin-treated patients, are shown in Table 4 and Table 5, respectively. The most common adverse drug reactions (≥3%) are nausea, headache, diarrhea, insomnia, constipation, and dizziness.

    Table 4: Common (≥1%) Adverse Reactions Reported in Clinical Trials with Levofloxacin
    System/Organ Class Adverse Reaction %
    (N = 7537)
    a N = 7274
    b N = 3758 (women)
       Infections and Infestations
       moniliasis
    1
       Psychiatric Disorders
       insomniaa
       [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
    4
       Nervous System Disorders
       headache
       dizziness
       [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
    6
    3
       Respiratory, Thoracic and 
       Mediastinal Disorders

       dyspnea
       [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
    1
       Gastrointestinal Disorders
       nausea
       diarrhea
       constipation
       abdominal pain
       vomiting
       dyspepsia
    7
    5
    3
    2
    2
    2
       Skin and Subcutaneous 
       Tissue Disorders

       rash [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)
       pruritus
    2
    1
       Reproductive System and 
       Breast Disorders

       vaginitis
    1b
       General Disorders and 
       Administration Site Conditions

       edema
       injection site reaction
       chest pain
    1
    1
    1
    Table 5: Less Common (0.1 to 1%) Adverse Reactions Reported in Clinical Trials with Levofloxacin (N = 7537)
    System/Organ Class Adverse Reaction
    a N = 7274
       Infections and Infestations
       genital moniliasis
       Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders
       anemia
       thrombocytopenia
       granulocytopenia
       [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
       Immune System Disorders
       allergic reaction
       [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3, 5.4)]
       Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders
       hyperglycemia
       hypoglycemia
       [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]
       hyperkalemia
       Psychiatric Disorders
       anxiety
       agitation
       confusion
       depression
       hallucination
       nightmarea
       [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
       sleep disordera
       anorexia
       abnormal dreaminga
       Nervous System Disorders
       tremor
       convulsions
       [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
       paresthesia 
       [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]

       vertigo
       hypertonia
       hyperkinesias
       abnormal gait
       somnolencea
       syncope
       Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders
       epistaxis
       Cardiac Disorders
       cardiac arrest
       palpitation
       ventricular tachycardia
       ventricular arrhythmia
       Vascular Disorders
       phlebitis
       Gastrointestinal Disorders
       gastritis
       stomatitis
       pancreatitis
       esophagitis
       gastroenteritis
       glossitis
       pseudomembranous/C. difficile colitis
       [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
       Hepatobiliary Disorders
       abnormal hepatic function
       increased hepatic enzymes
       increased alkaline phosphatase
       Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
       urticaria [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
       Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders
       arthralgia
       tendinitis
       [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
       myalgia
       skeletal pain
       Renal and Urinary Disorders
       abnormal renal function
       acute renal failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]

    In clinical trials using multiple-dose therapy, ophthalmologic abnormalities, including cataracts and multiple punctate lenticular opacities, have been noted in patients undergoing treatment with quinolones, including levofloxacin. The relationship of the drugs to these events is not presently established.

    6.3 Postmarketing Experience


    Table 6 lists adverse reactions that have been identified during post-approval use of levofloxacin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, reliably estimating their frequency or establishing a causal relationship to drug exposure is not always possible.


    Table 6: Postmarketing Reports Of Adverse Drug Reactions
    System/Organ Class Adverse Reaction
       Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders
       pancytopenia
       aplastic anemia
       leucopenia
       hemolytic anemia
       [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
       eosinophilia
       Immune System Disorders
       hypersensitivity reactions, sometimes fatal including:
          anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions
          anaphylactic shock 
          angioneurotic edema
          serum sickness
       [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3, 5.4)]
       Psychiatric Disorders
       psychosis
       paranoia
       isolated reports of suicide attempt and suicidal ideation 
       [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]

       Nervous System Disorders
       exacerbation of myasthenia gravis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
       anosmia
       ageusia
       parosmia
       dysgeusia
       peripheral neuropathy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
       isolated reports of encephalopathy
       abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG)

       dysphonia
       pseudotumor cerebri [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
       Eye Disorders
       vision disturbance, including diplopia
       visual acuity reduced
       vision blurred
       scotoma
       Ear and Labyrinth Disorders
       hypoacusis
       tinnitus
       Cardiac Disorders
       isolated reports of torsade de pointes
       electrocardiogram QT prolonged
       [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]
       tachycardia
       Vascular Disorders
       vasodilatation
       Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders
       isolated reports of allergic pneumonitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
       Hepatobiliary Disorders
       hepatic failure (including fatal cases)
       hepatitis
       jaundice
       [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4, 5.5)]
       Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
       bullous eruptions to include:
          Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
          toxic epidermal necrolysis
          erythema multiforme
       [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
       photosensitivity/phototoxicity reaction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]
       leukocytoclastic vasculitis
       Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders
       tendon rupture [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
       muscle injury, including rupture
       rhabdomyolysis
       Renal and Urinary Disorders
       interstitial nephritis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
       General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions
       multi-organ failure 
       pyrexia
       Investigations
       prothrombin time prolonged
       international normalized ratio prolonged
       muscle enzymes increased
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  • 7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

    7.1 Chelation Agents: Antacids, Sucralfate, Metal Cations, Multivitamins


    Levofloxacin Tablets

    While the chelation by divalent cations is less marked than with other fluoroquinolones, concurrent administration of levofloxacin

    tablets with antacids containing magnesium, or aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc may interfere with the gastrointestinal absorption of levofloxacin, resulting in systemic levels considerably lower than desired. Tablets with antacids containing magnesium, aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc or didanosine may substantially interfere with the gastrointestinal absorption of levofloxacin, resulting in systemic levels considerably lower than desired. These agents should be taken at least two hours before or two hours after oral levofloxacin administration.

    7.2 Warfarin


    No significant effect of levofloxacin on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for R- and S- warfarin was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Similarly, no apparent effect of warfarin on levofloxacin absorption and disposition was observed. However, there have been reports during the postmarketing experience in patients that levofloxacin enhances the effects of warfarin. Elevations of the prothrombin time in the setting of concurrent warfarin and levofloxacin use have been associated with episodes of bleeding. Prothrombin time, International Normalized Ratio (INR), or other suitable anticoagulation tests should be closely monitored if levofloxacin is administered concomitantly with warfarin. Patients should also be monitored for evidence of bleeding [see Adverse Reactions (6.3); Patient Counseling Information (17.4)].

    7.3 Antidiabetic Agents


    Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with fluoroquinolones and an antidiabetic agent. Therefore, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when these agents are coadministered [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11); Adverse Reactions (6.2), Patient Counseling Information (17.4)].

    7.4 Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs


    The concomitant administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a fluoroquinolone, including levofloxacin, may increase the risk of CNS stimulation and convulsive seizures [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

    7.5 Theophylline


    No significant effect of levofloxacin on the plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for theophylline was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Similarly, no apparent effect of theophylline on levofloxacin absorption and disposition was observed. However, concomitant administration of other fluoroquinolones with theophylline has resulted in prolonged elimination half-life, elevated serum theophylline levels, and a subsequent increase in the risk of theophylline-related adverse reactions in the patient population. Therefore, theophylline levels should be closely monitored and appropriate dosage adjustments made when levofloxacin is coadministered. Adverse reactions, including seizures, may occur with or without an elevation in serum theophylline levels [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

    7.6 Cyclosporine


    No significant effect of levofloxacin on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for cyclosporine was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. However, elevated serum levels of cyclosporine have been reported in the patient population when coadministered with some other fluoroquinolones. Levofloxacin Cmax and ke were slightly lower while Tmax and t½ were slightly longer in the presence of cyclosporine than those observed in other studies without concomitant medication. The differences, however, are not considered to be clinically significant. Therefore, no dosage adjustment is required for levofloxacin or cyclosporine when administered concomitantly.

    7.7 Digoxin


    No significant effect of levofloxacin on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for digoxin was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Levofloxacin absorption and disposition kinetics were similar in the presence or absence of digoxin. Therefore, no dosage adjustment for levofloxacin or digoxin is required when administered concomitantly.

    7.8 Probenecid and Cimetidine


    No significant effect of probenecid or cimetidine on the Cmax of levofloxacin was observed in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. The AUC and t1/2 of levofloxacin were higher while CL/F and CLR were lower during concomitant treatment of levofloxacin with probenecid or cimetidine compared to levofloxacin alone. However, these changes do not warrant dosage adjustment for levofloxacin when probenecid or cimetidine is coadministered.

    7.9 Interactions with Laboratory or Diagnostic Testing


    Some fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, may produce false-positive urine screening results for opiates using commercially available immunoassay kits. Confirmation of positive opiate screens by more specific methods may be necessary.

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  • 8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

    8.1 Pregnancy


    Pregnancy Category C. Levofloxacin was not teratogenic in rats at oral doses as high as 810 mg/kg/day which corresponds to 9.4 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area, or at intravenous doses as high as 160 mg/kg/day corresponding to 1.9 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area. The oral dose of 810 mg/kg/day to rats caused decreased fetal body weight and increased fetal mortality. No teratogenicity was observed when rabbits were dosed orally as high as 50 mg/kg/day which corresponds to 1.1 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area, or when dosed intravenously as high as 25 mg/kg/day, corresponding to 0.5 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area.

    There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Levofloxacin should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

    8.3 Nursing Mothers


    Based on data on other fluoroquinolones and very limited data on levofloxacin, it can be presumed that levofloxacin will be excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from levofloxacin in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

    8.4 Pediatric Use


    Quinolones, including levofloxacin, cause arthropathy and osteochondrosis in juvenile animals of several species [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10) and Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology (13.2)].

    Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)


    Levofloxacin is indicated in pediatric patients 6 months of age and older, for inhalational anthrax (post-exposure). The risk-benefit assessment indicates that administration of levofloxacin to pediatric patients is appropriate. The safety of levofloxacin in pediatric patients treated for more than 14 days has not been studied [see Indications and Usage (1.13)Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Clinical Studies (14.9)].

    Plague



    Levofloxacin is indicated in pediatric patients, 6 months of age and older, for treatment of plague, including pneumonic and septicemic plague due to Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) and prophylaxis for plague. Efficacy studies of levofloxacin could not be conducted in humans with pneumonic plague for ethical and feasibility reasons. Therefore, approval of this indication was based on an efficacy study conducted in animals. The risk-benefit assessment indicates that administration of levofloxacin to pediatric patients is appropriate [see Indications and Usage (1.14)Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Clinical Studies (14.10)].

    Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of six months have not been established.

    Adverse Events

    In clinical trials, 1534 children (6 months to 16 years of age) were treated with oral and intravenous levofloxacin. Children 6 months to 5 years of age received levofloxacin 10 mg/kg twice a day and children greater than 5 years of age received 10 mg/kg once a day (maximum 500 mg per day) for approximately 10 days.

    A subset of children in the clinical trials (1340 levofloxacin-treated and 893 non-fluoroquinolone-treated) enrolled in a prospective, long-term surveillance study to assess the incidence of protocol-defined musculoskeletal disorders (arthralgia, arthritis, tendinopathy, gait abnormality) during 60 days and 1 year following the first dose of the study drug. Children treated with levofloxacin had a significantly higher incidence of musculoskeletal disorders when compared to the non-fluoroquinolone-treated children as illustrated in Table 7.


