Zometa® (zoledronic acid) injection
HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
These highlights do not include all the information needed to use zometa safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for zometa.
zometa (zoledronic acidinjection, solution, concentrate for intravenous use
Initial U.S. Approval: 2001

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Zometa is a bisphosphonate indicated for the treatment of:

  • Hypercalcemia of malignancy (1.1)
  • Patients with multiple myeloma and patients with documented bone metastases from solid tumors, in conjunction with standard antineoplastic therapy. Prostate cancer should have progressed after treatment with at least one hormonal therapy (1.2)

Important limitation of use: The safety and efficacy of Zometa has not been established for use in hyperparathyroidism or nontumor-related hypercalcemia (1.3)


DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Hypercalcemia of malignancy (2.1)

  • 4 mg as a single-dose intravenous infusion over no less than 15 minutes
  • 4 mg as retreatment after a minimum of 7 days

Multiple myeloma and bone metastasis from solid tumors (2.2)

  • 4 mg as a single-dose intravenous infusion over no less than 15 minutes every 3-4 weeks for patients with creatinine clearance of >60 mL/min
  • Reduce the dose for patients with renal impairment
  • Coadminister oral calcium supplements of 500 mg and a multiple vitamin containing 400 IU of Vitamin D daily.

Administer through a separate vented infusion line and do not allow to come in contact with any calcium or divalent cation-containing solutions (2.3)


DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

4 mg/5 mL single-dose vials (3)


CONTRAINDICATIONS

Hypersensitivity to any component of Zometa (4)


WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Patients being treated with Zometa should not be treated with Reclast® (5.1)
  • Adequately rehydrate patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy prior to administration of Zometa and monitor electrolytes during treatment (5.2)
  • Renal toxicity may be greater in patients with renal impairment. Do not use doses greater than 4 mg. Treatment in patients with severe renal impairment is not recommended. Monitor serum creatinine before each dose (5.3)
  • Osteonecrosis of the jaw has been reported. Preventive dental exams should be performed before starting Zometa. Avoid invasive dental procedures (5.4)
  • Zometa can cause fetal harm. Women of childbearing potential should be advised of the potential hazard to the fetus and to avoid becoming pregnant (5.5, 8.1)
  • Severe incapacitating bone, joint, muscle pain may occur. Discontinue Zometa if severe symptoms occur (5.6)

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The most common adverse events (>25%) were nausea, fatigue, anemia, bone pain, constipation, fever, vomiting, and dyspnea (6.1)



To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation at 1-888-669-6682 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch


DRUG INTERACTIONS

  • Aminoglycosides: May have an additive effect to lower serum calcium for prolonged periods (7.1)
  • Loop diuretics: Concomitant use with Zometa may increase risk of hypocalcemia (7.2)
  • Nephrotoxic drugs: Use with caution (7.3)
  • Thalidomide: Combination use in patients with multiple myeloma may increase the risk of renal dysfunction (7.4)

USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

  • Nursing Mothers: Zometa should not be given to nursing women (8.2)
  • Pediatric Use: Not indicated for use in pediatric patients (8.4)
  • Geriatric Use: Special care to monitor renal function (8.5)

Revised: March 2008



See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Revised: 05/2008

FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS*
* Sections or subsections omitted from the full prescribing information are not listed

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Hypercalcemia of Malignancy

1.2 Multiple Myeloma and Bone Metastases of Solid Tumors

1.3 Important Limitation of Use

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Hypercalcemia of Malignancy

2.2. Multiple Myeloma and Metastatic Bone Lesions of Solid Tumors

2.3. Preparation of Solution

2.4. Method of Administration

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

4.1 Hypersensitivity to Zoledronic Acid or Any Components of Zometa

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Drugs with Same Active Ingredient

5.2 Hydration and Electrolyte Monitoring

5.3 Renal Impairment

5.4 Osteonecrosis of the Jaw

5.5 Pregnancy

5.6 Musculoskeletal Pain

5.7 Patients with Asthma

5.8 Hepatic Impairment

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Studies Experience

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Aminoglycosides

7.2 Loop Diuretics

7.3 Nephrotoxic Drugs

7.4 Thalidomide

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

8.3 Nursing Mothers

8.4 Pediatric Use

8.5 Geriatric Use

10 OVERDOSAGE

11 DESCRIPTION

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 Hypercalcemia of Malignancy

14.2 Clinical Trials in Multiple Myeloma and Bone Metastases of Solid Tumors

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION


FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Hypercalcemia of Malignancy

Zometa is indicated for the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy defined as an albumin-corrected calcium (cCa) of >12 mg/dL [3.0 mmol/L] using the formula: cCa in mg/dL=Ca in mg/dL + 0.8 (mid-range of measured albumin in mg/dL).

1.2 Multiple Myeloma and Bone Metastases of Solid Tumors

Zometa is indicated for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma and patients with documented bone metastases from solid tumors, in conjunction with standard antineoplastic therapy. Prostate cancer should have progressed after treatment with at least one hormonal therapy.

1.3 Important Limitation of Use

The safety and efficacy of Zometa in the treatment of hypercalcemia associated with hyperparathyroidism or with other nontumor-related conditions has not been established.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

2.1 Hypercalcemia of Malignancy

The maximum recommended dose of Zometa in hypercalcemia of malignancy (albumin-corrected serum calcium ≥12 mg/dL [3.0 mmol/L]) is 4 mg. The 4-mg dose must be given as a single-dose intravenous infusion over no less than 15 minutes. Patients who receive Zometa should have serum creatinine assessed prior to each treatment.

      Dose adjustments of Zometa are not necessary in treating patients for hypercalcemia of malignancy presenting with mild-to-moderate renal impairment prior to initiation of therapy (serum creatinine <400 µmol/L or <4.5 mg/dL).

      Patients should be adequately rehydrated prior to administration of Zometa [see Warnings And Precautions (5.2)].

      Consideration should be given to the severity of, as well as the symptoms of, tumor-induced hypercalcemia when considering use of Zometa. Vigorous saline hydration, an integral part of hypercalcemia therapy, should be initiated promptly and an attempt should be made to restore the urine output to about 2 L/day throughout treatment. Mild or asymptomatic hypercalcemia may be treated with conservative measures (i.e., saline hydration, with or without loop diuretics). Patients should be hydrated adequately throughout the treatment, but overhydration, especially in those patients who have cardiac failure, must be avoided. Diuretic therapy should not be employed prior to correction of hypovolemia.

      Retreatment with Zometa 4 mg may be considered if serum calcium does not return to normal or remain normal after initial treatment. It is recommended that a minimum of 7 days elapse before retreatment, to allow for full response to the initial dose. Renal function must be carefully monitored in all patients receiving Zometa and serum creatinine must be assessed prior to retreatment with Zometa [see Warnings And Precautions (5.2)].

2.2. Multiple Myeloma and Metastatic Bone Lesions of Solid Tumors

The recommended dose of Zometa in patients with multiple myeloma and metastatic bone lesions from solid tumors for patients with creatinine clearance >60 mL/min is 4 mg infused over no less than 15 minutes every 3-4 weeks. The optimal duration of therapy is not known.

      Upon treatment initiation, the recommended Zometa doses for patients with reduced renal function (mild and moderate renal impairment) are listed in Table 1. These doses are calculated to achieve the same AUC as that achieved in patients with creatinine clearance of 75 mL/min. Creatinine clearance (CrCl) is calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault formula [see Warnings And Precautions (5.2)].

Table 1: Reduced Doses for Patients with Baseline CrCl <60 mL/min
Baseline Creatinine Clearance (mL/min)Zometa Recommended Dose*
>604 mg
50 - 603.5 mg
40 - 493.3 mg
30 - 393 mg
*Doses calculated assuming target AUC of 0.66(mg•hr/L) (CrCl = 75 mL/min)

      During treatment, serum creatinine should be measured before each Zometa dose and treatment should be withheld for renal deterioration. In the clinical studies, renal deterioration was defined as follows:

      For patients with normal baseline creatinine, increase of 0.5 mg/dL

      For patients with abnormal baseline creatinine, increase of 1.0 mg/dL

      In the clinical studies, Zometa treatment was resumed only when the creatinine returned to within 10% of the baseline value. Zometa should be reinitiated at the same dose as that prior to treatment interruption.

      Patients should also be administered an oral calcium supplement of 500 mg and a multiple vitamin containing 400 IU of Vitamin D daily.

2.3. Preparation of Solution

4 mg Dose

Vials of Zometa concentrate for infusion contain overfill allowing for the withdrawal of 5 mL of concentrate (equivalent to 4 mg zoledronic acid). This concentrate should immediately be diluted in 100 mL of sterile 0.9% Sodium Chloride, USP, or 5% Dextrose Injection, USP. Do not store undiluted concentrate in a syringe, to avoid inadvertent injection.

Preparing Reduced Doses for Patients with Baseline CrCl ≤60 mL/min

Withdraw the appropriate volume of the Zometa concentrate from the vial for the dose required (see Table 2).

Table 2: Preparation of Reduced Doses
Zometa Volume (mL)Dose (mg)
4.43.5
4.13.3
3.83.0

      The withdrawn concentrate must be diluted in 100 mL of sterile 0.9% Sodium Chloride, USP, or 5% Dextrose Injection, USP.

For All Prepared Doses

If not used immediately after dilution with infusion media, for microbiological integrity, the solution should be refrigerated at 2°C-8°C (36°F-46°F). The refrigerated solution should then be equilibrated to room temperature prior to administration. The total time between dilution, storage in the refrigerator, and end of administration must not exceed 24 hours.

     Zometa must not be mixed with calcium or other divalent cation-containing infusion solutions, such as Lactated Ringer’s solution, and should be administered as a single intravenous solution in a line separate from all other drugs.

2.4. Method of Administration

Due to the risk of clinically significant deterioration in renal function, which may progress to renal failure, single doses of Zometa should not exceed 4 mg and the duration of infusion should be no less than 15 minutes [see Warnings And Precautions (5.2)]. In the trials and in postmarketing experience, renal deterioration, progression to renal failure and dialysis, have occurred in patients, including those treated with the approved dose of 4 mg infused over 15 minutes. There have been instances of this occurring after the initial Zometa dose.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

4 mg/5 mL single-dose vial

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

4.1 Hypersensitivity to Zoledronic Acid or Any Components of Zometa

Hypersensitivity reactions including rare cases of urticaria and angioedema, and very rare cases of anaphylactic reaction/shock have been reported [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Drugs with Same Active Ingredient

Zometa contains the same active ingredient as found in Reclast® (zoledronic acid). Patients being treated with Zometa should not be treated with Reclast.

5.2 Hydration and Electrolyte Monitoring

Patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy must be adequately rehydrated prior to administration of Zometa. Loop diuretics should not be used until the patient is adequately rehydrated and should be used with caution in combination with Zometa in order to avoid hypocalcemia. Zometa should be used with caution with other nephrotoxic drugs.

      Standard hypercalcemia-related metabolic parameters, such as serum levels of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium, as well as serum creatinine, should be carefully monitored following initiation of therapy with Zometa. If hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, or hypomagnesemia occur, short-term supplemental therapy may be necessary.

5.3 Renal Impairment

Zometa is excreted intact primarily via the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions, in particular renal adverse reactions, may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Safety and pharmacokinetic data are limited in patients with severe renal impairment and the risk of renal deterioration is increased [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Preexisting renal insufficiency and multiple cycles of Zometa and other bisphosphonates are risk factors for subsequent renal deterioration with Zometa. Factors predisposing to renal deterioration, such as dehydration or the use of other nephrotoxic drugs, should be identified and managed, if possible.

      Zometa treatment in patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy with severe renal impairment should be considered only after evaluating the risks and benefits of treatment. In the clinical studies, patients with serum creatinine >400 µmol/L or >4.5 mg/dL were excluded.

      Zometa treatment is not recommended in patients with bone metastases with severe renal impairment. In the clinical studies, patients with serum creatinine >265 µmol/L or >3.0 mg/dL were excluded and there were only 8 of 564 patients treated with Zometa 4 mg by 15-minute infusion with a baseline creatinine >2 mg/dL. Limited pharmacokinetic data exists in patients with creatinine clearance <30 mL/min [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

5.4 Osteonecrosis of the Jaw

Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has been reported predominantly in cancer patients treated with intravenous bisphosphonates, including Zometa. Many of these patients were also receiving chemotherapy and corticosteroids which may be risk factors for ONJ. Postmarketing experience and the literature suggest a greater frequency of reports of ONJ based on tumor type (advanced breast cancer, multiple myeloma), and dental status (dental extraction, periodontal disease, local trauma including poorly fitting dentures). Many reports of ONJ involved patients with signs of local infection including osteomyelitis.

      Cancer patients should maintain good oral hygiene and should have a dental examination with preventive dentistry prior to treatment with bisphosphonates.

      While on treatment, these patients should avoid invasive dental procedures if possible. For patients who develop ONJ while on bisphosphonate therapy, dental surgery may exacerbate the condition. For patients requiring dental procedures, there are no data available to suggest whether discontinuation of bisphosphonate treatment reduces the risk of ONJ. Clinical judgment of the treating physician should guide the management plan of each patient based on individual benefit/risk assessment [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

5.5 Pregnancy

ZOMETA SHOULD NOT BE USED DURING PREGNANCY. Zometa may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. In reproductive studies in the pregnant rat, subcutaneous doses equivalent to 2.4 or 4.8 times the human systemic exposure (an IV dose if 4 mg based on an AUC comparison) resulted in pre- and postimplantation losses, decreases in viable fetuses and fetal skeletal, visceral, and external malformations. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus [see Use In Specific Populations (8.1)].

5.6 Musculoskeletal Pain

In postmarketing experience, severe and occasionally incapacitating bone, joint, and/or muscle pain has been reported in patients taking bisphosphonates. This category of drugs includes Zometa. The time to onset of symptoms varied from one day to several months after starting the drug. Discontinue use if severe symptoms develop. Most patients had relief of symptoms after stopping. A subset had recurrence of symptoms when rechallenged with the same drug or another bisphosphonate [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

5.7 Patients with Asthma

While not observed in clinical trials with Zometa, there have been reports of bronchoconstriction in aspirin sensitive patients receiving bisphosphonates.