    Table 7: Incidence of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Pediatric Clinical Trial
    Follow-up Period Levofloxacin
    N = 1340
    Non-Fluoroquinolonea
    N = 893
    p-valueb
    a Non-Fluoroquinolone: ceftriaxone, amoxicillin/clavulanate, clarithromycin
    b 2-sided Fisher’s Exact Test
    c There were 1199 levofloxacin-treated and 804 non-fluoroquinolone-treated children who had a one-year evaluation visit. However, the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders was calculated using all reported events during the specified period for all children enrolled regardless of whether they completed the 1-year evaluation visit.
       60 days
    28 (2.1%)
    8 (0.9%)
    p = 0.038
       1 yearc
    46 (3.4%)
    16 (1.8%)
    p = 0.025

    Arthralgia was the most frequently occurring musculoskeletal disorder in both treatment groups. Most of the musculoskeletal disorders in both groups involved multiple weight-bearing joints. Disorders were moderate in 8/46 (17%) children and mild in 35/46 (76%) levofloxacin-treated children and most were treated with analgesics. The median time to resolution was 7 days for levofloxacin-treated children and 9 for non-fluoroquinolone-treated children (approximately 80% resolved within 2 months in both groups). No child had a severe or serious disorder and all musculoskeletal disorders resolved without sequelae.

    Vomiting and diarrhea were the most frequently reported adverse events, occurring in similar frequency in the levofloxacin-treated and non-fluoroquinolone-treated children.

    In addition to the events reported in pediatric patients in clinical trials, events reported in adults during clinical trials or postmarketing experience [see Adverse Reactions (6)] may also be expected to occur in pediatric patients.

    8.5 Geriatric Use


    Geriatric patients are at increased risk for developing severe tendon disorders including tendon rupture when being treated with a fluoroquinolone such as levofloxacin. This risk is further increased in patients receiving concomitant corticosteroid therapy. Tendinitis or tendon rupture can involve the Achilles, hand, shoulder, or other tendon sites and can occur during or after completion of therapy; cases occurring up to several months after fluoroquinolone treatment have been reported. Caution should be used when prescribing levofloxacin to elderly patients especially those on corticosteroids. Patients should be informed of this potential side effect and advised to discontinue levofloxacin

    and contact their healthcare provider if any symptoms of tendinitis or tendon rupture occur [see Boxed Warning; Warnings and Precautions (5.1); and Adverse Reactions (6.3)].

    In phase 3 clinical trials, 1,945 levofloxacin-treated patients (26%) were ≥ 65 years of age. Of these, 1,081 patients (14%) were between the ages of 65 and 74 and 864 patients (12%) were 75 years or older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

    Severe, and sometimes fatal, cases of hepatotoxicity have been reported postmarketing in association with levofloxacin. The majority of fatal hepatotoxicity reports occurred in patients 65 years of age or older and most were not associated with hypersensitivity. Levofloxacin should be discontinued immediately if the patient develops signs and symptoms of hepatitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

    Elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval. Therefore, precaution should be taken when using levofloxacin with concomitant drugs that can result in prolongation of the QT interval (e.g., Class IA or Class III antiarrhythmics) or in patients with risk factors for torsade de pointes (e.g., known QT prolongation, uncorrected hypokalemia) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].

    The pharmacokinetic properties of levofloxacin in younger adults and elderly adults do not differ significantly when creatinine clearance is taken into consideration. However, since the drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    8.6 Renal Impairment


    Clearance of levofloxacin is substantially reduced and plasma elimination half-life is substantially prolonged in patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance <50 mL/min), requiring dosage adjustment in such patients to avoid accumulation. Neither hemodialysis nor continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is effective in removal of levofloxacin from the body, indicating that supplemental doses of levofloxacin are not required following hemodialysis or CAPD [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].

    8.7 Hepatic Impairment


    Pharmacokinetic studies in hepatically impaired patients have not been conducted. Due to the limited extent of levofloxacin metabolism, the pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin are not expected to be affected by hepatic impairment.

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  • 10 OVERDOSAGE


    In the event of an acute overdosage, the stomach should be emptied. The patient should be observed and appropriate hydration maintained. Levofloxacin is not efficiently removed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.

    Levofloxacin exhibits a low potential for acute toxicity. Mice, rats, dogs and monkeys exhibited the following clinical signs after receiving a single high dose of levofloxacin: ataxia, ptosis, decreased locomotor activity, dyspnea, prostration, tremors, and convulsions. Doses in excess of 1500 mg/kg orally and 250 mg/kg IV produced significant mortality in rodents.

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  • 11 DESCRIPTION


    Levofloxacin is a synthetic broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for oral administration. Chemically, levofloxacin, a chiral fluorinated carboxyquinolone, is the pure (-)-(S)-enantiomer of the racemic drug substance ofloxacin. The chemical name is (-)-(S)-9-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-10-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-7-oxo-7H-pyrido[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazine-6-carboxylic acid hemihydrate.

    Figure 1: The Chemical Structure of Levofloxacin


    Chemical Structure

    The molecular formula is C18H20FN3O4 • ½ H2O and the molecular weight is 370.38. Levofloxacin USP is a pale or bright  yellow, crystalline powder. The molecule exists as a zwitterion at the pH conditions in the small intestine.

    The data demonstrate that from pH 0.6 to 5.8, the solubility of levofloxacin USP is essentially constant (approximately 100 mg/mL). Levofloxacin USP is considered soluble to freely soluble in this pH range, as defined by USP nomenclature. Above pH 5.8, the solubility increases rapidly to its maximum at pH 6.7 (272 mg/mL) and is considered freely soluble in this range. Above pH 6.7, the solubility decreases and reaches a minimum value (about 50 mg/mL) at a pH of approximately 6.9.

    Levofloxacin USP has the potential to form stable coordination compounds with many metal ions. This in vitro chelation potential has the following formation order:  Al+3>Cu+2>Zn+2>Mg+2>Ca+2.

    Excipients and Description of Dosage Forms


    Levofloxacin tablets are available as film-coated tablets and contain the following inactive ingredients:

    250 mg, 500 mg and 750 mg (as expressed in the anhydrous form): croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol 400, polysorbate 80, and titanium dioxide. In addition 250 mg contains iron oxide red and 500 mg contains iron oxide red and iron oxide yellow.

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  • 12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

    12.1 Mechanism of Action


    Levofloxacin is a member of the fluoroquinolone class of antibacterial agents [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)].

    12.3 Pharmacokinetics


    The mean ± SD pharmacokinetic parameters of levofloxacin determined under single and steady-state conditions following oral tablet, oral solution, or intravenous (IV) doses of levofloxacin are summarized in Table 8.


    Table 8: Mean ± SD Levofloxacin PK Parameters
    Regimen Cmax
    (mcg/mL)
    Tmax
    (h)
    AUC
    (mcg•h/mL)
    CL/F1
    (mL/min)
    Vd/F2
    (L)
    t1/2
    (h)
    CLR
    (mL/min)
    1 clearance/bioavailability
    2 volume of distribution/bioavailability
    3 healthy males 18 to 53 years of age
    4 60 min infusion for 250 mg and 500 mg doses, 90 min infusion for 750 mg dose
    5 healthy male and female subjects 18 to 54 years of age
    6 500 mg every 48 h for patients with moderate renal impairment (CLCR 20 to 50 mL/min) and infections of the respiratory tract or skin
    7 dose-normalized values (to 500 mg dose), estimated by population pharmacokinetic modeling
    8 healthy males 22 to 75 years of age
    9 healthy females 18 to 80 years of age
    10 young healthy male and female subjects 18 to 36 years of age
    11 healthy elderly male and female subjects 66 to 80 years of age
    12 healthy males and females 19 to 55 years of age.
    * Absolute bioavailability; F=0.99 ± 0.08 from a 500 mg tablet and F=0.99 ± 0.06 from a 750 mg tablet;
    ND=not determined.
       Single dose
     
     
     
     
     
       250 mg oral tablet3
    2.8 ± 0.4
    1.6 ± 1
    27.2 ± 3.9
    156 ± 20
    ND
    7.3 ± 0.9
    142 ± 21
       500 mg oral tablet3*
    5.1 ± 0.8
    1.3 ± 0.6
    47.9 ± 6.8
    178 ± 28
    ND
    6.3 ± 0.6
    103 ± 30
       500 mg oral solution12
    5.8 ± 1.8
    0.8 ± 0.7
    47.8 ± 10.8
    183 ± 40
    112 ± 37.2
    7 ± 1.4
    ND
       500 mg IV3
    6.2 ± 1
    1 ± 0.1
    48.3 ± 5.4
    175 ± 20
    90 ± 11
    6.4 ± 0.7
    112 ± 25
       750 mg oral tablet5*
    9.3 ± 1.6
    1.6 ± 0.8
    101 ± 20
    129 ± 24
    83 ± 17
    7.5 ± 0.9
    ND
       750 mg IV5
    11.5 ± 44
    ND
    110 ± 40
    126 ± 39
    75 ± 13
    7.5 ± 1.6
    ND
       Multiple dose
     
     
     
     
     
       500 mg every 24 h oral tablet3
    5.7 ± 1.4
    1.1 ± 0.4
    47.5 ± 6.7
    175 ± 25
    102 ± 22
    7.6 ± 1.6
    116 ± 31
       500 mg every 24 h IV3
    6.4 ± 0.8
    ND
    54.6 ± 11.1
    158 ± 29
    91 ± 12
    7 ± 0.8
    99 ± 28
       500 mg or 250 mg every 24 h IV, patients with bacterial infection6
    8.7 ± 47
    ND
    72.5 ± 51.27
    154 ± 72
    111 ± 58
    ND
    ND
       750 mg every 24 h oral tablet5
    8.6 ± 1.9
    1.4 ± 0.5
    90.7 ± 17.6
    143 ± 29
    100 ± 16
    8.8 ± 1.5
    116 ± 28
       750 mg every 24 h IV5
    12.1 ± 4.14
    ND
    108 ± 34
    126 ± 37
    80 ± 27
    7.9 ± 1.9
    ND
       500 mg oral tablet single dose, effects of gender and age:
     
     
     
     
     
       Male8
    5.5 ± 1.1
    1.2 ± 0.4
    54.4 ± 18.9
    166 ± 44
    89 ± 13
    7.5 ± 2.1
    126 ± 38
       Female9
    7 ± 1.6
    1.7 ± 0.5
    67.7 ± 24.2
    136 ± 44
    62 ± 16
    6.1 ± 0.8
    106 ± 40
       Young10
    5.5 ± 1
    1.5 ± 0.6
    47.5 ± 9.8
    182 ± 35
    83 ± 18
    6 ± 0.9
    140 ± 33
       Elderly11
    7 ± 1.6
    1.4 ± 0.5
    74.7 ± 23.3
    121 ± 33
    67 ± 19
    7.6 ± 2
    91 ± 29
       500 mg oral single dose tablet, patients with renal insufficiency:
     
     
     
     
     
       CLCR 50 to 80 mL/min
    7.5 ± 1.8
    1.5 ± 0.5
    95.6 ± 11.8
    88 ± 10
    ND
    9.1 ± 0.9
    57 ± 8
       CLCR 20 to 49 mL/min
    7.1 ± 3.1
    2.1 ± 1.3
    182.1 ± 62.6
    51 ± 19
    ND
    27 ± 10
    26 ± 13
       CLCR <20 mL/min
    8.2 ± 2.6
    1.1 ± 1
    263.5 ± 72.5
    33 ± 8
    ND
    35 ± 5
    13 ± 3
       Hemodialysis
    5.7 ± 1
    2.8 ± 2.2
    ND
    ND
    ND
    76 ± 42
    ND
       CAPD
    6.9 ± 2.3
    1.4 ± 1.1
    ND
    ND
    ND
    51 ± 24
    ND

    Absorption

    Levofloxacin is rapidly and essentially completely absorbed after oral administration. Peak plasma concentrations are usually attained one to two hours after oral dosing. The absolute bioavailability of levofloxacin from a 500 mg tablet and a 750 mg tablet of levofloxacin

    are both approximately 99%, demonstrating complete oral absorption of levofloxacin. Following a single intravenous dose of levofloxacin to healthy volunteers, the mean ± SD peak plasma concentration attained was 6.2 ± 1 mcg/mL after a 500 mg dose infused over 60 minutes and 11.5 ± 4 mcg/mL after a 750 mg dose infused over 90 minutes. Levofloxacin oral solution and tablet formulations are bioequivalent.

    Levofloxacin pharmacokinetics are linear and predictable after single and multiple oral or IV dosing regimens. Steady-state conditions are reached within 48 hours following a 500 mg or 750 mg once-daily dosage regimen. The mean ± SD peak and trough plasma concentrations attained following multiple once-daily oral dosage regimens were approximately 5.7 ± 1.4 and 0.5 ± 0.2 mcg/mL after the 500 mg doses, and 8.6 ± 1.9 and 1.1 ± 0.4 mcg/mL after the 750 mg doses, respectively. The mean ± SD peak and trough plasma concentrations attained following multiple once-daily IV regimens were approximately 6.4 ± 0.8 and 0.6 ± 0.2 mcg/mL after the 500 mg doses, and 12.1 ± 4.1 and 1.3 ± 0.71 mcg/mL after the 750 mg doses, respectively. Oral administration of a 500 mg dose of levofloxacin with food prolongs the time to peak concentration by approximately 1 hour and decreases the peak concentration by approximately 14% following tablet and approximately 25% following oral solution administration. Therefore, levofloxacin tablets can be administered without regard to food. It is recommended that levofloxacin oral solution be taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating.

    The plasma concentration profile of levofloxacin after IV administration is similar and comparable in extent of exposure (AUC) to that observed for levofloxacin tablets when equal doses (mg/mg) are administered. Therefore, the oral and IV routes of administration can be considered interchangeable (see Figure 2 and Figure 3).


    Figure 2: Mean Levofloxacin Plasma Concentration vs. Time Profile: 750 mg

    Figure 3: Mean Levofloxacin Plasma Concentration vs. Time Profile: 500 mg


    Distribution


    The mean volume of distribution of levofloxacin generally ranges from 74 to 112 L after single and multiple 500 mg or 750 mg doses, indicating widespread distribution into body tissues. Levofloxacin reaches its peak levels in skin tissues and in blister fluid of healthy subjects at approximately 3 hours after dosing. The skin tissue biopsy to plasma AUC ratio is approximately 2 and the blister fluid to plasma AUC ratio is approximately 1 following multiple once-daily oral administration of 750 mg and 500 mg doses of levofloxacin, respectively, to healthy subjects. Levofloxacin also penetrates well into lung tissues. Lung tissue concentrations were generally 2- to 5-fold higher than plasma concentrations and ranged from approximately 2.4 to 11.3 mcg/g over a 24-hour period after a single 500 mg oral dose.

    In vitro
    , over a clinically relevant range (1 to 10 mcg/mL) of serum/plasma levofloxacin concentrations, levofloxacin is approximately 24 to 38% bound to serum proteins across all species studied, as determined by the equilibrium dialysis method. Levofloxacin is mainly bound to serum albumin in humans. Levofloxacin binding to serum proteins is independent of the drug concentration.

    Metabolism


    Levofloxacin is stereochemically stable in plasma and urine and does not invert metabolically to its enantiomer, D-ofloxacin. Levofloxacin undergoes limited metabolism in humans and is primarily excreted as unchanged drug in the urine. Following oral administration, approximately 87% of an administered dose was recovered as unchanged drug in urine within 48 hours, whereas less than 4% of the dose was recovered in feces in 72 hours. Less than 5% of an administered dose was recovered in the urine as the desmethyl and N-oxide metabolites, the only metabolites identified in humans. These metabolites have little relevant pharmacological activity.

    Excretion


    Levofloxacin is excreted largely as unchanged drug in the urine. The mean terminal plasma elimination half-life of levofloxacin ranges from approximately 6 to 8 hours following single or multiple doses of levofloxacin given orally or intravenously. The mean apparent total body clearance and renal clearance range from approximately 144 to 226 mL/min and 96 to 142 mL/min, respectively. Renal clearance in excess of the glomerular filtration rate suggests that tubular secretion of levofloxacin occurs in addition to its glomerular filtration. Concomitant administration of either cimetidine or probenecid results in approximately 24% and 35% reduction in the levofloxacin renal clearance, respectively, indicating that secretion of levofloxacin occurs in the renal proximal tubule. No levofloxacin crystals were found in any of the urine samples freshly collected from subjects receiving levofloxacin.

    Geriatric


    There are no significant differences in levofloxacin pharmacokinetics between young and elderly subjects when the subjects’ differences in creatinine clearance are taken into consideration. Following a 500 mg oral dose of levofloxacin to healthy elderly subjects (66 to 80 years of age), the mean terminal plasma elimination half-life of levofloxacin was about 7.6 hours, as compared to approximately 6 hours in younger adults. The difference was attributable to the variation in renal function status of the subjects and was not believed to be clinically significant. Drug absorption appears to be unaffected by age. Levofloxacin

    dose adjustment based on age alone is not necessary [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].

    Pediatrics


    The pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin following a single 7 mg/kg intravenous dose were investigated in pediatric patients ranging in age from 6 months to 16 years. Pediatric patients cleared levofloxacin faster than adult patients, resulting in lower plasma exposures than adults for a given mg/kg dose. Subsequent pharmacokinetic analyses predicted that a dosage regimen of 8 mg/kg every 12 hours (not to exceed 250 mg per dose) for pediatric patients 6 months to 17 years of age would achieve comparable steady state plasma exposures (AUC0-24 and Cmax) to those observed in adult patients administered 500 mg of levofloxacin once every 24 hours.

    Gender



    There are no significant differences in levofloxacin pharmacokinetics between male and female subjects when subjects’ differences in creatinine clearance are taken into consideration. Following a 500 mg oral dose of levofloxacin to healthy male subjects, the mean terminal plasma elimination half-life of levofloxacin was about 7.5 hours, as compared to approximately 6.1 hours in female subjects. This difference was attributable to the variation in renal function status of the male and female subjects and was not believed to be clinically significant. Drug absorption appears to be unaffected by the gender of the subjects. Dose adjustment based on gender alone is not necessary.

    Race


    The effect of race on levofloxacin pharmacokinetics was examined through a covariate analysis performed on data from 72 subjects: 48 white and 24 non-white. The apparent total body clearance and apparent volume of distribution were not affected by the race of the subjects.

    Renal Impairment


    Clearance of levofloxacin is substantially reduced and plasma elimination half-life is substantially prolonged in adult patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min), requiring dosage adjustment in such patients to avoid accumulation. Neither hemodialysis nor continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is effective in removal of levofloxacin from the body, indicating that supplemental doses of levofloxacin are not required following hemodialysis or CAPD [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].

    Hepatic Impairment


    Pharmacokinetic studies in hepatically impaired patients have not been conducted. Due to the limited extent of levofloxacin metabolism, the pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin are not expected to be affected by hepatic impairment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].

    Bacterial Infection


    The pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in patients with serious community-acquired bacterial infections are comparable to those observed in healthy subjects.

    Drug-Drug Interactions


    The potential for pharmacokinetic drug interactions between levofloxacin and antacids, warfarin, theophylline, cyclosporine, digoxin, probenecid, and cimetidine has been evaluated [see Drug Interactions (7)].

    12.4 Microbiology


    Mechanism of Action

    Levofloxacin is the L-isomer of the racemate, ofloxacin, a quinolone antimicrobial agent. The antibacterial activity of ofloxacin resides primarily in the L-isomer. The mechanism of action of levofloxacin and other fluoroquinolone antimicrobials involves inhibition of bacterial topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase (both of which are type II topoisomerases), enzymes required for DNA replication, transcription, repair and recombination.

    Mechanism of Resistance


    Fluoroquinolone resistance can arise through mutations in defined regions of DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV, termed the Quinolone-Resistance Determining Regions (QRDRs), or through altered efflux.

    Fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, differ in chemical structure and mode of action from aminoglycosides, macrolides and β-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins. Fluoroquinolones may, therefore, be active against bacteria resistant to these antimicrobials.

    Resistance to levofloxacin due to spontaneous mutation in vitro is a rare occurrence (range: 10-9 to 10-10). Cross-resistance has been observed between levofloxacin and some other fluoroquinolones, some microorganisms resistant to other fluoroquinolones may be susceptible to levofloxacin.

    Activity in vitro and in vivo
     
    Levofloxacin has in vitro activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

    Levofloxacin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in Indications and Usage (1):

    Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Enterococcus faecalis
    Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible isolates)
    Staphylococcus epidermidis (methicillin-susceptible isolates)
    Staphylococcus saprophyticus
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multi-drug resistant isolates [MDRSP])*
    Streptococcus pyogenes

    *MDRSP (Multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae) isolates are isolates resistant to two or more of the following antibiotics: penicillin (MIC ≥2 mcg/mL), 2nd generation cephalosporins, e.g., cefuroxime; macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

    Gram-Negative Bacteria
    Enterobacter cloacae

    Escherichia coli
    Haemophilus influenzae
    Haemophilus parainfluenzae
    Klebsiella pneumoniae
    Legionella pneumophila
    Moraxella catarrhalis
    Proteus mirabilis
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Serratia marcescens

    Other Bacteria
     

    Chlamydophila pneumoniae
    Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown: Levofloxacin exhibits in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC values) of 2 mcg/mL or less against most (≥90%) isolates of the following microorganisms; however, the safety and effectiveness of levofloxacin in treating clinical infections due to these bacteria have not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.

    Gram-Positive Bacteria
     

    Staphylococcus haemolyticus
    β-hemolytic Streptococcus (Group C/F)
    β-hemolytic Streptococcus (Group G)
    Streptococcus agalactiae
    Streptococcus milleri
    Viridans group streptococci
    Bacillus anthracis

    Gram-Negative Bacteria



    Acinetobacter baumannii
    Acinetobacter lwoffii
    Bordetella pertussis
    Citrobacter koseri
    Citrobacter freundii
    Enterobacter aerogenes
    Enterobacter sakazakii
    Klebsiella oxytoca
    Morganella morganii
    Pantoea agglomerans
    Proteus vulgaris
    Providencia rettgeri
    Providencia stuartii
    Pseudomonas fluorescens
    Yersinia pestis

    Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacteria


    Clostridium perfringens


    Susceptibility Tests


    When available, the clinical microbiology laboratory should provide the results of in vitro susceptibility test results for antimicrobial drug products used in the resident hospitals to the physician as periodic reports that describe the susceptibility profile of nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens. These reports should aid the physician in selecting an antibacterial drug product for treatment.