5.8 Hepatic Impairment

Only limited clinical data are available for use of Zometa to treat hypercalcemia of malignancy in patients with hepatic insufficiency, and these data are not adequate to provide guidance on dosage selection or how to safely use Zometa in these patients.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Studies Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Hypercalcemia of Malignancy

The safety of Zometa was studied in 185 patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM) who received either Zometa 4 mg given as a 5-minute intravenous infusion (n=86) or pamidronate 90 mg given as a 2-hour intravenous infusion (n=103). The population was aged 33-84 years, 60% male and 81% Caucasian, with breast, lung, head and neck, and renal cancer as the most common forms of malignancy. NOTE: pamidronate 90 mg was given as a 2-hour intravenous infusion. The relative safety of pamidronate 90 mg given as a 2-hour intravenous infusion compared to the same dose given as a 24-hour intravenous infusion has not been adequately studied in controlled clinical trials.

Renal Toxicity

Administration of Zometa 4 mg given as a 5-minute intravenous infusion has been shown to result in an increased risk of renal toxicity, as measured by increases in serum creatinine, which can progress to renal failure. The incidence of renal toxicity and renal failure has been shown to be reduced when Zometa 4 mg is given as a 15-minute intravenous infusion. Zometa should be administered by intravenous infusion over no less than 15 minutes [see Warnings And Precautions (5) and Dosage And Administration (2)].

      The most frequently observed adverse events were fever, nausea, constipation, anemia, and dyspnea (see Table 3).

      Table 3 provides adverse events that were reported by 10% or more of the 189 patients treated with Zometa 4 mg or Pamidronate 90 mg from the two HCM trials. Adverse events are listed regardless of presumed causality to study drug.

Table 3: Percentage of Patients with Adverse Events ≥10% Reported in Hypercalcemia of Malignancy Clinical Trials by Body System
ZometaPamidronate
4 mg90 mg
n (%)n (%)
Patients Studied
Total No. of Patients Studied86(100)103(100)
Total No. of Patients with any AE81(94)95(92)
Body as a Whole
Fever38(44)34(33)
Progression of Cancer14(16)21(20)
Cardiovascular
Hypotension9(11)2(2)
Digestive
Nausea25(29)28(27)
Constipation23(27)13(13)
Diarrhea15(17)17(17)
Abdominal Pain14(16)13(13)
Vomiting12(14)17(17)
Anorexia8(9)14(14)
Hemic and Lymphatic System
Anemia19(22)18(18)
Infections
Moniliasis10(12)4(4)
Laboratory Abnormalities
Hypophosphatemia11(13)2(2)
Hypokalemia10(12)16(16)
Hypomagnesemia9(11)5(5)
Musculoskeletal
Skeletal Pain10(12)10(10)
Nervous
Insomnia13(15)10(10)
Anxiety12(14)8(8)
Confusion11(13)13(13)
Agitation11(13)8(8)
Respiratory
Dyspnea19(22)20(19)
Coughing10(12)12(12)
Urogenital
Urinary Tract Infection12(14)15(15)

      The following adverse events from the two controlled multicenter HCM trials (n=189) were reported by a greater percentage of patients treated with Zometa 4 mg than with pamidronate 90 mg and occurred with a frequency of greater than or equal to 5% but less than 10%. Adverse events are listed regardless of presumed causality to study drug: Asthenia, chest pain, leg edema, mucositis, dysphagia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, nonspecific infection, hypocalcemia, dehydration, arthralgias, headache and somnolence.

      Rare cases of rash, pruritus, and chest pain have been reported following treatment with Zometa.

Acute Phase Reaction-like Events

Symptoms consistent with acute phase reaction (APR) can occur with intravenous bisphosphonate use. Fever has been the most commonly associated symptom, occurring in 44% of patients treated with Zometa 4 mg and 33% of patients treated with Pamidronate 90 mg. Occasionally, patients experience a flu-like syndrome consisting of fever, chills, flushing, bone pain and/or arthralgias, and myalgias.

Mineral and Electrolyte Abnormalities

Electrolyte abnormalities, most commonly hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia, can occur with bisphosphonate use.

      Grade 3 and Grade 4 laboratory abnormalities for serum creatinine, serum calcium, serum phosphorus, and serum magnesium observed in two clinical trials of Zometa in patients with HCM are shown in Table 4 and 5.

Table 4: Grade 3 Laboratory Abnormalities for Serum Creatinine, Serum Calcium, Serum Phosphorus, and Serum Magnesium in Two Clinical Trials in Patients with HCM
Grade 3
Laboratory ParameterZometaPamidronate
4 mg90 mg
n/N(%)n/N(%)
Serum Creatinine12/86(2%)3/100(3%)
Hypocalcemia21/86(1%)2/100(2%)
Hypophosphatemia336/70(51%)27/81(33%)
Hypomagnesemia40/710/84
Table 5: Grade 4 Laboratory Abnormalities for Serum Creatinine, Serum Calcium, Serum Phosphorus, and Serum Magnesium in Two Clinical Trials in Patients with HCM
Grade 4
Laboratory ParameterZometaPamidronate
4 mg90 mg
n/N(%)n/N(%)
Serum Creatinine10/861/100(1%)
Hypocalcemia20/860/100
Hypophosphatemia31/70(1%)4/81(5%)
Hypomagnesemia40/711/84(1%)
1 Grade 3 (>3x Upper Limit of Normal); Grade 4 (>6x Upper Limit of Normal)
2 Grade 3 (<7 mg/dL); Grade 4 (<6 mg/dL)
3 Grade 3 (<2 mg/dL); Grade 4 (<1 mg/dL)
4 Grade 3 (<0.8 mEq/L); Grade 4 (<0.5 mEq/L)

Injection Site Reactions

Local reactions at the infusion site, such as redness or swelling, were observed infrequently. In most cases, no specific treatment is required and the symptoms subside after 24-48 hours.

Ocular Adverse Events

Ocular inflammation such as uveitis and scleritis can occur with bisphosphonate use. No cases of iritis, scleritis or uveitis were reported during these clinical trials.

Multiple Myeloma and Bone Metastases of Solid Tumors

The safety analysis includes patients treated in the core and extension phases of the trials. The analysis includes the 2,042 patients treated with Zometa 4 mg, pamidronate 90 mg, or placebo in the three controlled multicenter bone metastases trials, including 969 patients completing the efficacy phase of the trial, and 619 patients that continued in the safety extension phase. Only 347 patients completed the extension phases and were followed for 2 years (or 21 months for the other solid tumor patients). The median duration of exposure for safety analysis for Zometa 4 mg (core plus extension phases) was 12.8 months for breast cancer and multiple myeloma, 10.8 months for prostate cancer, and 4.0 months for other solid tumors.

      Table 6 describes adverse events that were reported by ≥10% of patients. Adverse events are listed regardless of presumed causality to study drug.

Table 6: Percentage of Patients with Adverse Events ≥10% Reported in Three Bone Metastases Clinical Trials by Body System
ZometaPamidronatePlacebo
4 mg90 mg
n (%)n (%)n (%)
Patients Studied
Total No. of Patients1031(100)556(100)455(100)
Total No. of Patients with any AE1015(98)548(99)445(98)
Blood and Lymphatic
Anemia344(33)175(32)128(28)
Neutropenia124(12)83(15)35(8)
Thrombocytopenia102(10)53(10)20(4)
Gastrointestinal
Nausea476(46)266(48)171(38)
Vomiting333(32)183(33)122(27)
Constipation320(31)162(29)174(38)
Diarrhea249(24)162(29)83(18)
Abdominal Pain143(14)81(15)48(11)
Dyspepsia105(10)74(13)31(7)
Stomatitis86(8)65(12)14(3)
Sore Throat82(8)61(11)17(4)
General Disorders and Administration Site
Fatigue398(39)240(43)130(29)
Pyrexia328(32)172(31)89(20)
Weakness252(24)108(19)114(25)
Edema Lower Limb215(21)126(23)84(19)
Rigors112(11)62(11)28(6)
Infections
Urinary Tract Infection124(12)50(9)41(9)
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection101(10)82(15)30(7)
Metabolism
Anorexia231(22)81(15)105(23)
Weight Decreased164(16)50(9)61(13)
Dehydration145(14)60(11)59(13)
Appetite Decreased130(13)48(9)45(10)
Musculoskeletal
Bone Pain569(55)316(57)284(62)
Myalgia239(23)143(26)74(16)
Arthralgia216(21)131(24)73(16)
Back Pain156(15)106(19)40(9)
Pain in Limb143(14)84(15)52(11)
Neoplasms
Malignant Neoplasm Aggravated205(20)97(17)89(20)
Nervous
Headache191(19)149(27)50(11)
Dizziness (excluding vertigo)180(18)91(16)58(13)
Insomnia166(16)111(20)73(16)
Paresthesia149(15)85(15)35(8)
Hypoesthesia127(12)65(12)43(10)
Psychiatric
Depression146(14)95(17)49(11)
Anxiety112(11)73(13)37(8)
Confusion74(7)39(7)47(10)
Respiratory
Dyspnea282(27)155(28)107(24)
Cough224(22)129(23)65(14)
Skin
Alopecia125(12)80(14)36(8)
Dermatitis114(11)74(13)38(8)

      Grade 3 and Grade 4 laboratory abnormalities for serum creatinine, serum calcium, serum phosphorus, and serum magnesium observed in three clinical trials of Zometa in patients with bone metastases are shown in Tables 7 and 8.

Table 7: Grade 3 Laboratory Abnormalities for Serum Creatinine, Serum Calcium, Serum Phosphorus, and Serum Magnesium in Three Clinical Trials in Patients with Bone Metastases
Grade 3
Laboratory ParameterZometaPamidronatePlacebo
4 mg90 mg
n/N(%)n/N(%)n/N(%)
Serum Creatinine1*7/529(1%)4/268(2%)4/241(2%)
Hypocalcemia26/973(<1%)4/536(<1%)0/415
Hypophosphatemia3115/973(12%)38/537(7%)14/415(3%)
Hypermagnesemia419/971(2%)2/535(<1%)8/415(2%)
Hypomagnesemia51/971(<1%)0/5351/415(<1%)
1 Grade 3 (>3x Upper Limit of Normal); Grade 4 (>6x Upper Limit of Normal)
* Serum creatinine data for all patients randomized after the 15-minute infusion amendment
2 Grade 3 (<7 mg/dL); Grade 4 (<6 mg/dL)
3 Grade 3 (<2 mg/dL); Grade 4 (<1 mg/dL)
4 Grade 3 (>3 mEq/L); Grade 4 (>8 mEq/L)
5 Grade 3 (<0.9 mEq/L); Grade 4 (<0.7 mEq/L)
Table 8: Grade 4 Laboratory Abnormalities for Serum Creatinine, Serum Calcium, Serum Phosphorus, and Serum Magnesium in Three Clinical Trials in Patients with Bone Metastases
Grade 4
Laboratory ParameterZometaPamidronatePlacebo
4 mg90 mg
n/N(%)n/N(%)n/N(%)
Serum Creatinine1*2/529(<1%)1/268(<1%)0/241
Hypocalcemia27/973(<1%)3/536(<1%)2/415(<1%)
Hypophosphatemia35/973(<1%)0/5371/415(<1%)
Hypermagnesemia40/9710/5352/415(<1%)
Hypomagnesemia52/971(<1%)1/535(<1%)0/415
1 Grade 3 (>3x Upper Limit of Normal); Grade 4 (>6x Upper Limit of Normal)
* Serum creatinine data for all patients randomized after the 15-minute infusion amendment
2 Grade 3 (<7 mg/dL); Grade 4 (<6 mg/dL)
3 Grade 3 (<2 mg/dL); Grade 4 (<1 mg/dL)
4 Grade 3 (>3 mEq/L); Grade 4 (>8 mEq/L)
5 Grade 3 (<0.9 mEq/L); Grade 4 (<0.7 mEq/L)

      Among the less frequently occurring adverse events (<15% of patients), rigors, hypokalemia, influenza-like illness, and hypocalcemia showed a trend for more events with bisphosphonate administration (Zometa 4 mg and pamidronate groups) compared to the placebo group.

      Less common adverse events reported more often with Zometa 4 mg than pamidronate included decreased weight, which was reported in 16% of patients in the Zometa 4 mg group compared with 9% in the pamidronate group. Decreased appetite was reported in slightly more patients in the Zometa 4 mg group (13%) compared with the pamidronate (9%) and placebo (10%) groups, but the clinical significance of these small differences is not clear.

Renal Toxicity

In the bone metastases trials, renal deterioration was defined as an increase of 0.5 mg/dL for patients with normal baseline creatinine (<1.4 mg/dL) or an increase of 1.0 mg/dL for patients with an abnormal baseline creatinine (≥1.4 mg/dL). The following are data on the incidence of renal deterioration in patients receiving Zometa 4 mg over 15 minutes in these trials (see Table 9).

Table 9: Percentage of Patients with Treatment Emergent Renal Function Deterioration by Baseline Serum Creatinine*
Patient Population/Baseline Creatinine
Multiple Myeloma and Breast CancerZometa 4 mgPamidronate 90 mg
n/N(%)n/N(%)
Normal27/246(11%)23/246(9%)
Abnormal2/26(8%)2/22(9%)
Total29/272(11%)25/268(9%)
Solid TumorsZometa 4 mgPlacebo
n/N(%)n/N(%)
Normal17/154(11%)10/143(7%)
Abnormal1/11(9%)1/20(5%)
Total18/165(11%)11/163(7%)
Prostate CancerZometa 4 mgPlacebo
n/N(%)n/N(%)
Normal12/82(15%)8/68(12%)
Abnormal4/10(40%)2/10(20%)
Total16/92(17%)10/78(13%)
*Table includes only patients who were randomized to the trial after a protocol amendment that lengthened the infusion duration of Zometa to 15 minutes.

      The risk of deterioration in renal function appeared to be related to time on study, whether patients were receiving Zometa (4 mg over 15 minutes), placebo, or pamidronate.

      In the trials and in postmarketing experience, renal deterioration, progression to renal failure and dialysis have occurred in patients with normal and abnormal baseline renal function, including patients treated with 4 mg infused over a 15-minute period. There have been instances of this occurring after the initial Zometa dose.