    Dilution techniques:



    Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs values provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MIC values should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures are based on a dilution method1,2,4 (broth or agar) or equivalent with standardized inoculum concentrations and standardized concentrations of levofloxacin powder. The MIC values should be interpreted according to the criteria outlined in Table 9.

    Diffusion techniques:



    Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure2,3 requires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 5 mcg levofloxacin to test the susceptibility of bacteria to levofloxacin.

    Reports from the laboratory providing results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 5 mcg levofloxacin disk should be interpreted according to the criteria outlined in Table 9.



    Table 9: Susceptibility Test Interpretive Criteria for Levofloxacin
    S = Susceptible, I = Intermediate, R = Resistant
    a The current absence of data on resistant isolates precludes defining any categories other than “Susceptible.” Isolates yielding MIC/zone diameter results suggestive of a “nonsusceptible” category should be submitted to a reference laboratory for further testing.
    Pathogen
    Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (mcg/mL)
    Disk Diffusion
    (zone diameter in mm)
    S
    I
    R
    S
    I
    R
    Enterobacteriaceae
    ≤2
    4
    ≥8
    ≥17
    14-16
    ≤13
    Enterococcus faecalis
    ≤2
    4
    ≥8
    ≥17
    14-16
    ≤13
    Staphylococcus species
    ≤2
    4
    ≥8
    ≥17
    14-16
    ≤13
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    ≤2
    4
    ≥8
    ≥17
    14-16
    ≤13
    Haemophilus influenzae
    ≤2
    --a
    --
    ≥17
    --
    --
    Haemophilus parainfluenzae
    ≤2
    --
    --
    ≥17
    --
    --
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
    ≤2
    4
    ≥8
    ≥17
    14-16
    ≤13
    Streptococcus pyogenes
    ≤2
    4
    ≥8
    ≥17
    14-16
    ≤13
    Yersinia pestis4
    ≤0.25
    --
    --
    --
    --
    --
    Bacillus anthracis4
    ≤0.25
    --
    --
    --
    --
    --

    A report of Susceptible indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable. A report of Intermediate indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where a high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone which prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of Resistant indicates that the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable; other therapy should be selected.

    Quality Control:



    Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory control to monitor and ensure the accuracy and precision of supplies and reagents used in the assay, and the techniques of the individuals performing the test.1,2,3,4 Standard levofloxacin powder should provided the range of MIC values noted in Table 10. For diffusion technique using, the 5 mcg disk, the criteria in Table 10 should be achieved.


    Table 10: Quality Control Ranges for Susceptibility Testing
    Microorganism Microorganism
    QC Number
    MIC (mcg/mL) Disk Diffusion
    (zone diameter in mm)
       Enterococcus faecalis
    ATCC 29212
    0.25 – 2
    --
       Escherichia coli
    ATCC 25922
    0.008 – 0.06
    29 – 37
       Escherichia coli
    ATCC 35218
    0.015 – 0.06
    --
       Haemophilus influenzae
    ATCC 49247
    0.008 – 0.03
    32 – 40
       Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    ATCC 27853
    0.5 – 4
    19 – 26
       Staphylococcus aureus
    ATCC 29213
    0.06 – 0.5
    --
       Staphylococcus aureus
    ATCC 25923
    --
    25 – 30
       Streptococcus pneumoniae
    ATCC 49619
    0.5 – 2
    20 – 25
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  • 13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

    13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility


    In a lifetime bioassay in rats, levofloxacin exhibited no carcinogenic potential following daily dietary administration for 2 years; the highest dose (100 mg/kg/day)

    was 1.4 times the highest recommended human dose (750 mg) based upon relative body surface area. Levofloxacin did not shorten the time to tumor development of UV-induced skin tumors in hairless albino (Skh-1) mice at any levofloxacin dose level and was therefore not photo-carcinogenic under conditions of this study. Dermal levofloxacin concentrations in the hairless mice ranged from 25 to 42 mcg/g at the highest levofloxacin dose level (300 mg/kg/day) used in the photo-carcinogenicity study. By comparison, dermal levofloxacin concentrations in human subjects receiving 750 mg of levofloxacin averaged approximately 11.8 mcg/g at Cmax.

    Levofloxacin was not mutagenic in the following assays: Ames bacterial mutation assay (S. typhimurium and E. coli), CHO/HGPRT forward mutation assay, mouse micronucleus test, mouse dominant lethal test, rat unscheduled DNA synthesis assay, and the mouse sister chromatid exchange assay. It was positive in the in vitro chromosomal aberration (CHL cell line) and sister chromatid exchange (CHL/IU cell line) assays.

    Levofloxacin caused no impairment of fertility or reproductive performance in rats at oral doses as high as 360 mg/kg/day, corresponding to 4.2 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area and intravenous doses as high as 100 mg/kg/day, corresponding to 1.2 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area.

    13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology


    Levofloxacin and other quinolones have been shown to cause arthropathy in immature animals of most species tested [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]. In immature dogs (4 to 5 months old), oral doses of 10 mg/kg/day for 7 days and intravenous doses of 4 mg/kg/day for 14 days of levofloxacin resulted in arthropathic lesions. Administration at oral doses of 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days and intravenous doses of 60 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks produced arthropathy in juvenile rats. Three-month old beagle dogs dosed orally with levofloxacin at 40 mg/kg/day exhibited clinically severe arthrotoxicity resulting in the termination of dosing at Day 8 of a 14-day dosing routine. Slight musculoskeletal clinical effects, in the absence of gross pathological or histopathological effects, resulted from the lowest dose level of 2.5 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.2-fold the pediatric dose based upon AUC comparisons). Synovitis and articular cartilage lesions were observed at the 10 and 40 mg/kg dose levels (approximately 0.7-fold and 2.4-fold the pediatric dose, respectively, based on AUC comparisons). Articular cartilage gross pathology and histopathology persisted to the end of the 18-week recovery period for those dogs from the 10 and 40 mg/kg/day dose levels.

    When tested in a mouse ear swelling bioassay, levofloxacin exhibited phototoxicity similar in magnitude to ofloxacin, but less phototoxicity than other quinolones.

    While crystalluria has been observed in some intravenous rat studies, urinary crystals are not formed in the bladder, being present only after micturition and are not associated with nephrotoxicity.

    In mice, the CNS stimulatory effect of quinolones is enhanced by concomitant administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    In dogs, levofloxacin administered at 6 mg/kg or higher by rapid intravenous injection produced hypotensive effects. These effects were considered to be related to histamine release.

    In vitro
    and in vivo studies in animals indicate that levofloxacin is neither an enzyme inducer nor inhibitor in the human therapeutic plasma concentration range; therefore, no drug metabolizing enzyme-related interactions with other drugs or agents are anticipated.

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  • 14 CLINICAL STUDIES

    14.1 Nosocomial Pneumonia


    Adult patients with clinically and radiologically documented nosocomial pneumonia were enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, open-label study comparing intravenous levofloxacin (750 mg once daily) followed by oral levofloxacin (750 mg once daily) for a total of 7 to 15 days to intravenous imipenem/cilastatin (500 to 1000 mg every 6 to 8 hours daily) followed by oral ciprofloxacin (750 mg every 12 hours daily) for a total of 7 to 15 days. Levofloxacin-treated patients received an average of 7 days of intravenous therapy (range: 1 to 16 days); comparator-treated patients received an average of 8 days of intravenous therapy (range: 1 to 19 days).

    Overall, in the clinically and microbiologically evaluable population, adjunctive therapy was empirically initiated at study entry in 56 of 93 (60.2%) patients in the levofloxacin

    arm and 53 of 94 (56.4%) patients in the comparator arm. The average duration of adjunctive therapy was 7 days in the levofloxacin arm and 7 days in the comparator. In clinically and microbiologically evaluable patients with documented Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, 15 of 17 (88.2%) received ceftazidime (N=11) or piperacillin/tazobactam (N=4) in the levofloxacin arm and 16 of 17 (94.1%) received an aminoglycoside in the comparator arm. Overall, in clinically and microbiologically evaluable patients, vancomycin was added to the treatment regimen of 37 of 93 (39.8%) patients in the levofloxacin arm and 28 of 94 (29.8%) patients in the comparator arm for suspected methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection.

    Clinical success rates in clinically and microbiologically evaluable patients at the posttherapy visit (primary study endpoint assessed on day 3 to 15 after completing therapy) were 58.1% for levofloxacin and 60.6% for comparator. The 95% CI for the difference of response rates (levofloxacin minus comparator) was [-17.2, 12]. The microbiological eradication rates at the posttherapy visit were 66.7% for levofloxacin and 60.6% for comparator. The 95% CI for the difference of eradication rates (levofloxacin minus comparator) was [-8.3, 20.3]. Clinical success and microbiological eradication rates by pathogen are detailed in Table 11.


    Table 11: Clinical Success Rates and Bacteriological Eradication Rates (Nosocomial Pneumonia)
    Pathogen N Levofloxacin No. (%) of
    Patients Microbiologic/
    Clinical Outcomes
    N Imipenem/Cilastatin No. (%) of
    Patients Microbiologic/
    Clinical Outcomes
    a Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus
    b See above text for use of combination therapy
    c The observed differences in rates for the clinical and microbiological outcomes may reflect other factors that were not accounted for in the study
       MSSAa
    21
    14 (66.7)/13 (61.9)
    19
    13 (68.4)/15 (78.9)
       P. aeruginosab
    17
    10 (58.8)/11 (64.7)
    17
    5 (29.4)/7 (41.2)
       S. marcescens
    11
    9 (81.8)/7 (63.6)
    7
    2 (28.6)/3 (42.9)
       E. coli
    12
    10 (83.3)/7 (58.3)
    11
    7 (63.6)/8 (72.7)
       K. pneumoniaec
    11
    9 (81.8)/5 (45.5)
    7
    6 (85.7)/3 (42.9)
       H. influenzae
    16
    13 (81.3)/10 (62.5)
    15
    14 (93.3)/11 (73.3)
       S. pneumoniae
    4
    3 (75)/3 (75)
    7
    5 (71.4)/4 (57.1)

    14.2 Community-Acquired Pneumonia: 7 to 14 day Treatment Regimen


    Adult inpatients and outpatients with a diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia were evaluated in 2 pivotal clinical studies. In the first study, 590 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multi-center, unblinded randomized trial comparing levofloxacin 500 mg once daily orally or intravenously for 7 to 14 days to ceftriaxone 1 to 2 grams intravenously once or in equally divided doses twice daily followed by cefuroxime axetil 500 mg orally twice daily for a total of 7 to 14 days. Patients assigned to treatment with the control regimen were allowed to receive erythromycin (or doxycycline if intolerant of erythromycin) if an infection due to atypical pathogens was suspected or proven. Clinical and microbiologic evaluations were performed during treatment, 5 to 7 days posttherapy, and 3 to 4 weeks posttherapy. Clinical success (cure plus improvement) with levofloxacin

    at 5 to 7 days posttherapy, the primary efficacy variable in this study, was superior (95%) to the control group (83%). The 95% CI for the difference of response rates (levofloxacin

    minus comparator) was [-6, 19]. In the second study, 264 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multi-center, non-comparative trial of 500 mg levofloxacin administered orally or intravenously once daily for 7 to 14 days. Clinical success for clinically evaluable patients was 93%. For both studies, the clinical success rate in patients with atypical pneumonia due to Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila were 96%, 96%, and 70%, respectively. Microbiologic eradication rates across both studies are presented in Table 12.