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

      The following adverse reactions have been reported during postapproval use of Zometa. Because these reports are from a population of uncertain size and are subject to confounding factors, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Osteonecrosis of the Jaw

Cases of osteonecrosis (primarily involving the jaws) have been reported predominantly in cancer patients treated with intravenous bisphosphonates including Zometa. Many of these patients were also receiving chemotherapy and corticosteroids which may be a risk factor for ONJ. Data suggests a greater frequency of reports of ONJ in certain cancers, such as advanced breast cancer and multiple myeloma. The majority of the reported cases are in cancer patients following invasive dental procedures, such as tooth extraction. It is therefore prudent to avoid invasive dental procedures as recovery may be prolonged [see Warnings And Precautions (5)].

Musculoskeletal Pain

Severe and occasionally incapacitating bone, joint, and/or muscle pain has been reported with bisphosphonate use [see Warnings And Precautions (5)].

Ocular Adverse Events

Cases of uveitis and episcleritis have been reported during postmarketing use. Bisphosphonates may be associated with ocular inflammation such as uveitis and scleritis. In some cases, these events did not resolve until the bisphosphonate was discontinued.

Hypersensitivity Reactions

There have been rare reports of allergic reaction with intravenous zoledronic acid including angioedema, and bronchoconstriction. Very rare cases of anaphylactic reaction/shock have also been reported.

      Additional adverse reactions reported in postmarketing use include:

     CNS: taste disturbance, hyperesthesia, tremor; Special Senses: blurred vision; Gastrointestinal: dry mouth; Skin: Increased sweating; Musculoskeletal: muscle cramps; Cardiovascular: hypertension, bradycardia, hypotension (associated with syncope or circulatory collapse primarily in patients with underlying risk factors); Respiratory: bronchoconstriction; Renal: hematuria, proteinuria; General Disorders and Administration Site: weight increase; Laboratory Abnormalities: hyperkalemia, hypernatremia.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

In-vitro studies indicate that zoledronic acid is approximately 22% bound to plasma proteins. In-vitro studies also indicate that zoledronic acid does not inhibit microsomal CYP450 enzymes. In-vivo studies showed that zoledronic acid is not metabolized, and is excreted into the urine as the intact drug. However, no in-vivo drug interaction studies have been performed.

7.1 Aminoglycosides

Caution is advised when bisphosphonates are administered with aminoglycosides, since these agents may have an additive effect to lower serum calcium level for prolonged periods. This effect has not been reported in Zometa clinical trials.

7.2 Loop Diuretics

Caution should also be exercised when Zometa is used in combination with loop diuretics due to an increased risk of hypocalcemia.

7.3 Nephrotoxic Drugs

Caution is indicated when Zometa is used with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs.

7.4 Thalidomide

In multiple myeloma patients, the risk of renal dysfunction may be increased when Zometa is used in combination with thalidomide.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

ZOMETA SHOULD NOT BE USED DURING PREGNANCY. There are no studies in pregnant women using Zometa. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential harm to the fetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant [see Warnings And Precautions (5.4)].

Pregnancy Category D

Bisphosphonates are incorporated into the bone matrix, from where they are gradually released over periods of weeks to years. The extent of bisphosphonate incorporation into adult bone, and hence, the amount available for release back into the systemic circulation, is directly related to the total dose and duration of bisphosphonate use. Although there are no data on fetal risk in humans, bisphosphonates do cause fetal harm in animals, and animal data suggest that uptake of bisphosphonates into fetal bone is greater than into maternal bone. Therefore, there is a theoretical risk of fetal harm (e.g., skeletal and other abnormalities) if a woman becomes pregnant after completing a course of bisphosphonate therapy. The impact of variables such as time between cessation of bisphosphonate therapy to conception, the particular bisphosphonate used, and the route of administration (intravenous versus oral) on this risk has not been established.

      In female rats given subcutaneous doses of zoledronic acid of 0.01, 0.03, or 0.1 mg/kg/day beginning 15 days before mating and continuing through gestation, the number of stillbirths was increased and survival of neonates was decreased in the mid- and high-dose groups (≥0.2 times the human systemic exposure following an intravenous dose of 4 mg, based on an AUC comparison). Adverse maternal effects were observed in all dose groups (with a systemic exposure of ≥0.07 times the human systemic exposure following an intravenous dose of 4 mg, based on an AUC comparison) and included dystocia and periparturient mortality in pregnant rats allowed to deliver. Maternal mortality may have been related to drug-induced inhibition of skeletal calcium mobilization, resulting in periparturient hypocalcemia. This appears to be a bisphosphonate-class effect.

      In pregnant rats given a subcutaneous dose of zoledronic acid of 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 mg/kg/day during gestation, adverse fetal effects were observed in the mid- and high-dose groups (with systemic exposures of 2.4 and 4.8 times, respectively, the human systemic exposure following an intravenous dose of 4 mg, based on an AUC comparison). These adverse effects included increases in pre- and postimplantation losses, decreases in viable fetuses, and fetal skeletal, visceral, and external malformations. Fetal skeletal effects observed in the high-dose group included unossified or incompletely ossified bones, thickened, curved or shortened bones, wavy ribs, and shortened jaw. Other adverse fetal effects observed in the high-dose group included reduced lens, rudimentary cerebellum, reduction or absence of liver lobes, reduction of lung lobes, vessel dilation, cleft palate, and edema. Skeletal variations were also observed in the low-dose group (with systemic exposure of 1.2 times the human systemic exposure following an intravenous dose of 4 mg, based on an AUC comparison). Signs of maternal toxicity were observed in the high-dose group and included reduced body weights and food consumption, indicating that maximal exposure levels were achieved in this study.

      In pregnant rabbits given subcutaneous doses of zoledronic acid of 0.01, 0.03, or 0.1 mg/kg/day during gestation (≤0.5 times the human intravenous dose of 4 mg, based on a comparison of relative body surface areas), no adverse fetal effects were observed. Maternal mortality and abortion occurred in all treatment groups (at doses ≥0.05 times the human intravenous dose of 4 mg, based on a comparison of relative body surface areas). Adverse maternal effects were associated with, and may have been caused by, drug-induced hypocalcemia.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether Zometa is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because Zometa binds to bone long term, Zometa should not be administered to a nursing woman.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Zometa is not indicated for use in children.

The safety and effectiveness of zoledronic acid was studied in a one-year active-controlled trial of 152 pediatric subjects (74 receiving zoledronic acid). The enrolled population was subjects with severe osteogenesis imperfecta, aged 1-17 years, 55% male, 84% Caucasian, with a mean lumbar spine BMD of 0.431 gm/cm2, which is 2.7 standard deviations below the mean for age-matched controls (BMD Z-score of -2.7). At one year, increases in BMD were observed in the zoledronic acid treatment group. However, changes in BMD in individual patients with severe osteogenesis imperfecta did not necessarily correlate with the risk for fracture or the incidence or severity of chronic bone pain. The adverse events observed with Zometa use in children did not raise any new safety findings beyond those previously seen in adults treated for hypercalcemia of malignancy or bone metastases. However, adverse reactions seen more commonly in pediatric patients included pyrexia (61%), arthralgia (26%), hypocalcemia (22%) and headache (22%). These reactions, excluding arthralgia, occurred most frequently within 3 days after the first infusion and became less common with repeat dosing. Because of long-term retention in bone, Zometa should only be used in children if the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk.

Plasma zoledronic acid concentration data was obtained from 10 patients with severe osteogenesis imperfecta (4 in the age group of 3-8 years and 6 in the age group of 9-17 years) infused with 0.05 mg/kg dose over 30 min. Mean Cmax and AUC(0-last) was 167 ng/mL and 220 ng.h/mL, respectively. The plasma concentration time profile of zoledronic acid in pediatric patients represent a multi-exponential decline, as observed in adult cancer patients at an approximately equivalent mg/kg dose.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Zometa in hypercalcemia of malignancy included 34 patients who were 65 years of age or older. No significant differences in response rate or adverse reactions were seen in geriatric patients receiving Zometa as compared to younger patients. Controlled clinical studies of Zometa in the treatment of multiple myeloma and bone metastases of solid tumors in patients over age 65 revealed similar efficacy and safety in older and younger patients. Because decreased renal function occurs more commonly in the elderly, special care should be taken to monitor renal function.

10 OVERDOSAGE

Clinical experience with acute overdosage of Zometa is limited. Two patients received Zometa 32 mg over 5 minutes in clinical trials. Neither patient experienced any clinical or laboratory toxicity. Overdosage may cause clinically significant hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and hypomagnesemia. Clinically relevant reductions in serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium should be corrected by intravenous administration of calcium gluconate, potassium or sodium phosphate, and magnesium sulfate, respectively.

      In an open-label study of zoledronic acid 4 mg in breast cancer patients, a female patient received a single 48-mg dose of zoledronic acid in error. Two days after the overdose, the patient experienced a single episode of hyperthermia (38°C), which resolved after treatment. All other evaluations were normal, and the patient was discharged seven days after the overdose.

      A patient with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma received zoledronic acid 4 mg daily on four successive days for a total dose of 16 mg. The patient developed paresthesia and abnormal liver function tests with increased GGT (nearly 100U/L, each value unknown). The outcome of this case is not known.

      In controlled clinical trials, administration of Zometa 4 mg as an intravenous infusion over 5 minutes has been shown to increase the risk of renal toxicity compared to the same dose administered as a 15-minute intravenous infusion. In controlled clinical trials, Zometa 8 mg has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of renal toxicity compared to Zometa 4 mg, even when given as a 15-minute intravenous infusion, and was not associated with added benefit in patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy [see Dosage And Administration (2.4)].

11 DESCRIPTION

Zometa contains zoledronic acid, a bisphosphonic acid which is an inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resorption. Zoledronic acid is designated chemically as (1-Hydroxy-2-imidazol-1-yl-phosphonoethyl) phosphonic acid monohydrate and its structural formula is

Image from Drug Label Content

      Zoledronic acid is a white crystalline powder. Its molecular formula is C5H10N2O7P2 • H2O and its molar mass is 290.1g/Mol. Zoledronic acid is highly soluble in 0.1N sodium hydroxide solution, sparingly soluble in water and 0.1N hydrochloric acid, and practically insoluble in organic solvents. The pH of a 0.7% solution of zoledronic acid in water is approximately 2.0.

      Zometa is available in vials as a sterile liquid concentrate solution for intravenous infusion. Each 5-mL vial contains 4.264 mg of zoledronic acid monohydrate, corresponding to 4 mg zoledronic acid on an anhydrous basis.

     Inactive Ingredients: mannitol, USP, as bulking agent, water for injection and sodium citrate, USP, as buffering agent.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

The principal pharmacologic action of zoledronic acid is inhibition of bone resorption. Although the antiresorptive mechanism is not completely understood, several factors are thought to contribute to this action. In vitro, zoledronic acid inhibits osteoclastic activity and induces osteoclast apoptosis. Zoledronic acid also blocks the osteoclastic resorption of mineralized bone and cartilage through its binding to bone. Zoledronic acid inhibits the increased osteoclastic activity and skeletal calcium release induced by various stimulatory factors released by tumors.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Clinical studies in patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM) showed that single-dose infusions of Zometa are associated with decreases in serum calcium and phosphorus and increases in urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion.

      Osteoclastic hyperactivity resulting in excessive bone resorption is the underlying pathophysiologic derangement in hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM, tumor-induced hypercalcemia) and metastatic bone disease. Excessive release of calcium into the blood as bone is resorbed results in polyuria and gastrointestinal disturbances, with progressive dehydration and decreasing glomerular filtration rate. This, in turn, results in increased renal resorption of calcium, setting up a cycle of worsening systemic hypercalcemia. Reducing excessive bone resorption and maintaining adequate fluid administration are, therefore, essential to the management of hypercalcemia of malignancy.

      Patients who have hypercalcemia of malignancy can generally be divided into two groups according to the pathophysiologic mechanism involved: humoral hypercalcemia and hypercalcemia due to tumor invasion of bone. In humoral hypercalcemia, osteoclasts are activated and bone resorption is stimulated by factors such as parathyroid hormone-related protein, which are elaborated by the tumor and circulate systemically. Humoral hypercalcemia usually occurs in squamous cell malignancies of the lung or head and neck or in genitourinary tumors such as renal cell carcinoma or ovarian cancer. Skeletal metastases may be absent or minimal in these patients.

      Extensive invasion of bone by tumor cells can also result in hypercalcemia due to local tumor products that stimulate bone resorption by osteoclasts. Tumors commonly associated with locally mediated hypercalcemia include breast cancer and multiple myeloma.

      Total serum calcium levels in patients who have hypercalcemia of malignancy may not reflect the severity of hypercalcemia, since concomitant hypoalbuminemia is commonly present. Ideally, ionized calcium levels should be used to diagnose and follow hypercalcemic conditions; however, these are not commonly or rapidly available in many clinical situations. Therefore, adjustment of the total serum calcium value for differences in albumin levels (corrected serum calcium, CSC) is often used in place of measurement of ionized calcium; several nomograms are in use for this type of calculation [see Dosage And Administration (2)].

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Pharmacokinetic data in patients with hypercalcemia are not available.

Distribution

Single or multiple (q 28 days) 5-minute or 15-minute infusions of 2, 4, 8 or 16 mg Zometa were given to 64 patients with cancer and bone metastases. The postinfusion decline of zoledronic acid concentrations in plasma was consistent with a triphasic process showing a rapid decrease from peak concentrations at end of infusion to <1% of Cmax 24 hours postinfusion with population half-lives of t1/2α 0.24 hours and t1/2β 1.87 hours for the early disposition phases of the drug. The terminal elimination phase of zoledronic acid was prolonged, with very low concentrations in plasma between Days 2 and 28 postinfusion, and a terminal elimination half-life t 1/2γ of 146 hours. The area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC0-24h) of zoledronic acid was dose proportional from 2-16 mg. The accumulation of zoledronic acid measured over three cycles was low, with mean AUC0-24h ratios for cycles 2 and 3 versus 1 of 1.13 ± 0.30 and 1.16 ± 0.36, respectively.

     In-vitro and ex-vivo studies showed low affinity of zoledronic acid for the cellular components of human blood. In vitro, mean zoledronic acid protein binding in human plasma ranged from 28% at 200 ng/mL to 53% at 50 ng/mL.