    Table 12: Bacteriological Eradication Rates Across 2 Community Acquired Pneumonia Clinical Studies
    Pathogen No. Pathogens Bacteriological Eradication Rate (%)
       H. influenzae
    55
    98
       S. pneumoniae
    83
    95
       S. aureus
    17
    88
       M. catarrhalis
    18
    94
       H. parainfluenzae
    19
    95
       K. pneumoniae
    10
    100

    Community-Acquired Pneumonia Due to Multi-Drug Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
     
    Levofloxacin was effective for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia caused by multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (MDRSP). MDRSP isolates are isolates resistant to two or more of the following antibacterials: penicillin (MIC ≥2 mcg/mL), 2nd generation cephalosporins (e.g., cefuroxime, macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole). Of 40 microbiologically evaluable patients with MDRSP isolates, 38 patients (95%) achieved clinical and bacteriologic success at post-therapy. The clinical and bacterial success rates are shown in Table 13.

    Table 13: Clinical and Bacterial Success Rates for Levofloxacin-Treated MDRSP in Community Acquired Pneumonia Patients (Population Valid for Efficacy)
    Screening Susceptibility Clinical Success Bacteriological Successc
    n/Na % n/Nb %
    a n=the number of microbiologically evaluable patients who were clinical successes; N=number of microbiologically evaluable patients in the designated resistance group.
    b n=the number of MDRSP isolates eradicated or presumed eradicated in microbiologically evaluable patients; N=number of MDRSP isolates in a designated resistance group.
    c One patient had a respiratory isolate that was resistant to tetracycline, cefuroxime, macrolides and TMP/SMX and intermediate to penicillin and a blood isolate that was intermediate to penicillin and cefuroxime and resistant to the other classes. The patient is included in the database based on respiratory isolate.
       Penicillin-resistant
    16/17
    94.1
    16/17
    94.1
       2nd generation Cephalosporin resistant
    31/32
    96.9
    31/32
    96.9
       Macrolide-resistant
    28/29
    96.6
    28/29
    96.6
       Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole resistant
    17/19
    89.5
    17/19
    89.5
       Tetracycline-resistant
    12/12
    100
    12/12
    100

    Not all isolates were resistant to all antimicrobial classes tested. Success and eradication rates are summarized in Table 14.


    Table 14: Clinical Success and Bacteriologic Eradication Rates for Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (Community Acquired Pneumonia)
    Type of Resistance Clinical Success Bacteriologic Eradication
       Resistant to 2 antibacterials
    17/18 (94.4%)
    17/18 (94.4%)
       Resistant to 3 antibacterials
    14/15 (93.3%)
    14/15 (93.3%)
       Resistant to 4 antibacterials
    7/7 (100%)
    7/7 (100%)
       Resistant to 5 antibacterials
    0
    0
       Bacteremia with MDRSP
    8/9 (89%)
    8/9 (89%)

    14.3 Community-Acquired Pneumonia: 5-day Treatment Regimen


    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the higher dose and shorter course of levofloxacin, 528 outpatient and hospitalized adults with clinically and radiologically determined mild to severe community-acquired pneumonia were evaluated in a double-blind, randomized, prospective, multicenter study comparing levofloxacin 750 mg, IV or orally, every day for five days or levofloxacin 500 mg IV or orally, every day for 10 days.

    Clinical success rates (cure plus improvement) in the clinically evaluable population were 90.9% in the levofloxacin 750 mg group and 91.1% in the levofloxacin 500 mg group. The 95% CI for the difference of response rates (levofloxacin 750 minus levofloxacin

    500) was [-5.9, 5.4]. In the clinically evaluable population (31 to 38 days after enrollment) pneumonia was observed in 7 out of 151 patients in the levofloxacin 750 mg group and 2 out of 147 patients in the levofloxacin 500 mg group. Given the small numbers observed, the significance of this finding cannot be determined statistically. The microbiological efficacy of the 5-day regimen was documented for infections listed in Table 15.


    Table 15: Bacteriological Eradication Rates (Community-Acquired Pneumonia)
      S. pneumoniae
    19/20 (95%) 
       Haemophilus influenzae
    12/12 (100%) 
       Haemophilus parainfluenzae
    10/10 (100%) 
       Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    26/27 (96%) 
       Chlamydophila pneumoniae
    13/15 (87%) 

    14.4 Acute Bacterial Sinusitis: 5-day and 10 to 14 day Treatment Regimens


    Levofloxacin is approved for the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) using either 750 mg by mouth x 5 days or 500 mg by mouth once daily x 10 to 14 days. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a high dose short course of levofloxacin, 780 outpatient adults with clinically and radiologically determined acute bacterial sinusitis were evaluated in a double-blind, randomized, prospective, multicenter study comparing levofloxacin 750 mg by mouth once daily for five days to levofloxacin 500 mg by mouth once daily for 10 days.

    Clinical success rates (defined as complete or partial resolution of the pre-treatment signs and symptoms of ABS to such an extent that no further antibiotic treatment was deemed necessary) in the microbiologically evaluable population were 91.4% (139/152) in the levofloxacin 750 mg group and 88.6% (132/149) in the levofloxacin 500 mg group at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit (95% CI [-4.2, 10] for levofloxacin 750 mg minus levofloxacin

    500 mg).

    Rates of clinical success by pathogen in the microbiologically evaluable population who had specimens obtained by antral tap at study entry showed comparable results for the five- and ten-day regimens at the test-of-cure visit 22 days post treatment.


    Table 16: Clinical Success Rate by Pathogen at the TOC in Microbiologically Evaluable Subjects Who Underwent Antral Puncture (Acute Bacterial Sinusitis)
    Pathogen Levofloxacin 750 mg x 5 days Levofloxacin 500 mg x 10 days
    * Note: Forty percent of the subjects in this trial had specimens obtained by sinus endoscopy. The efficacy data for subjects whose specimen was obtained endoscopically were comparable to those presented in the above table.
       Streptococcus pneumoniae*
    25/27 (92.6%)
    26/27 (96.3%)
       Haemophilus influenzae*
    19/21 (90.5%)
    25/27 (92.6%)
       Moraxella catarrhalis*
    10/11 (90.9%)
    13/13 (100%)

    14.5 Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections


    Three hundred ninety-nine patients were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, comparative study for complicated skin and skin structure infections. The patients were randomized to receive either levofloxacin 750 mg once daily (IV followed by oral), or an approved comparator for a median of 10 ± 4.7 days. As is expected in complicated skin and skin structure infections, surgical procedures were performed in the levofloxacin and comparator groups. Surgery (incision and drainage or debridement) was performed on 45% of the levofloxacin-treated patients and 44% of the comparator-treated patients, either shortly before or during antibiotic treatment and formed an integral part of therapy for this indication.

    Among those who could be evaluated clinically 2 to 5 days after completion of study drug, overall success rates (improved or cured) were 116/138 (84.1%) for patients treated with levofloxacin and 106/132 (80.3%) for patients treated with the comparator.

    Success rates varied with the type of diagnosis ranging from 68% in patients with infected ulcers to 90% in patients with infected wounds and abscesses. These rates were equivalent to those seen with comparator drugs.

    14.6 Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis


    Adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of prostatitis and microbiological culture results from urine sample collected after prostatic massage (VB3) or expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) specimens obtained via the Meares-Stamey procedure were enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind study comparing oral levofloxacin 500 mg, once daily for a total of 28 days to oral ciprofloxacin 500 mg, twice daily for a total of 28 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was microbiologic efficacy in microbiologically evaluable patients. A total of 136 and 125 microbiologically evaluable patients were enrolled in the levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin groups, respectively. The microbiologic eradication rate by patient infection at 5 to 18 days after completion of therapy was 75% in the levofloxacin group and 76.8% in the ciprofloxacin group (95% CI [-12.58, 8.98] for levofloxacin minus ciprofloxacin). The overall eradication rates for pathogens of interest are presented in Table 17.


    Table 17: Bacteriological Eradication Rates (Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis)
    Pathogen Levofloxacin (N = 136) Ciprofloxacin (N = 125)
    N Eradication N Eradication
    * Eradication rates shown are for patients who had a sole pathogen only; mixed cultures were excluded.
       E. coli
    15
    14 (93.3%)
    11
    9 (81.8%)
       E. faecalis
    54
    39 (72.2%)
    44
    33 (75%)
       S. epidermidis*
    11
    9 (81.8%)
    14
    11 (78.6%)

    Eradication rates for S. epidermidis when found with other co-pathogens are consistent with rates seen in pure isolates.

    Clinical success (cure + improvement with no need for further antibiotic therapy) rates in microbiologically evaluable population 5 to 18 days after completion of therapy were 75% for levofloxacin-treated patients and 72.8% for ciprofloxacin-treated patients (95% CI [-8.87, 13.27] for levofloxacin minus ciprofloxacin). Clinical long-term success (24 to 45 days after completion of therapy) rates were 66.7% for the levofloxacin-treated patients and 76.9% for the ciprofloxacin-treated patients (95% CI [-23.4, 2.89] for levofloxacin minus ciprofloxacin).

    14.7 Complicated Urinary Tract Infections and Acute Pyelonephritis: 5-day Treatment Regimen


    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the higher dose and shorter course of levofloxacin, 1109 patients with cUTI and AP were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial conducted in the U.S. from November 2004 to April 2006 comparing levofloxacin 750 mg IV or orally once daily for 5 days (546 patients) with ciprofloxacin 400 mg IV or 500 mg orally twice daily for 10 days (563 patients). Patients with AP complicated by underlying renal diseases or conditions such as complete obstruction, surgery, transplantation, concurrent infection or congenital malformation were excluded. Efficacy was measured by bacteriologic eradication of the baseline organism(s) at the post-therapy visit in patients with a pathogen identified at baseline. The post-therapy (test-of-cure) visit occurred 10 to 14 days after the last active dose of levofloxacin and 5 to 9 days after the last dose of active ciprofloxacin.

    The bacteriologic cure rates overall for levofloxacin and control at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit for the group of all patients with a documented pathogen at baseline (modified intent to treat or mITT) and the group of patients in the mITT population who closely followed the protocol (Microbiologically Evaluable) are summarized in Table 18.