Metabolism

Zoledronic acid does not inhibit human P450 enzymes in vitro. Zoledronic acid does not undergo biotransformation in vivo. In animal studies, <3% of the administered intravenous dose was found in the feces, with the balance either recovered in the urine or taken up by bone, indicating that the drug is eliminated intact via the kidney. Following an intravenous dose of 20 nCi 14C-zoledronic acid in a patient with cancer and bone metastases, only a single radioactive species with chromatographic properties identical to those of parent drug was recovered in urine, which suggests that zoledronic acid is not metabolized.

Excretion

In 64 patients with cancer and bone metastases, on average (± s.d.) 39 ± 16% of the administered zoledronic acid dose was recovered in the urine within 24 hours, with only trace amounts of drug found in urine post-Day 2. The cumulative percent of drug excreted in the urine over 0-24 hours was independent of dose. The balance of drug not recovered in urine over 0-24 hours, representing drug presumably bound to bone, is slowly released back into the systemic circulation, giving rise to the observed prolonged low plasma concentrations. The 0-24 hour renal clearance of zoledronic acid was 3.7 ± 2.0 L/h.

      Zoledronic acid clearance was independent of dose but dependent upon the patient’s creatinine clearance. In a study in patients with cancer and bone metastases, increasing the infusion time of a 4-mg dose of zoledronic acid from 5 minutes (n=5) to 15 minutes (n=7) resulted in a 34% decrease in the zoledronic acid concentration at the end of the infusion ([mean ± SD] 403 ± 118 ng/mL versus 264 ± 86 ng/mL) and a 10% increase in the total AUC (378 ± 116 ng x h/mL versus 420 ± 218 ng x h/mL). The difference between the AUC means was not statistically significant.

Special Populations

     Pediatrics

      Zometa is not indicated for use in children [see Pediatric Use (8.4)].

     Geriatrics

      The pharmacokinetics of zoledronic acid were not affected by age in patients with cancer and bone metastases who ranged in age from 38 years to 84 years.

     Race

      Population pharmacokinetic analyses did not indicate any differences in pharmacokinetics among Japanese and North American (Caucasian and African American) patients with cancer and bone metastases.

     Hepatic Insufficiency

      No clinical studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of zoledronic acid.

     Renal Insufficiency

      The pharmacokinetic studies conducted in 64 cancer patients represented typical clinical populations with normal to moderately impaired renal function. Compared to patients with normal renal function (N=37), patients with mild renal impairment (N=15) showed an average increase in plasma AUC of 15%, whereas patients with moderate renal impairment (N=11) showed an average increase in plasma AUC of 43%. Limited pharmacokinetic data are available for Zometa in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min). Based on population PK/PD modeling, the risk of renal deterioration appears to increase with AUC, which is doubled at a creatinine clearance of 10 mL/min. Creatinine clearance is calculated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula:

CrCl = [140-age (years)] x weight (kg) {x 0.85 for female patients}

[72 x serum creatinine (mg/dL)]

      Zometa systemic clearance in individual patients can be calculated from the population clearance of Zometa, CL (L/h)=6.5(CLcr/90)0.4. These formulae can be used to predict the Zometa AUC in patients, where CL = Dose/AUC0-∞. The average AUC0-24 in patients with normal renal function was 0.42 mg•h/L and the calculated AUC0-∞ for a patient with creatinine clearance of 75 mL/min was 0.66 mg•h/L following a 4-mg dose of Zometa. However, efficacy and safety of adjusted dosing based on these formulae have not been prospectively assessed [see Warnings And Precautions (5.2)].

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

Standard lifetime carcinogenicity bioassays were conducted in mice and rats. Mice were given oral doses of zoledronic acid of 0.1, 0.5, or 2.0 mg/kg/day. There was an increased incidence of Harderian gland adenomas in males and females in all treatment groups (at doses ≥0.002 times a human intravenous dose of 4 mg, based on a comparison of relative body surface areas). Rats were given oral doses of zoledronic acid of 0.1, 0.5, or 2.0 mg/kg/day. No increased incidence of tumors was observed (at doses ≤0.2 times the human intravenous dose of 4 mg, based on a comparison of relative body surface areas).

Mutagenesis

Zoledronic acid was not genotoxic in the Ames bacterial mutagenicity assay, in the Chinese hamster ovary cell assay, or in the Chinese hamster gene mutation assay, with or without metabolic activation. Zoledronic acid was not genotoxic in the in-vivo rat micronucleus assay.

Impairment of Fertility

Female rats were given subcutaneous doses of zoledronic acid of 0.01, 0.03, or 0.1 mg/kg/day beginning 15 days before mating and continuing through gestation. Effects observed in the high-dose group (with systemic exposure of 1.2 times the human systemic exposure following an intravenous dose of 4 mg, based on AUC comparison) included inhibition of ovulation and a decrease in the number of pregnant rats. Effects observed in both the mid-dose group (with systemic exposure of 0.2 times the human systemic exposure following an intravenous dose of 4 mg, based on an AUC comparison) and high-dose group included an increase in preimplantation losses and a decrease in the number of implantations and live fetuses.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 Hypercalcemia of Malignancy

Two identical multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy studies of Zometa 4 mg given as a 5-minute intravenous infusion or pamidronate 90 mg given as a 2-hour intravenous infusion were conducted in 185 patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM). NOTE: Administration of Zometa 4 mg given as a 5-minute intravenous infusion has been shown to result in an increased risk of renal toxicity, as measured by increases in serum creatinine, which can progress to renal failure. The incidence of renal toxicity and renal failure has been shown to be reduced when Zometa 4 mg is given as a 15-minute intravenous infusion. Zometa should be administered by intravenous infusion over no less than 15 minutes [see Warnings And Precautions (5.1, 5.2) and Dosage And Administration (2.4)]. The treatment groups in the clinical studies were generally well balanced with regards to age, sex, race, and tumor types. The mean age of the study population was 59 years; 81% were Caucasian, 15% were Black, and 4% were of other races. 60% of the patients were male. The most common tumor types were lung, breast, head and neck, and renal.

      In these studies, HCM was defined as a corrected serum calcium (CSC) concentration of ≥12.0 mg/dL (3.00 mmol/L). The primary efficacy variable was the proportion of patients having a complete response, defined as the lowering of the CSC to ≤10.8 mg/dL (2.70 mmol/L) within 10 days after drug infusion.

      To assess the effects of Zometa versus those of pamidronate, the two multicenter HCM studies were combined in a preplanned analysis. The results of the primary analysis revealed that the proportion of patients that had normalization of corrected serum calcium by Day 10 were 88% and 70% for Zometa 4 mg and pamidronate 90 mg, respectively (P=0.002) (see Figure 1). In these studies, no additional benefit was seen for Zometa 8 mg over Zometa 4 mg; however, the risk of renal toxicity of Zometa 8 mg was significantly greater than that seen with Zometa 4 mg.

     

Image from Drug Label Content

Figure 1

      Secondary efficacy variables from the pooled HCM studies included the proportion of patients who had normalization of corrected serum calcium (CSC) by Day 4; the proportion of patients who had normalization of CSC by Day 7; time to relapse of HCM; and duration of complete response. Time to relapse of HCM was defined as the duration (in days) of normalization of serum calcium from study drug infusion until the last CSC value <11.6 mg/dL (<2.90 mmol/L). Patients who did not have a complete response were assigned a time to relapse of 0 days. Duration of complete response was defined as the duration (in days) from the occurrence of a complete response until the last CSC ≤10.8 mg/dL (2.70 mmol/L). The results of these secondary analyses for Zometa 4 mg and pamidronate 90 mg are shown in Table 10.