    Table 18: Bacteriological Eradication at Test-of-Cure
    a The mITT population included patients who received study medication and who had a positive (≥105 CFU/mL) urine culture with no more than 2 uropathogens at baseline. Patients with missing response were counted as failures in this analysis.
    b The Microbiologically Evaluable population included patients with a confirmed diagnosis of cUTI or AP, a causative organism(s) at baseline present at ≥ 105 CFU/mL, a valid test-of-cure urine culture, no pathogen isolated from blood resistant to study drug, no premature discontinuation or loss to follow-up, and compliance with treatment (among other criteria).
     
    Levofloxacin
    750 mg orally or
    IV once daily
    for 5 days
    Ciprofloxacin
    400 mg IV/500 mg
    orally twice daily
    for 10 days
    Overall Difference
    [95% CI]

    n/N
    %
    n/N
    %
    Levofloxacin-
    Ciprofloxacin
    mITT Populationa
       Overall (cUTI or AP)
    252/333
    75.7
    239/318
    75.2
    0.5 (-6.1, 7.1)
       cUTI
    168/230
    73
    157/213
    73.7
     
       AP
    84/103
    81.6
    82/105
    78.1
     
    Microbiologically Evaluable Populationb
       Overall (cUTI or AP)
    228/265
    86
    215/241
    89.2
    -3.2 [-8.9, 2.5]
       cUTI
    154/185
    83.2
    144/165
    87.3
     
       AP
    74/80
    92.5
    71/76
    93.4
     

    Microbiologic eradication rates in the Microbiologically Evaluable population at TOC for individual pathogens recovered from patients randomized to levofloxacin treatment are presented in Table 19.


    Table 19: Bacteriological Eradication Rates for Individual Pathogens Recovered From Patients Randomized to Levofloxacin 750 mg QD for 5 Days Treatment
    Pathogen Bacteriological
    Eradication Rate (n/N)
    %
    * The predominant organism isolated from patients with AP was E. coli: 91% (63/69) eradication in AP and 89% (92/103) in patients with cUTI.
       Escherichia coli*
    155/172
    90
       Klebsiella pneumoniae
    20/23
    87
       Proteus mirabilis
    12/12
    100

    14.8 Complicated Urinary Tract Infections and Acute Pyelonephritis: 10-day Treatment Regimen


    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the 250 mg dose, 10 day regimen of levofloxacin, 567 patients with uncomplicated UTI, mild-to-moderate cUTI, and mild-to-moderate AP were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial conducted in the U.S. from June 1993 to January 1995 comparing levofloxacin 250 mg orally once daily for 10 days (285 patients) with ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally twice daily for 10 days (282 patients). Patients with a resistant pathogen, recurrent UTI, women over age 55 years, and with an indwelling catheter were initially excluded, prior to protocol amendment which took place after 30% of enrollment. Microbiological efficacy was measured by bacteriologic eradication of the baseline organism(s) at 1 to 12 days post-therapy in patients with a pathogen identified at baseline.

    The bacteriologic cure rates overall for levofloxacin and control at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit for the group of all patients with a documented pathogen at baseline (modified intent to treat or mITT) and the group of patients in the mITT population who closely followed the protocol (Microbiologically Evaluable) are summarized in Table 20.


    Table 20: Bacteriological Eradication Overall (cUTI or AP) at Test-Of-Curea
    a 1 to 9 days posttherapy for 30% of subjects enrolled prior to a protocol amendment; 5 to 12 days posttherapy for 70% of subjects.
    b The mITT population included patients who had a pathogen isolated at baseline. Patients with missing response were counted as failures in this analysis.
    c The Microbiologically Evaluable population included mITT patients who met protocol-specified evaluability criteria.
     
    Levofloxacin
    250 mg once daily
    for 10 days
    Ciprofloxacin
    500 mg twice daily
    for 10 days
    n/N
    %
    n/N
    %
       mITT Populationb
    174/209
    83.3
    184/219
    84
       Microbiologically Evaluable Populationc
    164/177
    92.7
    159/171
    93

    14.9 Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)


    The effectiveness of levofloxacin for this indication is based on plasma concentrations achieved in humans, a surrogate endpoint reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. Levofloxacin has not been tested in humans for the post-exposure prevention of inhalation anthrax. The mean plasma concentrations of levofloxacin associated with a statistically significant improvement in survival over placebo in the rhesus monkey model of inhalational anthrax are reached or exceeded in adult and pediatric patients receiving the recommended oral and intravenous dosage regimens [see Indications and Usage (1.13); Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.2)].

    Levofloxacin pharmacokinetics have been evaluated in adult and pediatric patients. The mean (± SD) steady state peak plasma concentration in human adults receiving 500 mg orally or intravenously once daily is 5.7 ± 1.4 and 6.4 ± 0.8 mcg/mL, respectively; and the corresponding total plasma exposure (AUC0-24) is 47.5 ± 6.7 and  54.6 ± 11.1 mcg•h/mL, respectively. The predicted steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters in pediatric patients ranging in age from 6 months to 17 years receiving 8 mg/kg orally every 12 hours (not to exceed 250 mg per dose) were calculated to be comparable to those observed in adults receiving 500 mg orally once daily [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    In adults, the safety of levofloxacin for treatment durations of up to 28 days is well characterized. However, information pertaining to extended use at 500 mg daily up to 60 days is limited. Prolonged levofloxacin therapy in adults should only be used when the benefit outweighs the risk.

    In pediatric patients, the safety of levofloxacin for treatment durations of more than 14 days has not been studied. An increased incidence of musculoskeletal adverse events (arthralgia, arthritis, tendinopathy, gait abnormality) compared to controls has been observed in clinical studies with treatment duration of up to 14 days. Long-term safety data, including effects on cartilage, following the administration of levofloxacin to pediatric patients is limited [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10), Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].

    A placebo-controlled animal study in rhesus monkeys exposed to an inhaled mean dose of 49 LD50 (~2.7 x 106) spores (range 17 to 118 LD50) of B. anthracis (Ames strain) was conducted. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of levofloxacin for the anthrax strain used in this study was 0.125 mcg/mL. In the animals studied, mean plasma concentrations of levofloxacin achieved at expected Tmax (1 hour post-dose) following oral dosing to steady state ranged from 2.79 to 4.87 mcg/mL. Steady state trough concentrations at 24 hours post-dose ranged from 0.107 to 0.164 mcg/mL. Mean (SD) steady state AUC0-24 was 33.4 ± 3.2 mcg•h/mL (range 30.4 to 36 mcg•h/mL). Mortality due to anthrax for animals that received a 30 day regimen of oral levofloxacin beginning 24 hrs post exposure was significantly lower (1/10), compared to the placebo group (9/10) [P=0.0011, 2-sided Fisher’s Exact Test]. The one levofloxacin treated animal that died of anthrax did so following the 30-day drug administration period.

    14.10 Plague

    Efficacy studies of levofloxacincould not be conducted in humans with pneumonic plague for ethical and feasibility reasons. Therefore, approval of this indication was based on an efficacy study conducted in animals.

    The mean plasma concentrations of levofloxacinassociated with a statistically significant improvement in survival over placebo in an African green monkey model of pneumonic plague are reached or exceeded in adult and pediatric patients receiving the recommended oral and intravenous dosage regimens [see Indications and Usage (1.14)Dosage and Administration (2.1),(2.2)].

    Levofloxacin pharmacokinetics have been evaluated in adult and pediatric patients. The mean (± SD) steady state peak plasma concentration in human adults receiving 500 mg orally or intravenously once daily is 5.7 ± 1.4 and 6.4 ± 0.8 mcg/mL, respectively; and the corresponding total plasma exposure (AUC0-24) is 47.5 ± 6.7 and 54.6 ± 11.1 mcg.h/mL, respectively. The predicted steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters in pediatric patients ranging in age from 6 months to 17 years receiving 8 mg/kg orally every 12 hours (not to exceed 250 mg per dose) were calculated to be comparable to those observed in adults receiving 500 mg orally once daily [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    A placebo-controlled animal study in African green monkeys exposed to an inhaled mean dose of 65 LD50 (range 3 to 145 LD50) of Yersinia pestis (CO92 strain) was conducted. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of levofloxacin for the Y. pestis strain used in this study was 0.03 mcg/mL. Mean plasma concentrations of levofloxacin achieved at the end of a single 30-min infusion ranged from 2.84 to 3.5 mcg/mL in African green monkeys. Trough concentrations at 24 hours post-dose ranged from <0.03 to 0.06 mcg/mL. Mean (SD) AUC0-24 was 11.9 (3.1) mcg.h/mL (range 9.5 to 16.86 mcg.h/mL). Animals were randomized to receive either a 10-day regimen of i.v. levofloxacinor placebo beginning within 6 hrs of the onset of telemetered fever (≥ 39oC for more than 1 hour). Mortality in the levofloxacingroup was significantly lower (1/17) compared to the placebo group (7/7) [p<0.001, Fisher’s Exact Test; exact 95% confidence interval (-99.9%, -55.5%) for the difference in mortality]. One levofloxacin-treated animal was euthanized on Day 9 post-exposure to Y. pestis due to a gastric complication; it had a blood culture positive for Y. pestis on Day 3 and all subsequent daily blood cultures from Day 4 through Day 7 were negative.

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  • 15 REFERENCES


    1. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically. Approved Standard – 9th ed. CLSI Document M7-A9, CLSI, 950 West Valley Rd., Suite 2500, Wayne, PA, 2012.
    2. CLSI. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; 22nd Informational Supplement. CLSI Document M100 – S22, 2012.
    3. CLSI Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests. Approved Standard – 11th ed. CLSI M2-A11, 2012.
    4. CLSI. Methods for Antimicrobial Dilution and Disk Susceptibility Testing of Infrequently Isolated or Fastidious Bacteria; Approved Guideline – 2nd ed. CLSI Document M45-A2, 2010.
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  • 16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

    16.1 Levofloxacin Tablets


    Levofloxacin Tablets, 250 mg are terra pink colored capsule shaped, biconvex film-coated tablets, debossed with ‘13’ on one side and ‘T’ on the other side.

                Bottles of 50                       NDC 59762-0278-2

    Levofloxacin Tablets, 500 mg
    are peach colored capsule shaped, biconvex film-coated tablets, debossed with ‘12’ on one side and ‘T’ on the other side.

                Bottles of 50                       NDC 59762-0279-2

    Levofloxacin Tablets, 750 mg are white capsule shaped, biconvex film-coated tablets, debossed with ‘11’ on one side and ‘T’ on the other side.

                Bottles of 20                       NDC 59762-0280-3

    Store at
    20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature] in well-closed containers.

    Close
  • 17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION


    See FDA-Approved Medication Guide (17.6)

    17.1 Antibacterial Resistance


    Antibacterial drugs including levofloxacin should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When levofloxacin is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by levofloxacin

    or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

    17.2 Administration with Food, Fluids, and Concomitant Medications


    Patients should be informed that levofloxacin tablets may be taken with or without food. The tablet should be taken at the same time each day.

    Patients should drink fluids liberally while taking levofloxacin to avoid formation of a highly concentrated urine and crystal formation in the urine.

    Antacids containing magnesium, or aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc or didanosine should be taken at least two hours before or two hours after oral levofloxacin administration.

    17.3 Serious and Potentially Serious Adverse Reactions


    Patients should be informed of the following serious adverse reactions that have been associated with levofloxacin or other fluoroquinolone use:  



    • Tendon Disorders: Patients should contact their healthcare provider if they experience pain, swelling, or inflammation of a tendon, or weakness or inability to use one of their joints; rest and refrain from exercise; and discontinue levofloxacin treatment. The risk of severe tendon disorders with fluoroquinolones is higher in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants.  
    • Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis: Patients should inform their physician of any history of myasthenia gravis. Patients should notify their physician if they experience any symptoms of muscle weakness, including respiratory difficulties.
    • Hypersensitivity Reactions: Patients should be informed that levofloxacin can cause hypersensitivity reactions, even following the first dose. Patients should discontinue the drug at the first sign of a skin rash, hives or other skin reactions, a rapid heartbeat, difficulty in swallowing or breathing, any swelling suggesting angioedema (e.g., swelling of the lips, tongue, face, tightness of the throat, hoarseness), or other symptoms of an allergic reaction.  
    • Hepatotoxicity: Severe hepatotoxicity (including acute hepatitis and fatal events) has been reported in patients taking levofloxacin. Patients should inform their physician and be instructed to discontinue levofloxacin treatment immediately if they experience any signs or symptoms of liver injury including: loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fever, weakness, tiredness, right upper quadrant tenderness, itching, yellowing of the skin and eyes, light colored bowel movements or dark colored urine.  
    • Convulsions: Convulsions have been reported in patients taking fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin. Patients should notify their physician before taking this drug if they have a history of convulsions.  
    • Neurologic Adverse Effects (e.g., dizziness, lightheadedness, increased intracranial pressure): Patients should know how they react to levofloxacin before they operate an automobile or machinery or engage in other activities requiring mental alertness and coordination. Patients should notify their physician if persistent headache with or without blurred vision occurs.  
    • Diarrhea: Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.  
    • Peripheral Neuropathies: If symptoms of peripheral neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness develop, patients should discontinue treatment and contact their physician.  
    • Prolongation of the QT Interval: Patients should inform their physician of any personal or family history of QT prolongation or proarrhythmic conditions such as hypokalemia, bradycardia, or recent myocardial ischemia; if they are taking any Class IA (quinidine, procainamide), or Class III (amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents. Patients should notify their physicians if they have any symptoms of prolongation of the QT interval, including prolonged heart palpitations or a loss of consciousness. 
    • Musculoskeletal Disorders in Pediatric Patients: Parents should inform their child's physician if their child has a history of joint-related problems before taking this drug. Parents of pediatric patients should also notify their child's physician of any tendon or joint-related problems that occur during or following levofloxacin therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10) and Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].  
    • Photosensitivity/Phototoxicity: Patients should be advised that photosensitivity/phototoxicity has been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Patients should minimize or avoid exposure to natural or artificial sunlight (tanning beds or UVA/B treatment) while taking fluoroquinolones. If patients need to be outdoors when taking fluoroquinolones, they should wear loose-fitting clothes that protect skin from sun exposure and discuss other sun protection measures with their physician. If a sunburn like reaction or skin eruption occurs, patients should contact their physician.

    17.4 Drug Interactions with Insulin, Oral Hypoglycemic Agents, and Warfarin


    Patients should be informed that if they are diabetic and are being treated with insulin or an oral hypoglycemic agent and a hypoglycemic reaction occurs, they should discontinue levofloxacin and consult a physician.

    Patients should be informed that concurrent administration of warfarin and levofloxacin

    has been associated with increases of the International Normalized Ratio (INR) or prothrombin time and clinical episodes of bleeding. Patients should notify their physician if they are taking warfarin, be monitored for evidence of bleeding, and also have their anticoagulation tests closely monitored while taking warfarin concomitantly.

    17.5 Plague and Anthrax Studies


    Patients given levofloxacin

    for these conditions should be informed that efficacy studies could not be conducted in humans for ethical and feasibility reasons. Therefore, approval for these conditions was based on efficacy studies conducted in animals.

    GREENSTONE® BRAND

    Distributed by:
    Greenstone LLC
    Peapack, NJ 07977

    Code No.: DRUGS/AP/22/2009

    Revised: 06/2012

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  • 17.6 FDA-Approved Medication Guide


    MEDICATION GUIDE

    Levofloxacin Tablets

    Read this Medication Guide before you start taking levofloxacin tablets and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This Medication Guide does not take the place of talking to your healthcare provider about your medical condition or your treatment.

    What is the most important information I should know about levofloxacin tablets?

    Levofloxacin tablets, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, can cause serious side effects. Some of these serious side effects could result in death
    .

    If you have any of the following serious side effects while you take levofloxacin tablets, get medical help right away. Talk with your healthcare provider about whether you should continue to take levofloxacin tablets.

    1.  Tendon rupture or swelling of the tendon (tendinitis).


    • Tendon problems can happen in people of all ages who take levofloxacin tablets. Tendons are tough cords of tissue that connect muscles to bones.

    Some tendon problems include pain, swelling, tears, and inflammation of tendons including the back of the ankle (Achilles), shoulder, hand, or other tendon sites.


    • The risk of getting tendon problems while you take levofloxacin tablets are higher if you: 
      • are over 60 years of age
      • are taking steroids (corticosteroids)
      • have had a kidney, heart or lung transplant. 
    • Tendon problems can happen in people who do not have the above risk factors when they take levofloxacin tablets.
    • Other reasons that can increase your risk of tendon problems can include: 
      • physical activity or exercise
      • kidney failure
      • tendon problems in the past, such as in people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) 
    • Call your healthcare provider right away at the first sign of tendon pain, swelling or inflammation. Stop taking levofloxacin tablets until tendinitis or tendon rupture has been ruled out by your healthcare provider. Avoid exercise and using the affected area.

    The most common area of pain and swelling is the Achilles tendon at the back of your ankle. This can also happen with other tendons. Talk to your healthcare provider about the risk of tendon rupture with continued use of levofloxacin tablets. You may need a different antibiotic that is not a fluoroquinolone to treat your infection.


    • Tendon rupture can happen while you are taking or after you have finished taking levofloxacin tablets. Tendon ruptures have happened up to several months after people have finished taking their fluoroquinolone.
    • Get medical help right away if you get any of the following signs or symptoms of a tendon rupture:
      • hear or feel a snap or pop in a tendon area
      • bruising right after an injury in a tendon area
      • unable to move the affected area or bear weight

    2.  Worsening of myasthenia gravis (a problem that causes muscle weakness). Fluoroquinolones like levofloxacin tablets may cause worsening of myasthenia gravis symptoms, including muscle weakness and breathing problems. Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any worsening muscle weakness or breathing problems.


    • See “What are the possible side effects of levofloxacin tablets?”

    What are levofloxacin tablets?

    Levofloxacin tablets are a fluoroquinolone antibiotic medicine used in adults age 18 years or older to treat certain infections caused by certain germs called bacteria. These bacterial infections include:



    • nosocomial pneumonia
    • community-acquired pneumonia
    • acute sinus infection
    • acute worsening of chronic bronchitis
    • skin infections, complicated and uncomplicated
    • chronic prostate infection
    • urinary tract infections, complicated and uncomplicated
    • acute kidney infection (pyelonephritis)
    • inhalational anthrax
    • plague

    Studies of levofloxacin tablets for use in the treatment of plague and anthrax were done in animals only, because plague and anthrax could not be studied in people.

    Levofloxacin tablets are also used to treat children who are 6 months of age or older and may have breathed in anthrax germs, have plague, or been exposed to plague germs.

    It is not known if levofloxacin tablets are safe and effective in children under 6 months of age.

    The safety and effectiveness in children treated with levofloxacin tablets for more than 14 days is not known.

    Who should not take levofloxacin tablets?

    Do not take levofloxacin tablets if you have ever had a severe allergic reaction to an antibiotic known as a fluoroquinolone, or if you are allergic to levofloxacin or any of the ingredients in levofloxacin tablets. See the end of this leaflet for a complete list of ingredients in levofloxacin tablets.

    What should I tell my healthcare provider before taking levofloxacin tablets?

    Before you take levofloxacin tablets, tell your healthcare provider if you:
      

    • have tendon problems
    • have a problem that causes muscle weakness (myasthenia gravis)
    • have central nervous system problems such as seizures (epilepsy)
    • have nerve problems
    • have or anyone in your family has an irregular heartbeat, especially a condition called “QT prolongation”
    • have low blood potassium (hypokalemia)
    • have bone problems
    • have joint problems including rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
    • have kidney problems. You may need a lower dose of levofloxacin tablets if your kidneys do not work well.
    • have liver problems
    • have diabetes or problems with low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
    • are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. It is not known if levofloxacin tablets will harm your unborn child.
    • are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if levofloxacin passes into your breast milk. You and your healthcare provider should decide if you will take levofloxacin tablets or breastfeed. You should not do both.

    Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements.

    Levofloxacin tablets and other medicines can affect each other causing side effects.

    Especially tell your healthcare provider if you take: 


    • a steroid medicine
    • an anti-psychotic medicine
    • a tricyclic antidepressant
    • a water pill (diuretic)
    • certain medicines may keep levofloxacin tablets from working correctly. Take levofloxacin tablets either 2 hours before or 2 hours after taking these medicines or supplements:
      • an antacid, multivitamin, or other medicines or supplements that have magnesium, aluminum, iron, or zinc
      • sucralfate (Carafate®)
      • didanosine (Videx®,Videx®EC) 
    • a blood thinner (warfarin, Coumadin, Jantoven)
    • an oral anti-diabetes medicine or insulin
    • an NSAID (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug). Many common medicines for pain relief are NSAIDs. Taking an NSAID while you take levofloxacin tablets or other fluoroquinolones may increase your risk of central nervous system effects and seizures.
    • theophylline (Theo-24®, Elixophyllin®, Theochron®, Uniphyl®, Theolair®)
    • a medicine to control your heart rate or rhythm (antiarrhythmics)

    Ask your healthcare provider if you are not sure if any of your medicines are listed above. 

    Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of your medicines and show it to your healthcare provider and pharmacist when you get a new medicine.

    How should I take levofloxacin tablets?
     

    • Take levofloxacin tablets exactly as your healthcare provider tells you to take them.
    • Take levofloxacin tablets at about the same time each day.
    • Drink plenty of fluids while you take levofloxacin tablets.
    • Levofloxacin tablets can be taken with or without food.
    • If you miss a dose of levofloxacin tablets, take it as soon as you remember. Do not take more than 1 dose in 1 day.
    • Do not skip any doses of levofloxacin tablets or stop taking them, even if you begin to feel better, until you finish your prescribed treatment unless:
      • you have tendon problems. See “What is the most important information I should know about levofloxacin tablets?”.
      • you have a serious allergic reaction. See “What are the possible side effects of levofloxacin tablets?”.
      • your healthcare provider tells you to stop taking levofloxacin tablets.

    Taking all of your levofloxacin tablets doses will help make sure that all of the bacteria are killed. Taking all of your levofloxacin tablets doses will help you lower the chance that the bacteria will become resistant to levofloxacin tablets. If your infection does not get better while you take levofloxacin tablets, it may mean that the bacteria causing your infection may be resistant to levofloxacin tablets. If your infection does not get better, call your healthcare provider. If your infection does not get better, levofloxacin tablets and other similar antibiotic medicines may not work for you in the future.


    • If you take too much levofloxacin, call your healthcare provider or get medical help right away.

    What should I avoid while taking levofloxacin tablets? 

    • Levofloxacin tablets can make you feel dizzy and lightheaded. Do not drive, operate machinery, or do other activities that require mental alertness or coordination until you know how levofloxacin tablets affect you.
    • Avoid sunlamps, tanning beds, and try to limit your time in the sun. Levofloxacin tablets can make your skin sensitive to the sun (photosensitivity) and the light from sunlamps and tanning beds. You could get severe sunburn, blisters or swelling of your skin. If you get any of these symptoms while you take levofloxacin tablets, call your healthcare provider right away. You should use a sunscreen and wear a hat and clothes that cover your skin if you have to be in sunlight.

    What are the possible side effects of levofloxacin tablets?

    Levofloxacin tablets can cause serious side effects, including:


    • See “What is the most important information I should know about levofloxacin tablets?”
    • Serious allergic reactions.

    Allergic reactions can happen in people taking fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin tablets, even after only 1 dose. Stop taking levofloxacin tablets and get emergency medical help right away if you have any of the following symptoms of a severe allergic reaction:


    • hives
    • trouble breathing or swallowing
    • swelling of the lips, tongue, face
    • throat tightness, hoarseness
    • rapid heartbeat
    • faint
    • skin rash

    Skin rash may happen in people taking levofloxacin tablets, even after only 1 dose. Stop taking levofloxacin tablets at the first sign of a skin rash and call your healthcare provider. Skin rash may be a sign of a more serious reaction to levofloxacin tablets.

    Liver damage (hepatotoxicity): Hepatotoxicity can happen in people who take levofloxacin tablets. Call your healthcare provider right away if you have unexplained symptoms such as:


    • nausea or vomiting
    • stomach pain
    • fever
    • weakness
    • abdominal pain or tenderness
    • itching
    • unusual tiredness
    • loss of appetite
    • light colored bowel movements
    • dark colored urine
    • yellowing of your skin or the whites of your eyes

    Stop taking levofloxacin tablets and tell your healthcare provider right away if you have yellowing of your skin or white part of your eyes, or if you have dark urine. These can be signs of a serious reaction to levofloxacin tablets (a liver problem).


    • Central Nervous System Effects. Seizures have been reported in people who take fluoroquinolone antibiotics including levofloxacin tablets. Tell your healthcare provider if you have a history of seizures. Ask your healthcare provider whether taking levofloxacin tablets will change your risk of having a seizure. 

    Central Nervous System (CNS) side effects may happen as soon as after taking the first dose of levofloxacin tablets. Talk to your healthcare provider right away if you get any of these side effects, or other changes in mood or behavior: 

    • seizures
    • hear voices, see things, or sense things that are not there (hallucinations)
    • feel restless
    • tremors
    • feel anxious or nervous
    • confusion
    • depression
    • trouble sleeping
    • nightmares
    • feel lightheaded
    • feel more suspicious (paranoia)
    • suicidal thoughts or acts
    • a headache that will not go away, with or without blurred vision.

            

    • Intestine infection (Pseudomembranous colitis)

    Pseudomembranous colitis can happen with many antibiotics, including levofloxacin tablets. Call your healthcare provider right away if you get watery diarrhea, diarrhea that does not go away, or bloody stools. You may have stomach cramps and a fever. Pseudomembranous colitis can happen 2 or more months after you have finished your antibiotic.


    • Changes in sensation and possible nerve damage (Peripheral Neuropathy)

    Damage to the nerves in arms, hands, legs, or feet can happen in people taking fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin tablets. Talk with your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following symptoms of peripheral neuropathy in your arms, hands, legs, or feet:


    • pain
    • burning
    • tingling
    • numbness
    • weakness

    Levofloxacin tablets may need to be stopped to prevent permanent nerve damage.


    • Serious heart rhythm changes (QT prolongation and torsades de pointes)

    Tell your healthcare provider right away if you have a change in your heart beat (a fast or irregular heartbeat), or if you faint. Levofloxacin tablets may cause a rare heart problem known as prolongation of the QT interval. This condition can cause an abnormal heartbeat and can be very dangerous. The chances of this happening are higher in people:


    • who are elderly
    • with a family history of prolonged QT interval
    • with low blood potassium (hypokalemia)
    • who take certain medicines to control heart rhythm (antiarrhythmics)

    • Joint Problems

    Increased chance of problems with joints and tissues around joints in children can happen. Tell your child’s healthcare provider if your child has any joint problems during or after treatment with levofloxacin tablets.


    • Changes in blood sugar

    People who take levofloxacin tablets and other fluoroquinolone medicines with oral anti-diabetes medicines or with insulin can get low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and high blood sugar (hyperglycemia). Follow your healthcare provider’s instructions for how often to check your blood sugar. If you have diabetes and you get low blood sugar while taking levofloxacin tablets, stop taking levofloxacin tablets and call your healthcare provider right away. Your antibiotic medicine may need to be changed.


    • Sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity)

    See “What should I avoid while taking levofloxacin tablets?”

    The most common side effects of levofloxacin tablets include:


    • nausea
    • headache
    • diarrhea
    • insomnia
    • constipation
    • dizziness

    In children 6 months and older who take levofloxacin tablets to treat anthrax disease or plague, vomiting is also common. 

    Tell your healthcare provider if you feel dizzy or faint during a treatment with levofloxacin tablets. 

    Levofloxacin tablets may cause false-positive urine screening results for opiates when testing is done with some commercially available kits. A positive result should be confirmed using a more specific test. 

    These are not all the possible side effects of levofloxacin tablets. Tell your healthcare provider about any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away. 

    Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. 

    How should I store levofloxacin tablets?


    • Store levofloxacin tablets at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
    • Keep levofloxacin tablets in a tightly closed container.

    Keep levofloxacin tablets and all medicines out of the reach of children.

    General information about the safe and effective use of levofloxacin tablets
     
    Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use levofloxacin tablets for a condition for which it is not prescribed. Do not give levofloxacin tablets to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. They may harm them. 

    This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about levofloxacin tablets. If you would like more information about levofloxacin tablets, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for information about levofloxacin tablets that is written for healthcare professionals.

    For more information call 1-800-438-1985.

    What are the ingredients in levofloxacin tablets? 
     
    Active ingredient: levofloxacin   

    Inactive ingredients: croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol 400, polysorbate 80, and titanium dioxide. In addition 250 mg contains iron oxide red and 500 mg contains iron oxide red and iron oxide yellow

    This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

    GREENSTONE® BRAND
    Distributed by:
    Greenstone LLC
    Peapack, NJ 07977

    Code No.: DRUGS/AP/22/2009

    Revised: 06/2012

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  • PACKAGE LABEL-PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 250 mg (50 Tablet Bottle)


    NDC 59762-0278-2
    50 Tablets
    GREENSTONE® BRAND
    Once-a-day
    levofloxacin tablets
    250 mg
    ATTENTION PHARMACIST: Dispense the
    accompanying Medication Guide to each patient
    Rx only


    PACKAGE LABEL-PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 250 mg (50 Tablet Bottle)
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  • PACKAGE LABEL-PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 500 mg (50 Tablet Bottle)


    NDC 59762-0279-2
    50 Tablets
    GREENSTONE® BRAND
    Once-a-day
    levofloxacin tablets
    500 mg
    ATTENTION PHARMACIST: Dispense the
    accompanying Medication Guide to each patient
    Rx only


    PACKAGE LABEL-PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 500 mg (50 Tablet Bottle)
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  • PACKAGE LABEL-PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 750 mg (20 Tablet Bottle)


    NDC 59762-0280-3
    20 Tablets
    GREENSTONE® BRAND
    Once-a-day
    levofloxacin tablets
    750 mg
    ATTENTION PHARMACIST: Dispense the
    accompanying Medication Guide to each patient
    Rx only 


    PACKAGE LABEL-PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 750 mg (20 Tablet Bottle)
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  • INGREDIENTS AND APPEARANCE
    LEVOFLOXACIN 
    levofloxacin tablet, film coated
    Product Information
    Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:59762-0278
    Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule     
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
    LEVOFLOXACIN (LEVOFLOXACIN ANHYDROUS) LEVOFLOXACIN ANHYDROUS 250 mg
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient Name Strength
    CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM  
    HYPROMELLOSE 2910 (5 MPA.S)  
    HYPROMELLOSE 2910 (6 MPA.S)  
    MAGNESIUM STEARATE  
    CELLULOSE, MICROCRYSTALLINE  
    POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 400  
    POLYSORBATE 80  
    TITANIUM DIOXIDE  
    FERRIC OXIDE RED  
    Product Characteristics
    Color PINK (Terra Pink) Score no score
    Shape CAPSULE (Biconvex) Size 15mm
    Flavor Imprint Code 13;T
    Contains     
    Packaging
    # Item Code Package Description Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    1 NDC:59762-0278-2 50 in 1 BOTTLE
    Marketing Information
    Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    ANDA ANDA201043 06/20/2011 02/28/2015
    LEVOFLOXACIN 
    levofloxacin tablet, film coated
    Product Information
    Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:59762-0279
    Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule     
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
    LEVOFLOXACIN (LEVOFLOXACIN ANHYDROUS) LEVOFLOXACIN ANHYDROUS 500 mg
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient Name Strength
    CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM  
    HYPROMELLOSE 2910 (5 MPA.S)  
    HYPROMELLOSE 2910 (6 MPA.S)  
    MAGNESIUM STEARATE  
    CELLULOSE, MICROCRYSTALLINE  
    POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 400  
    POLYSORBATE 80  
    TITANIUM DIOXIDE  
    FERRIC OXIDE RED  
    FERRIC OXIDE YELLOW  
    Product Characteristics
    Color ORANGE (Peach) Score no score
    Shape CAPSULE (Biconvex) Size 19mm
    Flavor Imprint Code 12;T
    Contains     
    Packaging
    # Item Code Package Description Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    1 NDC:59762-0279-2 50 in 1 BOTTLE
    Marketing Information
    Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    ANDA ANDA201043 06/20/2011 04/30/2015
    LEVOFLOXACIN 
    levofloxacin tablet, film coated
    Product Information
    Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:59762-0280
    Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule     
    Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
    Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
    LEVOFLOXACIN (LEVOFLOXACIN ANHYDROUS) LEVOFLOXACIN ANHYDROUS 750 mg
    Inactive Ingredients
    Ingredient Name Strength
    CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM  
    HYPROMELLOSE 2910 (5 MPA.S)  
    HYPROMELLOSE 2910 (6 MPA.S)  
    MAGNESIUM STEARATE  
    CELLULOSE, MICROCRYSTALLINE  
    POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 400  
    POLYSORBATE 80  
    TITANIUM DIOXIDE  
    Product Characteristics
    Color WHITE Score no score
    Shape CAPSULE (Biconvex) Size 22mm
    Flavor Imprint Code 11;T
    Contains     
    Packaging
    # Item Code Package Description Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    1 NDC:59762-0280-3 20 in 1 BOTTLE
    Marketing Information
    Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
    ANDA ANDA201043 06/20/2011 01/31/2015
    Labeler - Greenstone LLC (825560733)
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