Table 10: Secondary Efficacy Variables in Pooled HCM Studies
Zometa 4 mgPamidronate 90 mg
Complete ResponseNResponse RateNResponse Rate
By Day 48645.3%9933.3%
By Day 78682.6%*9963.6%
Duration of ResponseNMedian Duration (Days)NMedian Duration (Days)
Time to Relapse8630*9917
Duration of Complete Response76326918
* P less than 0.05 versus pamidronate 90 mg.

14.2 Clinical Trials in Multiple Myeloma and Bone Metastases of Solid Tumors

Table 11 describes an overview of the efficacy population in three randomized Zometa trials in patients with multiple myeloma and bone metastases of solid tumors. These trials included a pamidronate-controlled study in breast cancer and multiple myeloma, a placebo-controlled study in prostate cancer, and a placebo-controlled study in other solid tumors. The prostate cancer study required documentation of previous bone metastases and 3 consecutive rising PSAs while on hormonal therapy. The other placebo-controlled solid tumor study included patients with bone metastases from malignancies other than breast cancer and prostate cancer, including NSCLC, renal cell cancer, small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, GI/genitourinary cancer, head and neck cancer, and others. These trials were comprised of a core phase and an extension phase. In the solid tumor, breast cancer and multiple myeloma trials, only the core phase was evaluated for efficacy as a high percentage of patients did not choose to participate in the extension phase. In the prostate cancer trials, both the core and extension phases were evaluated for efficacy showing the Zometa effect during the first 15 months was maintained without decrement or improvement for another 9 months. The design of these clinical trials does not permit assessment of whether more than one-year administration of Zometa is beneficial. The optimal duration of Zometa administration is not known.

      The studies were amended twice because of renal toxicity. The Zometa infusion duration was increased from 5 minutes to 15 minutes. After all patients had been accrued, but while dosing and follow-up continued, patients in the 8 mg Zometa treatment arm were switched to 4 mg due to toxicity. Patients who were randomized to the Zometa 8 mg group are not included in these analyses.

Table 11: Overview of Efficacy Population for Phase III Studies
Patient PopulationNo. of PatientsZometa DoseControlMedian Duration (Planned Duration) Zometa 4 mg
Multiple myeloma or metastatic breast cancer1,6484 and 8* mg
Q3-4 weeks
Pamidronate 90 mg
Q3-4 weeks
12.0 months
(13 months)
Metastatic prostate cancer6434 and 8* mg
Q3 weeks
Placebo10.5 months
(15 months)
Metastatic solid tumor other than breast or prostate cancer7734 and 8* mg
Q3 weeks
Placebo3.8 months
(9 months)
* Patients who were randomized to the 8 mg Zometa group are not included in any of the analyses in this package insert.

      Each study evaluated skeletal-related events (SREs), defined as any of the following: pathologic fracture, radiation therapy to bone, surgery to bone, or spinal cord compression. Change in antineoplastic therapy due to increased pain was a SRE in the prostate cancer study only. Planned analyses included the proportion of patients with a SRE during the study and time to the first SRE. Results for the two Zometa placebo-controlled studies are given in Table 12.

Table 12: Zometa Compared to Placebo in Patients with Bone Metastases from Prostate Cancer or Other Solid Tumors
I. Analysis of Proportion of Patients with a SRE1II. Analysis of Time to the First SRE
StudyStudy Arm &
Patient Number
ProportionDifference2
& 95% CI
P-valueMedian
(Days)
Hazard Ratio3
& 95% CI
P-value
Prostate CancerZometa 4 mg
(n=214)
33%-11%
(-20%, -1%)
0.02Not Reached0.67
(0.49, 0.91)
0.011
Placebo
(n=208)
44%321
Solid TumorsZometa 4 mg
(n=257)
38%-7%
(-15%, 2%)
0.132300.73
(0.55, 0.96)
0.023
Placebo
(n=250)
44%163
1SRE=Skeletal-Related Event
2Difference for the proportion of patients with a SRE of Zometa 4 mg versus placebo.
3Hazard ratio for the first occurrence of a SRE of Zometa 4 mg versus placebo.

      In the breast cancer and myeloma trial, efficacy was determined by a noninferiority analysis comparing Zometa to pamidronate 90 mg for the proportion of patients with a SRE. This analysis required an estimation of pamidronate efficacy. Historical data from 1,128 patients in three pamidronate placebo-controlled trials demonstrated that pamidronate decreased the proportion of patients with a SRE by 13.1% (95% CI = 7.3%, 18.9%). Results of the comparison of treatment with Zometa compared to pamidronate are given in Table 13.

Table 13: Zometa Compared to Pamidronate in Patients with Multiple Myeloma or Bone Metastases from Breast Cancer
I. Analysis of Proportion of Patients with a SRE1II. Analysis of Time to the First SRE
StudyStudy Arm &
Patient Number
ProportionDifference2
& 95% CI
P-valueMedian
(Days)
Hazard Ratio3 
& 95% CI
P-value
Multiple Myeloma
& Breast Cancer
Zometa 4 mg
(n=561)
Pamidronate
(n=555)
44%
46%
-2%
(-7.9%, 3.7%)
0.46373
363
0.92
(0.77, 1.09)
0.32
1SRE=Skeletal-Related Event
2Difference for the proportion of patients with a SRE of Zometa 4 mg versus pamidronate 90 mg.
3Hazard ratio for the first occurrence of a SRE of Zometa 4 mg versus pamidronate 90 mg.

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

Each 5 mL vial contains 4.264 mg zoledronic acid monohydrate, corresponding to 4 mg zoledronic acid on an anhydrous basis, 220 mg of mannitol, USP, water for injection, and 24 mg of sodium citrate, USP.

      Carton of 1 vial      NDC 0078-0387-25

      Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Manufactured by

Novartis Pharma Stein AG

Stein, Switzerland for

Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation

East Hanover, New Jersey 07936

T2008-36

© Novartis


Zometa (zoledronic acid)
PRODUCT INFO
Product Code0078-0387Dosage FormINJECTION, SOLUTION, CONCENTRATE
Route Of AdministrationINTRAVENOUSDEA Schedule
INGREDIENTS
Name (Active Moiety)TypeStrength
zoledronic acid (ZOLEDRONIC ACID) Active4 MILLIGRAM  In 5 MILLILITER
MANNITOLInactive220 MILLIGRAM  In 5 MILLILITER
SODIUM CITRATEInactive24 MILLIGRAM  In 5 MILLILITER
WATERInactive 
IMPRINT INFORMATION
CharacteristicAppearanceCharacteristicAppearance
ColorScore
ShapeSymbol
Imprint CodeCoating
Size
PACKAGING
#NDCPackage DescriptionMultilevel Packaging
10078-0387-251 VIAL In 1 CARTONcontains a VIAL
15 MILLILITER In 1 VIALThis package is contained within the CARTON (0078-0387-25)

Revised: 05/2008Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation